dimensional consistency says that in any equation the dimensions of the quantities in the rhs and lhs are same.
force dimensions are MLT-2 : mass dimension M ;acceleration dimension LT-2 togehter the right hand side is also having MLT-2 dimension same as that of force.
None. A litre is a measure of volume in 3-dimensional space while a square metre is a measure of area in 2-dimensional space. The two measure different things and, according to basic principles of dimensional analysis, conversion from one to the other is not valid.
The petroleum industry often characterizes crude oils according to their geographical source, e.g., Alaska North Slope Crude. Oils from different geographical areas have their own unique properties; they can vary in consistency from a light volatile fluid to a semi-solid. Classification of crude oil types by geographical source is generally not a useful classification scheme for response personnel, because general toxicity, physical state, and changes that occur with time and weathering are not primary considerations. Rather, the classification scheme provided below is more useful in a response scenario. Class A: Light, Volatile Oils. These oils are highly fluid, often clear, spread rapidly on solid or water surfaces, have a strong odor, a high evaporation rate, and are usually flammable. They penetrate porous surfaces such as dirt and sand, and may be persistent in such a matrix. They do not tend to adhere to surfaces; flushing with water generally removes them. Class A oils may be highly toxic to humans, fish, and other biota. Most refined products and many of the highest quality light crudes can be included in this class. Class B: Non-Sticky Oils.These oils have a waxy or oily feel. Class B oils are less toxic and adhere more firmly to surfaces than Class A oils, although they can be removed from surfaces by vigorous flushing. As temperatures rise, their tendency to penetrate porous substrates increases and they can be persistent. Evaporation of volatiles may lead to a Class C or D residue. Medium to heavy paraffin-based oils fall into this class. Class C: Heavy, Sticky Oils. Class C oils are characteristically viscous, sticky or tarry, and brown or black. Flushing with water will not readily remove this material from surfaces, but the oil does not readily penetrate porous surfaces. The density of Class C oils may be near that of water and they often sink. Weathering or evaporation of volatiles may produce solid or tarry Class D oil. Toxicity is low, but wildlife can be smothered or drowned when contaminated. This class includes residual fuel oils and medium to heavy crudes. Class D: Nonfluid Oils. Class D oils are relatively non-toxic, do not penetrate porous substrates, and are usually black or dark brown in color. When heated, Class D oils may melt and coat surfaces that become very difficult to clean. Residual oils, heavy crude oils, some high paraffin oils, and some weathered oils fall into this class. These classifications are dynamic for spilled oils ... weather conditions and water temperature greatly influence the behavior of oil and refined petroleum products in the environment. For example, as volatiles evaporate from a Class B oil, it may become a Class C oil. If a significant temperature drop occurs (e.g., at night), a Class C oil may solidify and resemble a Class D oil. Upon warming, the Class D oil may revert back to a Class C oil.
A flange is a mechanism by which tubing, valves, pumps, and other machinery are linked to create a piping structure. It also makes washing, review or alteration easy to access. Typically, the flanges are welded or screwed. Flanged joints are designed to provide a bond by bolting two flanges together with a gasket between them. Pipe flanges are constructed of all kinds of materials, such as stainless steel, cast iron, copper, silver, bronze, rubber, etc., but the most commonly used type is carbon steel manufactured and machined surfaces. During the choosing of the pipe, the design of a flange is set, in most situations, a flange is of the same type as the plug.The boom in private petrochemical entrants has put extreme pressure on the demand for pipe fitters. Ongoing production line projects growth requires a high degree of automotive pneumatic fittings and fluid parts. The use of fittings and flanges manufactured from a particular metal has become a common procedure in the industry. These fittings can be used in research laboratories, pilot plants and factories in addition to pipelines. As the compounds under