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Who were the sit-ins?

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2010-09-10 13:34:40
2010-09-10 13:34:40

The sit ins are the people in the Civil Rights Movement

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to pressure the government to support civil rights


The Civil Rights MovementMartin Luther King Jr. moved back to Atlanta in 1960. Independently, black college students began lunch-counter sitins in southern cities, leading to the creation of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), also headquartered in Atlanta. In 1962, the SCLC unsuccessfully battled segregation in Albany; the campaign taught activists the importance of national media attention. They got plenty in the Birmingham campaign, which helped win President John Kennedy's support for the movement. King's "I Have a Dream" speech electrified the March on Washington on 28 August 1963. Often at odds, SCLC and SNCC both participated in the climactic 1965 voting-rights campaign in Selma, Alabama, with many Georgians, including Atlanta's Hosea Williams, in the lead.Atlanta's white leaders, eager to look progressive, tried to stave off racial conflict and bad publicity, whether they believed in the movement or not. Mayors William B. Hartsfield and Ivan Allen Jr. worked with black leaders to make the transition to desegregation. Atlanta's Georgia Institute of Technology quietly integrated in fall 1961, the first public university in the South to do so without court order. Local tensions ran high, though. When King won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964, Atlanta's stunned elite reluctantly hosted a biracial banquet in his honor.The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (outlawing segregation) and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 (ensuring voting rights) revolutionized Georgia society and politics, but change outside Atlanta proved slow. Black voters soon liberalized Georgia's Democratic Party. Civil rights stalwarts Julian Bond and Andrew Young of Atlanta won election to state and national offices. Maynard Jackson became Atlanta's first black mayor in 1974.Angry white Democrats, mostly rural and working-class, sent archsegregationist Lester Maddox to the governor's mansion in 1966; Atlanta's leaders cringed. Maddox was Georgia's last openly racist governor. Many white-supremacy Democrats defected to Georgia's Republican Party, which included suburban conservatives who viewed race as a secondary issue. Other Democrats, notably Jimmy Carter, forged biracial coalitions with populist undertones. These coalitions made him governor of Georgia in 1970 and president in 1976.Above retrieved from Answers.comViper1


I don't know if this helps, but... Washington (No party) Hamilton established BUS No foreign entanglements (no long term alliances in peacetime) Jay's treaty (British leaves forts on US soil, British damages maritime US losses) Pinkney's Treaty (Spanish clarifies south-western borders, free navigation of Mississippi) Whiskey Rebellion (force to maintain order) Disliked formation of parties 2 term "limit" Bill of Rights J. Adams (Federalist) Barbary pirates (marine/navy founded) French Revolution XYZ Affairs Convention of 1800, peace with France, alliance canceled, American to pay damages to American shippers Alien and Sedition act (muzzle law, increased naturalization period) [Virginia, Kentucky Resolutions in response] Cabinet worked against him and with Hamilton instead Jefferson (DemoRep) Embargo Act (forbidden exports, tried to get France/Britain to respect US) Eliminated whiskey tax Non-Intercourse Act - Embargo to France/Britain Louisiana Purchase Peace Treaty with Tripoli Chesapeake Affair Lewis and Clark Cumberland Road authorized Midnight judges (Marbury vs Madison, judicial review) Madison (DemoRep) Macon's Bill No2 - Lifts embargo for first country to repeal certain thingees Protectionist Tariff of 1816 - British goods start flooding US market, first protectionist tariff First Bank of United States' charter ends, not renewed War of 1812 Treaty of Ghent - Ends War of 1812, "Not one inch of territory ceded or lost", armistice, Russia needed help Battle of Tippecanoe (Tecumseh dies [Indians screwed], Harrison gets famous) Battle of Horseshoe Bend (Jackson gets famous) Battle of New Orleans (Jackson pop ^) Cumberland Road construction begins Vetoes Bonus Bill (Internal improvements should be done by state) Fletcher vs Peck (Legislatures could not mess with