Why did researchers suspect that DNA does not code for proteins directly?
In eukaryotes, DNA is found inside the nucleus, but proteins are produced outside the nucleus.
The DNA codes for mRNA instead of directly into proteins because the DNA is contained in the nucleus. The nuclear pores in the nuclear membrane do not let larger molecules out, so the mRNA is needed to transfer the sequence outside of the nucleus and to a ribosome where the amino acids to make a protein can be brought and linked together to create a protein.
Proteins are excellent sources for evidence of evolution, because their structure is determined genetically. Genes code for the amino acid sequences of proteins, so variation in protein structure can be directly linked to genetic variation. In fact, in the years prior to the ability to sequence DNA, the amino-acid sequences of proteins were used to infer the DNA sequences of the genes that coded for them. Since evolution is defined as genetic change within populations…
Mutations change the order in which the organic bases are in your DNA. These bases code for proteins, and if they change, so the code changes. A change in the code can mean a different protein is made or that proteins are not made at all. The way it could stop proteins from being made is that the change could create a Stop Codon, which stops mRNA from being translated (which would then be transcribed…
If you ask the control of the synthesis of proteins, the answer is following: protein synthesis is controlled again by proteins (which are, of course, coded by the DNA); these regulatory proteins either regulate proteosynthesis in cytoplasm by influencing ribosomes and/or mRNA (the protein synthesis itself) or in the nucleus by stimulating or inhibiting expression of particular genes (which code proteins again, as every gene does).
What is the The genetic code for a particular protein passed from DNA to mRNA by a process known as?
DNA transcription is a process that involves transcribing genetic information from DNA to RNA. The transcribed DNA message, or RNA transcript, is used to produce proteins. The information in DNA is not directly converted into proteins, but must first be copied into RNA. This ensures that the information contained within the DNA does not become damaged.
DNA does not make proteins directly. Rather, the DNA is the mother-of-all recipes that specialized transcription proteins (tRNA) read to make messenger RNA (mRNA). mRNA is the specific recipe to make specific proteins. The specific code of DNA are made of regions called introns and exons. Exons are what the gene has coded for and introns are "spacers". I remember exons are exactly what is needed and introns are intervening sequences.