analysis are highly corrosive, providing the right products for the laboratory poses a major challenge.It is indeed fair to say that the vast network of pipelines used to carry different chemicals and liquids is the most important component of transportation in the developed world. There is another name for such pipelines that is “flow piping” that applies to the whole pipeline network that holds fluids such as air, steam, water, additives, gasoline, etc. within and around an industrial infrastructure that functions in the production of goods and services or power generation. The extreme temperatures of temperature and pressure will trigger the connection to leak. Hence the main requirement is to protect the joint adequately with fittings and flanges for corrosion and heat-resistant tubing.The flange forms most used in the Petro and chemical industries are:1. Weld-neck Flanges:Such flanges are common, and are used with a tapered center in high-pressure environments. In normal bending conditions the Weld Neck flanges are particularly useful.2. Slip-on flanges:A flange slipping over the pipe, welded in and out to improve the pressure and avoid leakage. A preference among engineers as opposed to the weld-neck because of its lower cost.3. Lap-joint Flanges:Apart from the slip-on, these flanges are slid over the valve but not fastened, which is used in combination with the bottom of a lap joint stub. Instead, the flange is held in place by the pressure exerted by the flange friction over the back of the pipe’s chest towards the gasket.4. Threaded Flanges:If used in special circumstances, the threaded flange can be attached to the tubing without being welded. These are usually placed on deep-wall thickness tubes, used to create the inner string.5. Blind Flanges:Most flanges are made without a screw, and are used in pressure vessels to blank off pipe ends, doors, and openings. These are also best suited for high pressure activities.Applications of Flanges in the petrochemical industries:Pipe fittings used in the gas, oil, and petrochemical industries should be traceable, accurate, and made of high-quality steel or alloy. OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers) are constantly upgrading the equipment to raise their production across the vertical sector. The chemical plant needs special pipe fittings which can tolerate impacts of batch and continuous manufacturing, fluid movement, heat and mass transfer, etc. Since most processes are ongoing, changes need to be made as swiftly as possible. This not only minimizes the harm but also increases the risk of injuries.Duplex and carbon steel are some of the most favored alloys used in pipe fittings and petrochemical flanges production. In addition to the consistency of the products, ingenuity plays a key role in ensuring productivity in pipe fitting. Fittings that are easy to install and reversible also make the right choice.
SyllabusSecond Year Semester - I209341: Chemistry ITeaching Scheme: Exam Scheme:Theory: 4 hr/week Paper: 100 MarksPractical: 4 hr/week Practical: 50 Marks____________________________________________________________________________________UNIT 1 Structural Effect and Reactivity 8LectBenzene and aromaticity, concept of aromaticity (4n+2), condition's necessary for demoralization, breaking and formation of bonds (Reaction intermediate).Factors affecting electron availability -Inductive effect, Resonance effect (resonance structures of naphthalene , anthracene , aniline , phenoxide ion, benzaldehyde, nitrobenzene, etc..), hyperconjugation, steric effect, tautomerism. Effects of resonance, inductive effect, steric effect on pKa, and pKb value of simple acid and bases. Types of reactions, types of reagents.UNIT2 Reaction Mechanism 8 LectMechanism of reaction involving carbonium ion intermediates:1. Nucleophilic substitution -Hydrolysis of alkyl halide (SN 1 Mechanism).Also discuss SN 2 mechanism and factors affecting SN reactions.2. Electrophilic substitution in benzene and mono-substituted benzene nitration, sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft alkylation and acylation.3. Electrophilic addition to C=C, polar addition of hydrogen halides and water, alkylation, dimerisation.4. Elimination's - E1 reaction s in acid catalyzed dehydration of alcohols, base catalyzed dehydro-halogenation of alkyl halides, comparison of elimination with substitution. Also cover E2 mechanism.5. Rearrangement-Beckman rearrangement.Mechanism of reactions involving carbanion intermediates:1. Addition of carbon