Marble is a nonfoliated metamorphic rock made of carbonate minerals, particularly calcite. It is formed by the metamorphism or limestone. Gneiss is a foliated metamorphic rock made of silicate minerals such as quartz and feldspars, and micas. It forms from the metamorphism of granite or schist.
Gneiss is a high grade metamorphic rock, the product of various rock types being exposed to intense pressures and heat under the surface of the Earth. Orthogneiss is a gneiss whose parent rock was igneous, and paragneiss is a gneiss whose parent rock was sedimentary.
A gneiss is a metamorphic rock. Metamorphic rocks are created by the alteration of rocks by heat and pressure. Therefore, a gneiss may be created from an igneous rock in which case it would be called an orthogneiss.