The period of time after the Middle Ages is known as "The European Renaissance" and is called a time of rebirth and action because new developments began to take place in most areas of culture and society. Writers of this period spoke of a rebirth or renewal of culture, broadly that of classical antiquity, after what they saw as the barbarism of the intervening centuries. The Renaissance was essentially a cultural movement which encompassed a revival of learning based on classical sources which were being "rediscovered". Also, the development of linear perspective in painting, and gradual, widespread educational reform affected the manner in which people viewed and interacted in the world. This had an impact not only in art and architecture, but also in the fields of science, rhetoric, literature, and music. As a time of rebirth and action, the movement, beginning in Italy in the late Middle Ages, spanned the centuries from the 14th to the 17th, later spreading to the rest of western Europe. While "renaissance" is a very general term to describe this era of history, there is no doubt that intellectual and secular developments took place, as did gradual progress in technology, along with improvements in husbandry and agriculture. This activated an increase in the number of people who left the land to live in cities.