Native American History

There were many indigenous people already living on the entire North American continent when the first European explorers arrived. They had long ago divided into several distinct groups, each with its own customs and specific way of life. Questions about these Native peoples and their interaction with the early explorers - and, later, with the Colonists - belong in this category.

History of the United States
Native American History
History of India

What is the difference between American freedom struggle and Indian freedom struggle?

American freedom struggle is through wars and bloodshed killing the Native Indians whereas the Indian struggle was a peaceful one - though with the blood of the sacrifices of martyrs..

Sioux Indians
Native American History

What was name given to a tribe leader?

The Sioux were made up up of very many tribes, each divided into smaller bands headed by several chiefs and elders.

In Lakota there are many words used for a chief or leader:

  • itanchan
  • wichasha itanchan
  • nacha
  • wichasha watapi
  • wakichunzA
  • blotahunka

95% of North American tribes are Matriarchal. The head of the tribes are the Clan Mothers. The Chiefs are the leaders in warfare.

History of Europe
Native American History

About people name and trait of garoghlanian tribes?

'Garoghlanian' tribes do not exist.

Snow and Ice
Native American History
Inuit Northern Native Tribes

What is the name of an Eskimos ice shelter?

An Igloo.

Real Answer:

Inuit do not have ice shelters. They have regular houses. Before that, they had houses made of sod.

Native American History
US Civil War

What Indian products did the Europeans trade for?

  • Besides spices and cotton textiles, gems and precious stones were traded
Religion & Spirituality
Native American History

What is the mestizo religion?

There is no Mestizo religion. However, since most Mestizos live in regions that were formerly part of the Spanish Empire, most Mestizos are nominally Roman Catholic, as are most of the people in general in those regions.

Native American History

What were the Shoshone laws?

Shoshones are the north American Indian People of south-western United States.They have been living on those lands for thousands of years and have their own laws n theology. They have duly recognized territory, self determined civil and political governing structures. They have created Western Shoshone National Council. And according to a law made by it-"The Western Shoshone Nation has the sovereign right to determine its own form of government and has done so in North America for thousands of years until molested by the United States".

This Western Shoshone Law is based on fundamental right of people to to govern themselves and to manage their own affairs.These rights are recognized under international law and by the United States of America in its own constitution.

Native American History

Cree roles of men women and children?

they are for the men to abuse them

Native American History
Iroquois Indians

How did the Iroquois tribe survive?

The Iroquois survived by hunting, fishing, and even farming. They also wear cloths and live in shelters (Longhouses) to survive.

Native American History

Which animal did the Arapaho Indians hunt the most?

The buffalo, or bison was the main species hunted by the plains tribes.

Native American History

What did the natives use buffalo hide for?

The uses were many:

Indian Uses of The Buffalo

(Hide - Buckskin)

moccasin tops


winter robes





lance covers



pipe bags


paint bags



coup flag covers


tipi covers

gun cases



saddle pad filler





medicine balls


medicine switch

fly brush

lodge exterior



(Hoof & Feet)





fire carriers

powder horn







(every part eaten)

pemmican (converted)

hump ribs-immediately

jerky (converted)

(Skin Of Hind Leg)

moccasins or boots






medicine bags



moccasin soles








bullets pouches


horse masks

lance cases



bull boats

knife cases



horse ornament

From: Malls, Tom, THE MYSTIC WARRIORS OF THE PLAINS 1972, p 190

(Picture of Buffalo - Artist: Black Lance - Courtesy of St. Joseph Indian School)

Native American History

Who are Houma Indians?


The Houma Indians had been driven to the most isolated swamplands on this continent to find a place where they could independently maintain their Indian ways of life, language, medicine, arts, traditions and ceremonies. It would be hard for one to imagine the struggles the Houmas would face and be forced to endure in the years to follow before gaining state and federal recognition.

The first written, historical mention of the Houmas occurred in 1682, when French explorer LaSalle noted a Houma village on the east bank of the Mississippi River opposite the Red River, near what is now West Feliciana Parish, LA. The total population of the tribe was estimated at between six hundred and seven hundred members at the time of the first encounter. By the beginning of the eighteenth century, about half the tribe died of disease introduced through contact with the Europeans.

