Only one nation is considered a Jewish country. That nation is Israel. More people of Jewish faith live in many nations than in Israel. It is worth noting that Israel is a secular country with a Jewish majority population, just like Germany is a secular country with a Christian majority population. There is no theocratic Jewish State in the world.
Israel is the only country that has Hebrew as one of its official languages. It's also the only country with a Jewish majority; however, not every Israeli is Jewish, and not every Jewish Israeli is religious. In addition to its 75% Jewish populace, Israel is home to Christians, Muslims, Druze, and other religions as well.
Israel does not have the most Jews, it has a lot of them, though. Israel is a country founded by Jews on the ancient land promised to the Jewish people by God. Israel is the only country on earth with a Jewish majority and the country of Israel provides a safe home for Jews and the promise that the country will protect them from harm.
Countries don't typically have religions. In terms of its population, Israel's Hindu population is almost negligibly small. You may be thinking of India which is a majority Hindu country. Israel is also better known as the "Jewish State" although the term "Jewish" in that name is considered to refer to Jewish in the "ethnic sense" as opposed to the religious sense.
That depends when. From the time of Abraham, and again after the sojourn in Egypt, they went to Canaan (Israel). Later, the large majority were exiled to other places. See also: http://judaism.answers.com/jewish-history/timeline-of-jewish-history http://judaism.answers.com/jewish-history/destruction-and-diaspora
According to the TIME Almanac 2009: As of mid-2008, out of a total estimated world population of 15.1 million Jews, 5.8 million were listed in Asia ... mainly Israel ... and 6.2 million in Northern America ... mainly the US and Canada. From the same page of data: -- Self-identified adherents of Judaism are found in 135 countries of the world. -- They amount to 0.2% (two tenths of one percent) of the world's population…
All of these countries (and Cyprus) have Non-Arab majorities, in comparison to the other Middle Eastern countries which are Arab-majority countries. Turkey is majority Turkish, Israel is majority Jewish, and Iran is majority Persian. Israel has the largest Arab minority in terms of percentage (21% of the country), but Turkey has the largest amount of Arabs in terms of population (3 million, not counting the current 2+ million Syrian Refugees in the country).
Since Rodrigues Mauricio is two names, it is not a surname. In general a name is "Jewish" if it is used by a Jewish family and "not Jewish" if it is used by a non-Jewish family that does not have a Jewish history. The vast majority of surnames used by Jewish families are also used by non-Jewish families.
If you yourself are not Jewish, then marrying someone who is not Jewish is most likely the norm, and preferred in your family and your community. If you yourself are Jewish, then marrying someone who is Jewish is generally the norm, and is preferred in your family and your community. Also, the majority of rabbis will decline to participate in a Jewish wedding in which a member of the couple is not Jewish.