When did the Ottoman Empire rise?
The Ottoman Empire began in 1299 when Osman I declared independence from the Seljuk Turks and conquered the Byzantine city of Bilecik.
None. Muhammad died long before the rise of the Ottoman empire. If you mean Mehmed the Second, one of the sultans of the Ottoman empire, he was the one who conquered Constantinople and made it the new capital; renamed Istanbul. He expanded the empire to cover almost all of Serbia as well as including Anatolia & the Crimea.
The Ottoman Empire entered a state of decline in the late 1700s up through the 1800s. They lost their European Territories because of Russian Imperialism and the Rise of Nationalism in Serbia, Greece, and Bulgaria. At the end of World War I, the Ottoman Empire collapsed and Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) launched a coup d'état, creating the Modern Turkish Republic.