nucleophilic to C=O- Grignard reaction for preparation of primary, secondary , and tertiary alcohol's and carboxylic acids.2. Nucleophilic substitution by carbon nucleophile- Wurtz reaction.3. Carbanion involves in condensation- Aldol condensation and Claisen ester condensation.4. Rearrangement involving carbanion-Favorskii rearrangement.Reaction involving free radical intermediates:1. Addition of hydrogen halides to C=C in presence of peroxides2. Substitution reaction- Halogenation of methane3. Dimerization- Kolbe synthesis.UNIT 3 8 LectA) StereochemistryBasic concepts of Stereochemistry, conformational isomerism of ethane, propane, butane, cyclohexane, monosubstituted cyclohexane. Optical isomerism with one , two chiral centres (AA and AB types), erythro, threo , meso distereoisomers. Geometrical isomerism (compounds containing one double bond).Heterocyclic compoundsStructure, preparations and reactions, five membered rings- Furan, Pyrolle thiophene, Six membered ring- Pyridine, Fused rings-Indole, Quinoline.UNIT 4 Solid and Liquid State 8 LectSolid state-Introduction, characteristics of solids melting point, sublimation, atomic and molar heat of solids, X-ray crystallography-Bragg's equation, measurement of diffraction of angle.Liquid state- introduction, intermolecular forces, structure of liquids, general properties of liquids. Evaporation, vapor pressure, measurement of vapor pressure, Trouton's rule, boiling point, heat of vaporization, freezing point, surface tension and it's measurement. Parachor, viscosity and it's measurement. Factors affecting viscosity, molecular viscosity and optical activity. Numericals on all above( solids and liquids both).UNIT 5 Gaseous state 8 LectGaseous state I- Behavior of ideal gases, kinetic molecular theory of gases. The kinetic gas equation. Derivation of gas laws from gas equation, kinetic energy and temperature. Types of molecular velocities and their calculations mean free path and collision frequency, collision diameter, and degrees of freedom. Law of equipartition of energies, specific heat and molar heats of gases.Gaseous state II- behavior of real gases- ideal and real gases, deviation from ideal behavior, Vander Wall's equation of state and it's limitations, intermolecular forces. The critical phenomenon, experimental determination of critical constants of a gas, critical phenomenon and Andrews experiments, Vander Wall's equation and critical state, calculation of critical constants.UNIT 6 Solution: 8 LectSolution-definition, why substances dissolve, temperature and solubility, solution of gas in gas, gases in liquid, Henry law, the ideal solution, Raoult'1s law of ideal solution, solutions of liquids in liquids, theory f dilute solution. Colligative properties, osmosis, osmotic pressure, measurement of osmotic pressure.Colligative properties of dilute solution- lowering of vapor pressure, elevation of boiling point and thermodynamic derivation, depression in freezing point and thermodynamic derivation. Abnormal behavior of solutions of electrolytes.Numericals on all above.List of Practical:Nine experiments from group I and eight experiments from group IIGroup IAny two experiments from experiment no 1,2,31.Volumetric estimation of amide from the given solution of amide.2. Volumetric estimation of acetone from the given solution of acetone.3.Volumetric estimation of ester from the given ester solution of ester.4.Purification of organic compound by recrystalization and sublimation and to find their physical constants ( any four compounds).Organic preparations with M.P. after crystallization and TLC (any three experiments from experiment no. ,6,7,8).4. Preparation of benzoic acid from benzamide.5. Preparation of osazone derivatives of glucose.6. Preparation of aspirin from salicylic acid.7. Preparation of m-nitroaniline from m-dinitrobenzene.Group II1. To determine the percentage composition of a given mixture of two liquids by stalagmometer.2. To determine relative viscosities of liquids A and b by Ostwald's viscometer. Ton find percentage composition of mixture C of A and B by using graphical method using viscosity data3. To determine radius of macromolecule by Ostwald's viscometer.4. To determine molecular weight of non volatile solute by depression in freezing point method5. To determine molecular weight of solid y elevation in boiling point method.6. To determine distribution coefficient of iodine between water and carbon tetrachloride and hence to determine the molecular condition of iodine.7. To determine molecular weight of