contracts) Monroe (DemRep) Second Bank of United States Panic of 1819 - Wildcat banks, too much land speculation Monroe Doctrine - Hands off American continent Russo-American Treaty of 1824 - Russia gets out of Oregon area Rush-Bagot agreement - stopped naval buildup on Great Lakes Treaty of 1818 - Fixed northern boundary of Louisiana Spain cedes Florida in exchange for Mexico Jackson invades Florida Missouri Compromise (slave below 36'30, admit Missouri/Maine) Gibbons v. Ogden - States couldn't regulate interstate commerce Dartmouth College v. Woodward - states can't mess with contracts Q. Adams (DemRep) Tariff of Abominations Corrupt bargain, Clay becomes SecState Henry Clay throws election to Adams Jackson (Demo) Pet banks, pulls money out of BUS Vetoes vote to recharter BUS Tariff of 1832 - Lower than Abomination, but seemed more permanent Compromise Tariff of 1833 Texas wins independence Indian Removal Act Maysville Road veto - Strict construction Specie Circular - attempted to discourage land spec, paid hard money for hard land Calhoun (VP) writes South Carolina Exposition, in response to Tariff of Abomination Hayne/Webster Debate Spoils system Van Buren (Demo) Panic of 1837 - screwed Buren over Independent Treasury Recognizes Republic of Texas, but doesn't annex Harrison (Whig) Personality campaign Longest speech, shortest term Tyler (Whig) Vetoed bank bills Vetoes a tariff bill Webster-Ashburton treaty - Maine border dispute Texas annexed The non-Whiggy Whig Polk (Dem) Tariff-for-revenue Bill - lowered avg rates from 32% to 25% "Fifty-four forty or fight", but didn't fight. War with Mexico - Got disputed land of Texas and California CA, OR, Tariff, Independent Treasury California gold rush 1848 Taylor (Whig) Doesn't want Comp of 1850 Millard Fillmore (Whig) Wants Comp of 1850 (CA free, Fugitive Slave Act) Pierce (Dem) Ostend Manifesto - Sent diplomats to try to get Cuba from Spain but Northerners found and failed Gadsden Purchase - create Pacific Railroad and bought land from Mexico Commodore Perry arrives in Japan Kansas-Nebraska Act - Nebraska: free, Kansas: slave but northerners came into Kansas (Caused formation of Republicans) Buchanan (Dem) financial crash of 1857 - North was hardest hit and south thought they could live without the north (King Cotton) Tariff of 1857 - lowest tariff since 1812 rate 20% Northerners complained, financial crisis stuck soon after John Brown - martyr for anti slavery forces. killed pro slavery person in Kansas Lincoln Douglas Debates - duking it out for senate of Illinois Douglas won but hurt his chances for Presidential election Dred Scott Decision - slaves were considered to be property and couldn't sue in federal court Lincoln (Whig) All other parties split (Republican - first sectional party) Civil War Emancipation Proclamation Crittenden compromise - 36 30 would be above would be free and territory below later acquired would be slave - Lincoln smacks it down Freedmen's Bureau - Education, and land for blacks. suspend civil liberties during war Andrew Johnson (Dem running as Rep) National Labor Union appears (dies under Grant) Seward buys Alaska Midway Islands annexed 13th Amendment (free slaves) Civil Rights Act (Citizenship and no black codes) 14th Amendment (citizenship, roughly same as Civil Rights Act, but more permenent) Impeached but acquited in Senate (see Tenure of Office Act) Ulysses Grant (Rep) Panic of 1873 - railroad overspeculation Tariff of 1870, '72, '75 - Lowered rates and expanded free list ('72 continued expansion, '75 raises rates) Resumption Act - redeem government loans in hard currency (step away from bimetallism) Political corruption (Credit Mobilier scandal, Tweed Ring, Whiskey Ring) Freedmen's Bureau expires 15th Amendment (voting) Force acts (guarantee voting for blacks) Civil Rights Act of 1875 (full and equal accomodations. ruled unconst by SC) Rutherford Hayes (Rep) Bland-Allison Act - Treasury buys silver and makes silver dollars (continued bimetallism) Hayes-Tilden standoff -> Compromise of 1877, end of military reconstruction Desert Land Act - gave land to those who would irrigate for 3 years Timber and Stone Act - land unsuitable for farming sold for mining and logging James Garfield (Rep) Assasinated by "deranged office seeker", led to Pendleton Act Chester Arthur (Rep) Tariff of 1875 - continued protectionist principles Chinese Exclusion Act Pendleton Act (led to downfall of patronage) Civil Rights Act of 1875 ruled unConst Grover Cleveland (Dem) Interstate Commerce Act - rein in railroads (but commisioners were all railroad people, so nothing happened) Knights of Labor dissolved Dawes Severalty Act - Largely destroys Indian governments Wabash case - defeat for populists who wanted to control railways Benjamin Harrison (Rep) McKinley Tariff - Highest tariff in American history up till then (48%) Sherman Anti-Trust Act - Prohibited combinations in restraint of trade... would be used to target unions though Sherman Silver Purchase Act - bimetallism Pan-American conference - Worked with Latin-America to establish treaties on trade "Billion Dollar Congress" Frontier line disappears Pension Act 1980 - Give money to veterans (too much money coming in) Hull Houses - help immigrants US Forest Service established by Forest Reserve Act Populists organized Grover Cleveland (Dem) Panic of 1893 (blamed on Sherman Silver Purchase Act, which would be repealed) Wilson-Gorman Tariff - slightly lowers McKinley rates, first income tax (ruled unConst) Hawaii revolts, but Cleveland refuses to annex Venezulan border dispute with Britain - "pulling the lion's tail" Labor unrest (Pullman strike, Coxey's march on Washington) Plessy v Ferguson - "Seperate but equal." William McKinley (Rep) Dingley Tariff - Highest of all time, McKinley says "greatest piece of republican legislation" (though he had campaigned on lower tariffs!) Gold Standard Act - Stopped bimetallism Maine sunk Imperialism - Spanish-Amer War (Teller Amendment), Hawaii Annexed, Dewey takes Manila (Phillippines), Foraker Act creates Puerto Rican gov't Open Door Note Yellow Journalism (Hyped Maine) Elkins Act - no rebates Theodore Roosevelt (Rep) Northern Securities case - he didn't want trusts out of control Panic of 1907 ("Roosevelt Panic") Aldrich-Vreeland Act - increased money supply (banks could issue notes) Panama Canal - Hay-Pauncefote Treaty, Brit agree, Panama revolt, Hay-Bunau Varilla Treaty Expansionism - Platt Amendment (Cubans get independence in name only) Roosevelt Corrollary - Big Stick - Perdicaris Affair (person captured in Morocco, sent fleet for their release), Algeciras Conference (open door in Morocco) Russo-Japanese war - Portsmouth Peace Conference Great White Fleet Root-Takahira Agreement - Status quo in Pacific, open door in China 3 C's (conservation, consumer, corporations) Hepburn - no free passes and strengthens Interstate Commerce Commission Regulations - Meat Inspection, Pure Food and Drug Act Racial tension - Brownsville Affair Lochner v New York - can't limit number of working hours Gentlemen's Agreemtn with Japan - limit Japanese immigrants, but Japanese get equal education Muller v Oregon - women's working hours can't be restricted, as it is discriminatory Taft (Rep) Payne-Aldrich Tariff - Taft had campaigned on lowering tariffs, but this tariff didn't really lower them US Steel prosecution - made Roosevelt mad Dollar diplomacy - tried to buy Manchurian railroad from Jp (ignored) NAACP forms Ballinger-Pinchot Affair - Disagreement between Roosevelt and Taft Wilson (Dem) Underwood Tariff - lowered tariff Federal Reserve Act - Glass-Owens Act Clayton Antitrust Act - interlocking directorates, price discrim, allowed labor unions FTC established LaFollete's Seamen's Act Worker's Compensation Act Adamson's Act - 8 hour workday for intersate railroad workers, same wage as 10 hour day Keating-Ownes Act - federal child labor law War Revenue Act - graduated income tax Merchant Marine Act - trade between US ports must be on US boats, sold US warfleet Esch-Cummings Transportation Act - solds railroads Tries to stay out of WWI - Lusitania, Sussex pledge (Germans won't sink unarmed boats), Zimmerman note ABC Conference - stopped (undeclared) war with Mexico Latin America - Send marines to Tahaiti and Santo Domingo, bought Virgin Islands Russian Revolution - US doesn't recognize for 16 years Treaty of Versailles - 14 pts (self-determination) League of Nation Red Scare - Sacco-Venzetti Triple Wall of Privledge (Tariff, Banks, Trusts) Federal Highway Act Farmers - Farm Loan Act (loans at lower rates), Warehouse Act (loans with crops as security) Selective Service Act - WWI draft War Industry Board - took control of war industries Harlem Rennaissance Solemn Referendum 16th Amendment - income tax 17th Amendment - direct election of senators Appoints Jew to Supreme Court Schenk v. US - 1st Amendment restricted during war 18th Amendment - Prohibition (Volstead Act would enforce it) Hammer v. Dagenhart - government can't regulate child labor 19th Amendment - women sufferage Harding (Rep) Emergency