The antitrust laws prohibit agreements by two or more that "restrain trade in interstate commerce." Labor unions, by their nature, may engage in such activities when they present demands for better wages, hours and working conditions. When act as representatives of a group of employees and serve as agents for them. So when an agreement between the union and management is concluded, the working must abide under the conditions agreed to. To prevent unions from antitrust liability, a "labor exemption" was created under the Clayton Act of 1914. It has two components. The so-called "statutory" labor exemption allows unions to enter into agreements which may create a monopolistic practice regarding the working conditions of the employees it represents. The "Non-Statutory Labor Exemption" -- the more applicable concept in sports law -- is a judicially-derived expansion of the labor exemption that protects union activity from antitrust scrutiny. It has been the crux of nearly all antitrust actions in professional sports (with the exception of Baseball, which had an blanket exemption from antitrust laws until late in 1998). The non-statutory labor exemption is based on the policy that favors collective bargaining and gives it preference over the antitrust laws. Basically, any union-management agreement that was a product of good faith negotiation will receive protection from the antitrust laws. That means that the provisions of the agreement cannot be attacked as collusive or anti-competitive. Say that a salary cap is agreed to by a union and management. In pure antitrust terms, a cap can be a violation of the antitrust law. But since the cap was part of the collective bargaining agreement negotiatedin good faith and agreed-to by the union and management, the cap cannot attacked in court as a violation of antitrust. The statutory and non-statutory exemptions were intended to help unions from the threat of antitrust suits. But in sports, the tables have been turned. In the past, the exemptions have been used by management to enforce agreements that were "forced" on a weaker union (yes, there have been weak unions in sports!). The NFL players union learned this the hard way, when, after a series of cases in the late 1980s and early 1990s, it was ruled that the exemption applied throughout the negotiation process, even after a labor contract expired. This interpretation of the non-statutory exemption was upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1997. During the recent NBA lockout, there was talk of decertifying the union by certain agents representing star players. Without a union, any imposition of a salary cap could likely violate antitrust laws -- and their top players could then have no constraints in negotiating even higher salaries.
Leasing is a form of renting. With leasing, you lock in the rental amount per month for the term of the lease. You get no tax benefits. The tax benefits are applied when you purchase a house.
Yes, unless you have permission from the copyright holder of the original, or an exemption in the law. For example, if you are copying a work in order to learn a technique, that use should be defensible as fair.
No chefs usually work shifts and are salaried and therefore not paid per hour worked. You can work long hours especially during busy periods and will not be paid extra but may be entitled to a year end bonus.
The noun 'freedom' is derived from the verb to free.The word 'free' is a verb, an adjective, and an adverb.Example uses:We will free the bird as soon as he is able to fly. (verb)They're giving away free samples of their new shampoo. (adjective)The motto of the State of New Hampshire is "Live Free or Die". (adverb)
In the synoptic gospels, the Last Supper was on the day of the Jewish Passover feast, so we can say that Jesus and the disciples were partaking of the Passover feast.In John's Gospel, the crucifixion was on the day of preparation for the Passover, so John does not describe a Last Supper, saying just that on evening before, when their supper was ended, Jesus washed the feet of the apostles.
Antitrust was released on 01/12/2001.
The Production Budget for Antitrust was $30,000,000.
The Antitrust Paradox was created in 1978.
The duration of Antitrust - film - is 1.83 hours.
Samuel K. Abrams has written: 'The 1980 antitrust year' -- subject(s): Antitrust law 'The 1979 antitrust year' -- subject(s): Antitrust law
Exemption clauses are the problem, it is not the nature
antitrust laws =)
Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890
Antitrust - film - was created on 2001-01-12.
Antitrust grossed $17,865,209 worldwide.
There are three major federal antitrust laws: The Sherman Antitrust Act, the Clayton Act and the Federal Trade Commission Act.
The 1914 Clayton Antitrust Act Labor excluded unions and agricultural cooperatives from antitrust laws