given immiscible liquid by steam distillation method.8. To determine amount of hydrochloric acid and phosphoric acid from the given mixture by using pH meter.9. To determine heat of solution of potassium nitrate or ammonium chloride by studying their solubility in water.10. To study acid hydrolysis of methyl acetate and to show that it is first order reaction.Reference Books:1. Jerry March; Advanced Organic Chemistry; McGraw Hill International Book Company.2. Peter Sykes; A Guide To Mechanism in Organic Chemistry; Orient Longman.3. Morrison and Boyd; Organic Chemistry; Prentice Hall of India Private Ltd.4. Samuel Glasstone; Textbook of Physical Chemistry, Mcmillian and Co. Ltd.5. G.M. Barrow; Physical Chemistry; McGraw Hill Publications.6. P.W. Atkins; Physical Chemistry; ELBS Publications.207342: Engineering Mathematics IIILecture Scheme: Exam Scheme:Lecture: 4 hr/week Paper; 100 marks_________________________________________________________________________________1. Ordinary Differential Equations: 8 LectPower Series Solutions of Ordinary Differential Equations. Including Theoreticalbasis i.e. Sum, Remainder, Radius of Convergence, Orthogonal sets of Solutions.Legendre & Bessel functions. Strom Louisville Problem.2. Partial differential equations 8 LectSolution by Separation of Variables-One dimensional heat flow equations-Two dimensional heat flow equations- Laplace equation in spherical form3. Vector Calculus: 10 LectDifferential of vector .physical representation of vector derivative .radical and traverse tangentialand Normal component of velocity and acceleration .divergence and curls of vector point functionVector identities line integral irrotational and solenoid fields' .gauss divergence and stoke theoremApplication to problems in fluid mechanics -continuity equations steam lines equation of motionBernoulli's equation4. Fourier transform: 10 LectFinite Fourier and cosine transform .complex Fourier transform infinite sine and cosine transform.Application of Fourier transforms to boundary layer problem such as one and two dimensional heatflow problems5. Laplace Transform: 8 LectLaplace transform of standard function .laplace transform of special function as periodic functions.Unit step function dire delta function .ramp function periodic function .Si(t),Ei(t).error function.Jump Function .laplace inverse transform.6. Application of Laplace transform to chemical Engineering systems: 8 LectDynamic behaviour of first and second order system such as liquid level, thermometer, thermocouple,manometer etc.transfer function of above system.References:1. Pater V. O'niel, "Advanced Engineering mathematics", Thomson Publications.2. Wiley and Darnet, "Advanced Engineering mathematics", McGraw Hill.3. Garewal, "Advanced Engineering mathematics".Wartikar P. N. and Wartikar J. N.; Engineering Mathematics-II; Pune Vidyarthi Griha Prakashan.5. Erwin kreyszig, "Advanced Engineering mathematics", John Wiley & sons.209343: Fluid Flow OperationsTeaching scheme: Exam scheme:Lectures: 3 Hrs / week Paper: 100 MarksPracticals: 2 Hrs / week Practical: 50 Marks1. Fundamentals of fluid Mechanics: 8 Lect.a) Need and scope of studies and important application like heat and mass transfer, microscopic and macroscopic level - continuum hypothesis.b) Fluid - Definition and important properties - density specific wt. Specific gravity vapor pressure and viscosityc) Viscosity - definition, types, Newton's law of viscosity (molecular momentum transport) pressure and temperature dependence Rheological classification2. Fundamental of fluid law: 10 Lect.a) Type of flow - steady / unsteady, uniform / non-uniform, laminar / turbulent, compressible/ incompressible.b) Line to describe flow - path line, streak line , stream line, equi-potential linec) Euler's equation along a stream lined) Pressure and temperature dependence Rheological classificationFluid Static'sa) Fundamental equation of fluid statics, concept of atmospheric, gauge and absolute pressure, pressure measurement by simple and differential manometerb) Concepts of Buoyancy and floatation for floating and submerged bodies (No numericals)3. Fluid Dynamics: 8 Lect.a) Mass and energy balance, control volume, linear momentum, introduction to compressible flowb) Bernoulli's equation and applications; pitot tube, venturimeter, orificemeter, flow through orifice and applications4. Dimensional analysis: 8 Lect.a) Fundamental dimension of quantities, dimensional homogeneity, model studies -geometric and kinematic and dynamic similarities (No numerical