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Vascular plants are broken down into three groups:

1) In seedless vascular plants (ferns, horsetails and clubmosses) the sporophyte\ (diploid) dominates and is separate from the gametophyte. The gametophyte makes sperm that travel in water to reach the egg. A new plant results.

2) Naked seed vascular plants (conifers, cycads, ginkos) are also called gymnosperms. Gymnosperm seeds are not completely covered by the parent plant when they are formed. They are inside dangling cones. Here are some of their traits:

a. In conifers (pine, spruce, fir, redwoods and cedars) the tree is the sporophyte generation (diploid).

b. The gametophyte generation is too small to see.

c. Males and female cones have haploid spores. Male cones release pollen in the spring, which is spread by the wind. Some reach female cones, which release a sticky fluid that traps the blowing pollen. The pollen, over time, will burrow into the female cone's ovule to reach and fertilize the egg. Eventually the cone will fall and in the right conditions grow into a conifer tree.

3) Protected seed vascular plants (flowering plants, grasses and deciduous trees) are also called angiosperms. Their seeds are protected inside a fruit. The flower grows to attract pollinators and house the ovule with eggs inside. It also holds the sperm that will be released as pollen.

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10y ago
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12y ago

vascular,non vascular i don't know the other one

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Q: What are the three main groups of plants?
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