Who was involved in the Texas Chainsaw Murders?
There is no such thing as the Texas Chainsaw Murders. Despite the disclaimer at the beginning of the original film, which touts the movie as "...an account of a tragedy which befell a group of five youths...For them an idyllic summer afternoon drive became a nightmare...This video cassette is based on a true incident and is definitely not for the squeamish..." in truth The Texas Chainsaw Massacre was not really based on a true story.
The filmmakers just wanted people to think it was a true story, so more people would go see the movie. It was also a bit of a joke on their part, to see if people would believe it was real. This is not an unheard-of tactic: for example, the Blair Witch Project was also touted as a true story by the filmmakers, when in truth it is completely fictional and all the actors in it are alive and well to this day.
The Texas Chainsaw Massacre was inspired by a true story, which is a long way away from being based on a true story. The truth is that the director, Tobe Hooper, got the idea for the Leatherface character from the real case of the serial killer Ed Gein. The rest is completely fictional. Ed Gein was only one man; he did not belong to a family of chainsaw murderers, and he lived in Wisconsin, not Texas.
Ed Gein murdered at least two women, one of whom was found hanging disemboweled and decapitated in his house, and also allegedly engaged in necrophilia and cannibalism with his victims' corpses. He did not, however, murder them with a chainsaw.
I have included a link to the snopes.com page about the Texas Chainsaw Massacre. I have also included a link to a page that compares the Ed Gein murders to the movie.