The boundary line marker of the Houmas and the Bayougoulas Indians who lived to the south, was a tall red pole, topped with a bear head and several fish heads. This marked the hunting grounds for the two tribes. When the French first saw it, they referred to it as "le Baton Rouge".

The Houmas had many ways to obtain his food. The men were hunters and used the blow gun, made of local cane reeds, for small game such as turkey and rabbit. Darts were also made of bamboo. He became quite skilled with this weapon.

For larger game, he used the bow and arrow, and the spear. Arrow points and spearheads were made from shell, also of stone and flint which were traded from the Indians to the north. Tomahawks were made of shell and stone. Sharp shells were used as knives, as were flint and sharp stones.

The Houmas worked community fields, sometime several acres in size. Here they would grow such crops as a melon, pumpkin, beans, and several varieties of corn. The women did the planting. To break up soil, she fashioned a hoe in the ground with a stick, dropped in a seed and covered it over by hand. At harvest time she gathered the crops and stored them in community bins. These were built on stilts about 12 feet high and were kept highly polished to keep the rats away.

The Houmas spoke the Muskhogean language. Their language was used by most of the tribes in south Louisiana because it was easier to speak. As the white man came in, they adopted the French tongue and eventually English.

The red crawfish was the war emblem of the Houmas, although they were not warlike people. It helped identify them from other tribes.

As far as we know, the dugout pirogue was the only kind of boat the Houma used. Before advent of the steel ax, the Indian felled a cypress tree by fire. He then made another fire to eat through the other end. Still another fire was kept going in the middle to eat away at the insides until the desired width and depth was achieved.

Because of conflicts with the Tunica Indians and colonial tensions between the French and English, the Houmas began migrating south. By the late eighteenth century, the Houmas had settled in what is now Terrebonne Parish. They gradually occupied the bayou marshlands from Dularge in Terrebonne Parish to Golden Meadow in Lafourche Parish. Some took up farming, and many others took up hunting, trapping, and fishing in their struggle to survive. Many of their descendants continue in these occupations today, living in or near the same places where their ancestors lived. Houmas have traditionally maintained close kinship and friendships, and are tied to members in other areas through their extended families.

The children of the Houma tribe from the isolated rural areas of south Louisiana were educationally under-served for over two centuries. During the first half of the twentieth century, and well into the 1960's the Houmas were still struggling for the right to have their own schools. Denied admission to public schools, many remained largely uneducated until 1963, when they received access to public school on an equal basis. The tribe however continues to feel the wounds of their long educational neglect.

Throughout the struggles over land, education and trapping rights both the tribe and friendly whites appealed to the federal government for help. The Bureau of Indian Affairs has however continued to ignore its responsibility to this Indian people. Its failure to acknowledge the Houmas continues to cripple the tribe by excluding it from the full range of federal services to which it is entitled. The United Houma Nation, Inc., the governing body of today's Houma's compiled a petition for the federal recognition of the tribe. The tribe awaits the decision of the tribe's petition for federal recognition.

Time Line

1682 Lasalle notes existence of Houma tribe at intersection of Mississippi River and Red River.

1685 Tonti records first European-Houma contact

1699 Houma tribe visited by Iberville

1706 Large numbers of Houmas perish in Tunica massacre. Segment of Houma tribe moves south from Angola area.

1718 Houmas negotiate peace between Chitimacha and the French.

1723 Tunica and Natchez tribes seek peace with the Houmas.

1763 Peace Treaty of Parish places Houmas hunting grounds under control of the English and villages in Spanish territory.

1765 Houma and Alabama warriors raid the British fort Bute, at Manchac, during the waning days of the Pontiac rebellion.

1766 Houma tribe moves south from Donaldsonville.

1774 Mississippi east bank Houma village is sold to Conway and Latil.

1800 Houmas begin to move to present location in Terrebonne and Lafourche Parish.

1803 U.S. buys large tract of land from France: the Louisiana Purchase Daniel Clark reports only 60 Houmas remaining above New Orleans.

1806 John Sibley reports to the U.S. Secretary of State that Houmas "scarcely exist as a nation."

1811 Author H.M. Brackenridge writes that Houmas "extinct".

Houma Chiefs (including Louis Savage) meet with W.C.C. Claiborne, governor of the Louisiana Territory, to formalize relations with the United States.