Tariff 1921 - saved farmers Fordney-McCumber Tariff - Blatently protective tariff Capper-Volstead Act - Cooperative Marketing Act Separate peace w/ Germany Four, Five, Nine Power Treaties - status quo, 5:5:3, open door in China Veterans Bureau Emergency Quota Act Scandals: Teapot Dome (took bribes to sell mineral rights), Veteran Bureau, Alien Property Custodian, Justice Department KKK revived Calvin Coolidge (Rep) Dawes Plan - reduce German reperations Withdraws from Dominican Republic Kellog-Briand Pact - Outlaws War Snyder Act of 1924 - American Indians get citizenship Immigration Act of 1924 - Similar to Emergency Quota Act, but different year Soldier's Bonus Act - Bonus to soldiers Adkins v. Children's Hospital - minimum wage illegal Scopes trial - evolution trial First female state governor Herbert Hoover (Rep) Agricultural Marketing Act - created Federal Farm Board which helped farmers organize Stock-market crash Hawley-Smoot Tariff - Highest of all time Reconstruction Finance Corporation - gave loans to businesses (trickle-down) Norris-LaGuardia Anti-Injection Act - no yellow-dog contracts Glass-Steagall - created FDIC, insured deposits in banks London Naval Conference - Altered ratios of five power to 10:10:7 Appeasement - Japan invades Manchuria (US and League complained, but didn't do anything), Germany takes over stuff Debt Moratorium - Slowed repayment on loans from European nations Stimson Doctrine - don't recognize results of aggression (resulted from Japan's expansion in Manchuria) Bonus Army - veterans march on Washington, dispersed by military force Franklin Roosevelt (Dem) Hundred Days Congress - Lots of legislation to cure Depression (doesn't work), and other related acts TVA Agricultural Adjustment Act (paid to not grow crops) Reciprocal Trade Agreement (tariffs would be lowered for countries that lowered theirs) Bank Holiday - closed holidays (would be reopened when FDR certified them) World Economic Council Good Neighbor Policy - stopped armed intervention in Latin America Beer and Wine Revenue Act - taxed beer and wine, why waste a perfectly good industry? US off gold standard - allowed for inflation of dollar Civilian Conservation Corps - Young men work in forest, send earnings to families Federal Emergency Relief Act - Direct money to civilians Federal Securities Act - Regulated stock market Homeowners Refinancing Act - provided mortgage money and other aid to homeowners Glass-Steagall Act - FDIC, insures indidivual's banking accounts (stopped bank failures) Farm Credit Act - gave farmer's credit National Industrial Recovery Act - businesses can cooperate to create codes of fair competition. Also laborers can't work for too many hours or too little wages Public Works Administration - $4bill on public projects Civil Works Administration - Provided temporary jobs during winter Indian Reorganization Act - Gave Indians more political and economic freedom Townsend Act - $200 to those over 60 National Housing Act - federal housing administration, homes for cheap Works Progress Administration - provided money for public works Wagner Act - National Labor Relations Board established, gave laborers right to engage in self-organization, collective bargaining through representatives of their choice, if unable to agree, government could mediate Social Security - pay money to retired people Soil Conservation Act - Replaces AAA, planted soil conserving crops Fair Labor Standards - set minimum wage and maximum hours, no child labor under 16 and 18 if dangerous Neutrality Acts - 1935 (no selling arms to countries at war, done over Italian invasion of Ethiopia), 1937 (couldn't sell to sides in civil war, done because of Spanish CivWar), second act of 1937 (can't travel on ships of belligerants) Munich Conference - Appeases Germany Assistance to Britain Cash and Carry - pay for it in cash, ship it on own boats Destroyer deal - 50 destroyers for bases Lend-lease - lend war material, must be returned or monetary value Nazi-Soviet Pact What did US do to prepare? US invokes peacetime draft Atlantic Charter Fair Employment Practices Comission - no discrimination in war industry Nationalize railroad War Production Board - controlled production War Conferences Atlantic - If US enters war, Europe would be first Cairo - Roosevelt, Churchill and Cheng Kai-Shek, US would help China Casablanca Tehran - Stalin, Roosevelt, Churchill. First time "big three" meet (open second front in Europe) US becomes world power Dumbarton Conference - planning for UN (see SF