problems)b) Problem solving by Buckingham's Pi TheoremLaminar flow through conduitsShell balance based solutions for laminar flow through circular tube (Hagen Poiseuelle equation), on inclined plane, through annular space (concentric pipes)5. Boundary layer theory: 6 Lect.a. Concept of hydrodynamic boundary layer, growth over a flat plate, change in nature of boundary layer, and different thickness of boundary layer, (nominal, displacement, momentum and energy thickness).b. Qualitative discussion of thermal and hydro dynamic boundary layer for heat and mass transferc. Drag on flat plate, coefficient of drag and its variation6. Piping of fluids: 4 Lect.a) Series and parallel pipe systems, Darcy-Weisbach equation, Moody's diagram for obtaining 'f'b) Minor losses and major losses in pipes, Concept of equivalent pipe.c) Introduction to centrifugal pump- Typical sketch, necessary parts, working(Operation) and Selection/ specification (all theory only)Note: Fluid moving machinery in detail to be covered in process equipment design subjectPRACTICAL:1. Determination of viscosity.2. Flow through pipes. Analysis for laminar and turbulent regions.3. Flow through packed bed4. Flow through venturimeter5. Flow through orifice meter6. Flow through pipe fitting7. Verification of Darcy's law8. Characteristics of centrifugal pump9. Pump and blower specification writing in a format routinely Used by process industry10. Trial and error solution to give flow problem on computer11. Verification of stokes lawREFERENCE BOOKS:1. Morton M. Den., "Process fluid mechanics" Prentice Hall 1989.2. R.W.Fox, Allan T. McDonald., "Introduction to fluid mechanics" John Willey and sons 1995.3. Jack B. Evett and Cheng Lin., "Fundamentals of Fluid mechanics" McGraw Hill 1987.4. McCabe and Smith, "Unit operations in Chemical Engineering".5. Bird, Stewart, Lightfoot, "Transport Phenomena", John Wiley and Sons.209344: Chemical Engineering MaterialsTeaching Scheme: Exam Scheme:Lecture: 3 hr/ week Paper: 100 MarksPractical: 2 hr/week Oral: 50 Marks_______________________________________________________________________1. Introduction to materials and their principle properties, Simple stresses and strains, Concept of stress, strain, shear stress, shear strain, Hooks law, Elastic limit, stress-strain curve for mild steel and elastomeric materials, factor of safety, Poisson's ratio, Strain energy due to axial load and impact. 7 Lect.2. Basic principles in their selection for fabrication and erection of chemical plant.Testing of materials, destructive and nondestructive tests, structure of atom and chemical bonds, crystal structures and their influence on material properties, Deformation and slip processes. 8 Lect.3. Metals and their alloys: Iron - carbon diagram, Ferrous and nonferrous alloys, mild steel, special steels, stainless steels, brasses, brasses, aluminum alloys and titanium alloys, high and low temperature material, insulation, refractories.Methods for fabrication, rolling, bending, central punching, revetting, welding. 9 Lect.4. Corrosion and its control : Different types of corrosion: chemical, biochemical, and electrochemical; Internal and external factors affecting corrosion of chemical equipments, Methods to minimize corrosion, corrosion charts for process equipments. 7 Lect.5. Polymers, natural & synthetic: Selection of polymetric materials for equipment linings, fiber reinforced plastic, application of special polymers like Nylon 66, Teflon in engineering. 7 Lect.6. Ceramic and glasses: Crystalline and non-crystalline ceramics, silicates, refractories, clays, cements, glass vitreous silica, and borosilicate. 6 Lect.References:1. James F. Shacketford, introduction to material science, McMillan publishing compony, Newyork Special:Booksources.2. D.Z. Jestrazebaski, properties of Engg. Materials, 3 rd Ed. Toppers.Co. Ltd.3. J.L. Lee and Evans, Selecting Engineering materials for chemical and process plants, Business Works 1978.4. "Design of machine elements", Spott M.M. Prentice Hall.5. "A text book of machine design" Khurmi R.S. and Gupta J.K.Practicals:1. Microstructure observation and study of metals and alloys. (Minimum five) low carbon steel, medium carbon steel, high carbon Steel, tin, bronze, brass, phosphor bronze.2. Study of properties of polymeric materials; impact test and polymeric Tests.3. Corrosion testing (salt spray test for different samples such as plain carbon steel, chrome plate steel, galvanized steel.)4. Different types of hardness test on metals. i.e. Rockwell hardness test, Brinell hardness