1814 Houma tribe files land claim with U.S. government.

1821 John J. Audubon mentions presence of Houmas in Southern Louisiana.

1832 The death of Louis Savage, famous Houma Chief and maternal uncle of Rosalie Courteaux.

1834 The town of Houma, Louisiana is founded, named after the Houma Indian village in the vicinity.

1840 The Houmas southern migration was at an end.

1859 Rosalie Courteaux purchases "large amount" of land for Houma tribe.

1870-80's Houma spread west from Lafourche Parish and Terrebonne Parish to St. Mary Parish.

1883 The death of Rosalie Courteaux heroine and matriarch of the Houma People.

The seven principal Houma settlements at the beginning of the twentieth century were: DuLarge, Dulac, Montegut, Point Barre, Point au Chene, Isle jean Charles, Grand Bois and Golden Meadow.

1907 John Swanton "re-discovers" the Houmas.

1918 Henry Billiot loses his court challenge to enter his children in public school. This was the first, recorded, formal assault by the tribe on the Terrebonne parish School System.

1920 Houma tribe begins to seek federal recognition.

1931-40 Houma tribe contacted and "studied" by Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) officials and anthropologist Nash, Underhill, Meyer, and Speck.

1932 Protestant education mission schools open for Indian students in Terrebonne at Dulac, DuLarge, and Pointe-aux-Chene.

1935 The dedication service for Clanton Chapel in Dulac, "the only Indian church in Louisiana" at the time.

1940-48 Parochial and public elementary schools open for Indian students in Terrebonne Parish

Late 1950's Houmas are allowed to attend Indian schools up to the seventh grade.

1960 Stoutenburgh lists Houmas as "extinct".

1963 Houma children admitted to public schools.

1963 Frank Naquin, the community leader in Golden Meadow, sends Helen Gindrat and Delores Terrebonne to the American Indian conference in Chicago. This event would become the catalyst for the modern political movements in the Houma community.

1972 Houma Tribes, Inc. is established at Golden Meadow in Lafourche Parish.

1974 Houma Alliance, Inc. is established at Dulac in Terrebonne Parish. First Title V Indian Education program is funded in Lafourche & Terrebonne parish.

1975 Houma tribe joins with other Indian tribes of Louisiana to form the Inter-tribal Council.

1975 - present United Houma Nation administers grants & job training programs in association with Inter-tribal Council.

1979 First formal meeting of the United Houma nation Tribal council after the merger of the Houma Tribe and the Houma Alliance.

1985 United Houma Nation files petition for federal recognition.

1986 United Houma Nation under the leadership of Chairman Kirby Verret and Vice-Chairwoman Helen Gindrat

1990 Tribal roll books closed. Only newborns can be registered.

1991 BIA places United Houma Nation on active status.

1992 Laura Billiot elected Chairwoman of United Houma Nation.

1993 Tribal enrollment numbers 17,000.

1994 United Houma Nation receives negative proposed findings.

1996 United Houma Nation files rebuttal to negative proposed findings.

1997-present United Houma Nation under the leadership of Brenda Dardar Robichaux, Chairwoman and Michael Dardar, Vice-Chairman.

1999 The Houma Tribal Council meets with a delegation of French Senators. Principal chief Brenda Dardar Robichaux is presented with a medal from the French Government, becoming the first "Medal Chief" since the colonial period.

1996-present United Houma Nation awaits its final determination from the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

Native American History

What were Blessed Kateri Tekakwitha's miracles?

There have been a number of miracles attributed to Bl. Kateri but most occurred shortly after her death and no one is still alive to verify them. The first occurred at the moment of her death. Her face had been badly scarred by smallpox when she was but 4 years old. At the moment she died her skin became blemish free as the scars disappeared. A number of people claimed to have been healed when they visited her grave soon after she was buried. All these alleged events led Pope John Paul II to declare her Blessed in 1980. Now the Sacred Congregation for the Causes of Saints in Rome is investigating evidence that documents what could be the final miracle needed for canonization. All the information is being kept secret until the Congregation reaches a decision. Her canonization could be near!