Conference) Bretton-Woods Conference - International Monetary Fund Yalta Conference - Eastern Europe gets democractic elections GI Bill - gives GI's education and ease them back into society (didn't want alot of people coming back and then high unemployment) 20th Amendment - Shortens lame duck period 21st Amendment - Prohibition ends "Court-Packing" - no messing with Supreme Court Korematsu v. US - internment legal Harry Truman (Dem) Employment Act - gave federal government responsibility for maintaining economy Taft-Hartley Act - no closed shop (no longer forced to join unions) Fair Deal Potsdam Conference - Expanded on Yalta conference Nuremburg Trials - warcrime trial Atomic Energy Commission - created peacetime nuclear energy uses San Francisco Conference - security council for UN, and veto power finalized Phillippines Independence Churchill's Iron Curtain Truman Doctrine - money to Greece and Turkey, US would fight spread of Commies Marshall Plan - money to Europe, fight commies Containment Policy - resist spread of Communist ideas Berlin Airlift - US will fight communism, Russians back down NATO - first binding treaty! China becomes Red China Korean War Presidential Succession Act - defines order of presidential succession National Security Act - coordinates wartime intelligence Civil Rights Armed forces desegregate Red Scare Alger Hiss Rosenburgs McCarthy Nixon 22nd Amendment - 2 terms Eisenhower (Rep) Landrum-Griffin - limited the ways unions could boycott National highways Korean War armistance SEATO, CENTO Domino Theory (one falls, THEY ALL FALL!) Massive Retaliation - build SAC and nuclear bombs, thought to be cheaper Geneva Summit (called for open skies, ignored) Warsaw Pact Hungarian revolution, killed by Soviet tanks and Warsaw Pact Suez Crisis Eisenhower Doctrine - we'll intervene in Middle East Sputnik launch - led to improved science and math education Paris Summit - U2 incident messes it up Civil Rights Montgomery Bus Boycott Little Rock integrated, National Guard SCLC established - MLK's group SNCC established - nonviolent (students) Lunch counter sitins Alaska and Hawaii admitted as states Brown v Board - "seperate is inherently unequal" John Kennedy (Dem) Cold War Berlin Wall constructed Bay of Pigs Cuban Missile Crisis Alliance for Progress - Marshall plan for Latin America Trade Expansion Act - led to lower tariffs between Europe and US Nuclear test ban Peace Corps founded Agency for International Development Civil Rights Freedom Riders 23rd Amendment - DC gets 3 electoral college votes Lyndon Johnson (Dem) Great Society - fought poverty and racial injustice War on Poverty, Social Security Act, creating Medicare and Medicaid Vietnam Gulf of Tonkin Resolution - president had blank check in Vietnam Paris Peace Talks Tet Offensive Civil Rights Acts - protected black men from discrimination, government could force more desgregation in schools, women's equality Black Panthers Form 24th Amendment - no poll taxes Miranda case 25th Amendment - presidential secession First black on SCourt Richard Nixon (Rep) OPEC embargo Alaskan Pipeline Detente Nuclear Proliferation Treaty SALT Opens relationship with China Moscow summit (1, 2 and 3) Cease fire in Vietnam Kissinger - Middle East talks SALTII Moon landing Environment - Clean Air Act, EPA War Powers Act - President couldn't send troops w/o approval Watergate 26th Amendment - 18 to vote Gerald Ford (Rep) SVietnam falls Streaking becomes fad! Pardons Nixon Jimmy Carter (Dem) Energy Department (due to OPEC) Camp David between Egypt and Israel Panama Canal treaty - US will return it SALT II Iran Hostage Crisis USSR invades Afghanistan Pardons draft evaders in Vietnam War Ronald Reagan (Rep) "Reaganomics" tax cut (tried to decrease size of gov't) Stock Market plunge, 1987 Hostages released Marines killed in Lebanon SDI initiative - outspend USSR Meets with Gorbachev Intermediate Nuclear Force treaty - less nuclear weapons in Europe Iran-Contra scandal First woman justice George Bush (Rep) Americans with Disabilities Act Gulf War Berlin Wall falls - Germans unified USSR initiates economic reforms Eastern European bloc falls (Solidarity wins in Poland) USSR disintegrates Environmental summit in Rio de Janero War on Drugs 27th Amendment - congressional pay raises take effect for next round of senators Webster v. Reproductive Health Services - neo-Con William Clinton (Dem) Welfare reform NAFTA signed EU created PLO-Israeli agreement Troops in Bosnia WTC bombed



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