test, Shore scleroscope tests.5. Izod and Charpy impact test on mild steel, copper, brass and aluminum.6. Chemical analysis of metals and alloys (Any one element to be analyzed e.g. molybdenum from stainless steel, carbon from steel, copper from brass etc.7. Macrostructure observation: (flow lines observation in forging by macro etching sulphur printing of steel.)8. Study experiments based in, i) Dye penetration ii) Rubber lining, iii) Ultrasonic test, iv) Heat treatments.Minimum 8 experiments to be performed from the above suggested practicals.209345: Process CalculationsTeaching scheme: Exam scheme:Lectures: 4 Hrs / week Paper: 100 Marks1. Basic Chemical Calculations (4 lectures)Introduction to unit processes and operations and their symbols, process flow sheet, Dimensions and Units, Basic Chemical Calculations including mole, equivalent weights, solids, liquids, solutions and their properties, properties of gases.2. Material Balances without Chemical Reactions (9 lectures)Concept, material balance calculations, recycling and bypassing operations, introduction to unsteady state processes.3. Material Balances involving Chemical Reactions (9 lectures)Concept, material balance calculations, electrochemical reactions, recycling and bypassing operations, metallurgical operations.4. Energy Balances (8 lectures)Concept, energy and Thermochemistry, energy balances, heat capacity of pure substances and mixtures, latent heats, enthalpy of pure substances and mixtures, absolute enthalpy, heat of reaction, adiabatic reactions, thermochemistry of mixing processes, dissolution, liquid-liquid mixtures, gas-liquid systems. 5. Stoichiometry and Unit Operations (10 lectures)Distillation, absorption and stripping, extraction and leaching, crystallization, psychrometry, drying, evaporation, introduction to stoichiometry and industrial problems.6. Combustion (5 lectures)Calorific values, coal, liquid fuels, gaseous fuels, air requirement and flue gases, combustion calculations.Reference:1. Stoichiometry by Bhatt & Vora2. Basic Principles & Calculations in Chemical Engineering by Himmelblau.3. Chemical Process Priciples Part I by Hougen & Watson209346: Technical CommunicationTeaching Scheme: Exam Scheme:Practical: 2 hr/week Term Work: 50 Marks________________________________________________________________________________________________IntroductionLanguage and Communication: Linguistic Communication, Barriers to Communication, Importance of CommunicationNon Verbal Communication : The Body Language, Personal Appearance, Posture, Gestures, facial Expression, Eye Contact, Space DistancingCommunication in Organizations: Pattern of communication, management informationPersonal Communication: Face to Face Communication, Telephonic Communication, Interviews, Instruction, Dictation.Meetings: Purpose, Procedure, Chairmanship, Participation, Physical arrangements.Seminars and Conferences: Type of Discussion Groups, Regulating Speech, Conducting Seminars, Organizing Conferences, Evaluating Oral PresentationsGroup discussion: Group Dynamics, Purposes, OrganizationAudiovisual Aids: Basic Principals and Guidelines, Types of Aids and their use, Graphic AidsFormal Reports: Definition, Preparatory Steps, Types, Structure, Style, Copy EditingTechnical Proposals: Definition, Key Factors, Types, Contents, Format, EvaluationResearch Papers and Articles: Literature Survey, Reference, Writing, Abstract Articles etc.Business Correspondence, Notices, Agenda, Advertising etc.Introduction to Internet facilities.Term WorkTerm work and theory are considered to be integral part of the course.Term work shall consist of a journal consisting of regular assignments and presentations completed in the practical class and at home, the total number of assignments should not be less than twelve, generally covering the topics mentioned above. As far as possible, submission should be word processed on a computer using a standard package by the student himself.For the purpose of assignments, extensive use of research papers published in technical journals and articles published in magazines and newspapers may be ma\de so that there is no repetition by the individuals.Oral presentations exercises and group discussions should be conducted batchwise so that there is a closer interaction.Reference BookssKrishna Mohan and Neers Banarge (1996), Developing Communication Skills, Macmillan India Ltd.Day (1995), How to write and publish a scientific paper, Cambridge Lowpriced Edition.Bernice Hurst (1996) , Handbook of communication skill, 2 nd