"On December 19, 2011, Pope Benedict XVI approved the second miracle needed for Kateri's canonization. The authorized miracle dates from 2006, when a young boy in Washington state survived a severe flesh-eating bacterium. Doctors had been unable to stop the progress of the disease by surgery and advised his parents he was likely to die. The boy received the sacrament of Anointing of the Sick from a Catholic priest. As the boy is half Lummi Indian, the parents said they prayed through Tekakwitha for divine intercession, as did their family and friends, and an extended network contacted through their son's classmates. A Catholic nun, Sister Kateri Mitchell visited the boy's bedside and placed a relic of Tekakwitha, a bone fragment, against his body and prayed together with his parents. The next day, the infection stopped its progression." FromWikipedia

Kateri was canonized on October 21, 2012, by Pope Benedict XVI.

Native American History

Who Composed Tipi Tipi Tin?

This song was composed by María Grever (1894-1951). She was the first Mexican female musician to become a successful composer

Native American History

Is nifty option American or European?

You should definitely ask professionals thejingstock

Cryptids and Legendary Creatures
Native American History

How do you say i love you in quileute language?

koo cloak lay

Native American History
History of the United States
Colonial America

Did native American tribes ever fight each other over land before pilgrims even settled?

Check history. Most Indians were at rescuing their own land and area.

When the Pilgrims arrive at MA., they were kind. And when the people from the Mayflower became very sick; the local Indians saved they lives!

Lots of Indians fought others.

With believers GOD arriving, then any Indians that look up believing in GOD and that GOD sent Jesus, then got real LOVE into their lives! So much more great meanings in their lives!

Ancient History
Native American History
Pueblo Indians

Did the Pueblo Indians have social classes?

There was no poor middle or rich classes but there was classes for how much respect and deciding power people could have in a pueblo community.

Acronyms & Abbreviations
Native American History

What does NDN stand for?

1) Indian

2) New Democrat Network

Native American History
Oak Trees

What is native American Indian word for oak tree?

There are many types of Native Americans, thus many different Native American dialects. Therefore you have to specify which Native American tribe you are referring to.

Native American History

What landforms did the Blackfoot tribe have?

Sometimes one of the close lands forms in the ones that lived in California was the rocky mountains

History of Writing
History of the United States
Native American History

How did Pocahontas affect US history?

She found a way to make peace with the newly arrived Europeans.

MORE The story we know is not true. Actually the colonist landed in an area of 14,000 Native Americans and in the worse land in the area. Powhatan pretty much left them alone. I think he figured that they would die from the bad water and disease . He was fairly right. Within 6 months there were only 34 men left alive of the 104 who came. It wasn't until after his death that the brother of Powhatan attacked the colony. The story about Smith is also not true. He did NOT save Jamestown. He was only there a very few months and he lied about his contribution to the settlement in a book he wrote several years later. He also made up the story about Pocahontas and she died young so couldn't refute his story. The man who did save Jamestown was the husband of Pocahontas and gave tobacco seeds to the colony. That was John Rolfe.

History of the United States
Native American History

How do you say wolf in the pawnee language?

ckirihki is the Pawnee word for coyote or wolf.

Native American History
Sioux Indians

Which plains tribe did celebrate the sun dance?

The question is too general. There were plains tribal groups who historically celebrated the traditional form of the Sun Dance faith; tribal groups who still conduct Sun Dances today; plus, genizaro affairs who engage in what can only be described as a "Pan-Native American"/"Native Pan-American" semblance of the original plains Sun Dance. Historically, most Plains Indian tribes did participate in the Sun Dance. In fact, it is easier to ask which plains tribes did not participate in the Sun Dance--such a list would be shorter.

Native American History

What 5 Native American state names describe water?

There are four, plus one that actually describes the land on each side of water:





and Nebraska

Connecticut is from one of the Algonquian languages (perhaps Pocumtuc or Wappinger) meaning "at the long river or body of water".

Mississipi is also an Algonguian term; the first element is michi (great) and the second is sipi (water).

Michigan is yet another Algonquian name, this time michi (great) plus goomi (lake).

Ohio may be an Iroquoian word for a large river.

Nebraska looks like it ought to mean "flat water" in one of the Siouan languages (perhaps Oto ni bthaska); it actually refers to water running through a flat landscape, which anyone following the course of the Platte river will see makes good sense.

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