The idea of immunisation is that you expose the immune system to the pathogen, ennabling it to recognise the pathogen and produce mature memory Helper T cells. This means that upon its second exposure the immune system is activated faster and more efficiently, allowing the immune system to kill off the pathogen quicker. In some cases antibodies are produced that can neutralise toxins, preventing their damaging effects.
If memory T cells were not produced then the immune system would have to re-learn how to fight a pathogen every time.
The function of memory cells in an immune response is the act of the cell remembering the DNA of a foreign body, ie bacteria, virus. Triggering the Immune system to begin fighting the culprit.
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Cellular immunity uses helper cells and killer cells to identify and destroy abnormal cells.
The b cells are specifically responsible for cell mediated immunity.
Active immunity is acquired from vaccinations or from infection against a pathogen. The next time you encounter the same pathogen your body has built memory against it and will be able to fight it much more efficiently. Passive immunity is primarily through a mother to a baby or fetus. Through the placenta the mother transfers her immunity (IgG antibodies) to her fetus. Also through breast milk she can although the placenta is much more so. The baby has her/his immunity from the mother but it only lasts a few months because the baby hasn't developed his/her own immunity.
The difference between humoral immunity and cell-mediated immunity is that humoral immunity uses B cells and T cells whereas mediated immunity only uses the T cells. Also humoral immunity provides a defense against antigens and pathogens in body fluids whereas cell-mediated immunity protects from abnormal cells and pathogens inside living cells.
Passive immunity involves the bodies defenses which do not change for different types of microbes. This would be like Natural Killer B cells which attack a wide variety of microbes. Active immunity involves your body becoming acclimated toward a bacteria or virus, such that future contact will spur on a triggered response. An example of this would be the production of antibodies.
Active immunity is of two kinds: Natural active immunity: This is acquired when a pathogen enters the body and immune response occurs. This is stored by the memory cells and eliminates the pathogen for the second time as soon as it enters the body. Acquired active immunity: This artificial and it is induced through a artificial source like vaccines.
Active acquired immunity occurs when you get an infection by a pathogen (bacteria, virus) and your body responds and removes the pathogen and also your body makes "memory" cells. These cell remember this pathogen and when it enters your body again you remove it immediately. You are now immune to it. You usually don't notice this.
Natural immunity occurs through contact with a disease. There are two types of natural immunity. Actively acquired and passively acquired. Actively acquired - When the body has already experience an infection by that pathogen Passively acquired - Antibodies pass across placenta providing a newborn baby with immunity against disease. Antibodies are also present in breatsmilk. Artificial immunity develops through delibereate action such as vaccine. There are two types: Actively acquired and passively acquired Actively acquired - This is by vaccination at a suitable time in the person's life, not when they are infected. eg TB vaccine Passively acquired - The vaccine contains ready-made antibodies which provide immediate relief by destroying the antigens. This is given when the person has been infected with the antigen and has no preivous immunity eg tetanus
Memory b cells provide long term immunity for a specific disease or antigen. As an example a vaccination for hepatitis A provides memory b cells that will attack the disease when it is present and remove it.
The way in which inherited and acquired immunities differ is in the way the immune system responds to infection. With inherited immunity, the body does not create antibodies that are particular to a specific pathogen unlike acquired immunity.
Innate immunity (also called nonspecific or natural immunity) refers to the inborn ability of the body to resist and is genetically transmitted from one generation to the next. This immunity offers resistance to any microorganism or foreign material encountered by the host. It includes general mechanisms inherited as part of the innate structure and function of each vertebrate and acts as the first line of defense. Innate immunity lacks immunological memory, i.e., it occurs to the same extent each time a microorganism or foreign material is encountered.
Immunity via the production of long lived memory lymphocyte cells in the immune system.
Naturally acquired active immunity means that you have contracted the disease and your body has developed immune defenses against the disease. An example if when a person gets Chickenpox- the body has memory cells which functions to produce an immune response when it recognizes the same virus later on. The immunity for chicken pox is usually lifetime.
Active Immunity is subdivided into two.First, the Natural Active Immunity which last a lifetime because our memory T-cells recognized the pathogen in our first exposure thus it was able to make anti-bodies againts it.Second,the Artificial Active Immunity which is commonly introduced to us by meas of vaccine.Examples of these are BCG,DPT,Hepatitis Vaccine,Tetanus Toxoid and OPV,these vaccine may contain LAM(Live Attenuated Microorganism) or dead microorganism that are being introduced to our body artificially that leads to activation of memory T-cells to also form anti-bodies, on the other hand it does not protect us for a lifetime.Serum Levels must be obtained and a booster shot is suggested in Hepatitis Vaccine after four years from the last dose recieved.
gamma globulin are the antibodies which provide natural active acquired immunity produced by B plasma cells.
There are many cells involved in adaptive immunity and requires them to work together for a fully functional adaptive response. These cells include: CD4 (Th1 & Th2) T cells, B cells (plasma and memory), professional antigen presenting (APC) cells that include: dendritic cell, B cells and macrophages.