Edition, Kogan pageStrunk W (Jr.) and White E.B., The elements of style, Latest edition, Macmillan Publishing Company, New YorkUniversity of Chicago Press Manual of Style, Publ. University of Chicago Press, (Chicago. Latest Edition).203347: Electrical TechnologyTeaching Scheme: Exam Scheme:Lecture: 1 hr/weekPractical: 2 hr/week Term Work: 50 Marks3 - PH CircuitsMeasurements of power in 3-pH circuit using 2- wattmeter method for balanced star and delta loads. Measurement of reactive power using 1 - wattmeter method.D. C. MotorPrinciple of working, construction, types, characteristics, starters, methods of speed control, applications.Induction Motorsa) 3 - Phase: Rotating magnetic field, slip, torque slip, characteristics, starters, applications.b) Single Phase: type, starting method, application.Electrical Heating MethodsResistance, Induction and Dielectric heating (Descriptive treatment only)Note: The term work shall consist of a record of the following experiments performed.List of Experiments:Measurement of power in three phase circuit by two wattmeter method.Measurement of reactive power in three phase circuit using one wattmeter method.Brake test on D. C. Shunt motor.Load test on three phase induction motor.Speed variation of D. C. Shunt motor using armature voltage and field current control.Load test on D. C. series motor.Study of single phase induction motor.Study of starter for A) D.C. motor. B) 3 - pH Induction motor.Reference Books:Electrical Technology by Edward Hughes Revised by I. Mckenzie Smith, Pearson Education.Utilization of Electrical Energy by E. O. Tayler, Tata Mcgraw Hill.Second Year Semester - II209348: Chemistry IITeaching Scheme: Exam Scheme:Theory: 4 hr/week Paper: 100 MarksPractical: 4 hr/week Practical: 50 Marks_______________________________________________________________________________________________Unit 1 Biomolecules 8 LectCarbohydrates - Definition, classification, reactions of carbohydrate oxidation, reeduction, osazone formation, ester formation, isomerization, D.L. configuration, cyclic structure of glucose, fructose fisher, Haworth projection chair form. Brief account and cyclic structure of disaccharides- maltose, sucrose, cellobiose polysaccharide- starch.Aminoacids proteins and enzymes - a- amino acids- fischers projection and relative configuration. Classification of a- amino acids, properties and reactions.Proteins- Formation of peptide linkage, features of peptide linkage, a- helical configuration, b-pleat6ed structure, primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins.Enzymes- General information, coenzyme,vitamins, hormones, catalytic site of enzyme, factors affecting enzyme activity. Specificity of enzymes, classification of enzymes.Unit 2 Functional Group Synthesis 8 LectDefinition, common functional group abbreviations, functional group manipulation, synthesis of carboxylic acids, esters, amides, acids chlorides, aldehydes, ketones, imines, alcohols,alkanes, alkenes.Unit 3 8 Lecta) SpectorscopyRevision of principle of U.V. and I.R. spectroscopy. Applications of U.V and I.R. Spectroscopy for identification of simple organic compounds (simple problem).b) Reagents involved in oxidation reductions - Oxidation of alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, alkanes, amines. Reduction of alkanes, alkynes, aromatic hydrocarbons, esters, nitro compounds.Unit 4 Atomic structure and Bonding 8 LectReview of atomic structure- electronic configuration, energy levels, orbitals, quantum number. Chemical Bonding- Covalent Bond, VBT, hybridizational shape of molecules with examples (upto C.N.6), Molecular orbital theory, LCAO, M.O. diagrams for diatomic molecules like H 2, CO, O 2, N 2. Multicenter bonding B 2H 6 molecule.Unit 5 Transition elements and their complexes 8 LectTransition elements, study of I st transtyion series w.r.t oxidation states, magnetic behaviour, color, ability to form complexes and catalytic behaviour.Co-ordination compounds-different terms-C.N.,ligands,EAN,-etc.Nature of metal ligand bonding- VBT and CFT- Formation and above properties of tetrahedral square planar and octahedral complexes of I st transition series on the basis of VBT and CFT.Unit 6 Volumetric Analysis 8 LectStandard solutions and various methods of expressing various methods of solutions, equivalent weights in different types of reactions. Primary and secondary standard solutions, their preparations. Classification of volumetric analysis- Acids- base, complexometric, oxidation-reduction, precipitation- with specific examples, theories of indicators used in above all types of titrations, titration curve (acid-base, redox). Numericals on all above.List of practicals:Eight compounds from Group I and nine experiments from Group IIGroup IOrganic qualitative analysis eight compounds- preliminary tests, type, elements, functional group and physical constants- atleast two function from each type.1. Acids- benzoic acid, salicylic acid, phthalic acid, oxalic acid, acetic acid.2. Phenols- a naphthol, b naphthol, resorcinol, O-nitrophenol, P-nitrophenol3. Bases- Aniline, p-toludine, diphenylamine4. Neutral- Benzaldehyde, glucose, acetone, ethylmethyl ketone, ethyl acetate, naphthalene, nitrobenzene, urea, thiourea, m- dinitrobenzene.Group IIAny two from 1,2,31. To determine loss in weight and percent composition of mixture of NaHCO 3 by gravimetric method2. To determine water of cystallization of MgSO 4.XH 2O by gravimetric method.3. To determine water of cystallization of BaCl 2.XH 2O by gravimetric method.Any two from 4,5,64. To standardise KmnO 4 solution by preparing oxalic acid and to estimate ferroius ions.5. To standardise Na 2S 2O 3 solution by preparing K 2Cr 2O 7 and to estimate percentage of Cu from brass6. To standardise KmnO 4 solution by preparing oxalic acid and to estimate managnese ions by Volhard's method.Any two from 7,8,97. Preparation of tetramine Cu(II) sulphate8. Preparation of pottassium trioxalato aluminate9. Preparation of tris ethylene diamine nickel (II) thiosulphate.10. Seperation and identification of metal ions from binary mixture of cations using column chromatography (at least three mixture).Reference Books:Robert V. Hoffman; Organic Chemistry- An Intermediate Text; Oxford University PressMorrison and Boyd; Organic Chemistry; Prentice Hall of India Ltd.John R. Dyer; Application of adsorption spectroscopy of organic compounds, Prentice Hall of India Ltd.Shriver D.F; Inorganic Chemistry; ELDS PublicationsCotton F.A and Wilkinson; Advanced Inorganic Chemistry.Chatwal Gurudeep and M.S.Yadav; Co-ordination Chemistry209349: Heat TransferTeaching Scheme: Exam Scheme:Theory: 4 hr/week Paper: 100 MarksPractical: 2 hr/week Practical: 50 Marks_______________________________________________________________________________________________1. Introduction: Modes of heat transfer, conduction, convection, and radiation. Significance of dimensional analysis in heat transfer, units of various quantities used in heat transfer dimensional analysis. Importance of dimensional analysis in experimental design and data reduction. 9 Lect,2. Conduction: Fourier's law of heat conduction, thermal conductivity of liquid, gases and solids. Differential equation from shell balance for unsteady and steady state conduction. Introduction to unsteady state condition. Steady state condition in infinitely long slab, infinitely long hollow cylinder and hollow spheres. Thermal resistance in composite slab and cylinder. Concept of thermal resistance, thermal conductance and contact resistance. Heat losses through pipe, thermal insulation and optimum thickness of insulation, properties of insulator. Heat transfer from extended surfaces with uniform cross section, classification of extended surfaces, efficiency of longitudinal fin . 9 Lect,3. Convection: Newton's law of cooling, individual and overall heat transfer coefficient. Natural and forced convection in laminar and turbulent flow. Principal and heat balance equation in laminar flow and empirical equations for turbulent flow through tube, through annulus, over the plate. Concept of thermal boundary layer and its significance. Heat transfer with phase changes: Condensation: Modes and features: Theory and derivation of Nusselt's equation. Condensation on vertical plate and horizontal plate. Heat transfer in boiling liquids: Pool boiling of saturated liquid. Concept of maximum heat flux and critical temperature drop. 9 Lect,4. Radiation: Fundamental facts and definition of terms: Emissivity absorptivity, black body, gray body, opaque body, Stefan Boatmen law, Kirchoffs law, Planks law, Wien's law, Basic equation of heat transfer by radiation, various cases of radiation between two surfaces, the shape factor. 9 Lect,5. Heat exchange equipment: Types of heat exchangers including compat heat exchangers, parallel flow arrangement, fouling factor. LMTD in parallel and counter flow, Effectiveness NTU method. 9 Lect,6. Evaporation: Types of evaporators, performance, capacity and economy. Boiling point elevation, heat transfer coefficients. Material balance calculations. Multiple effect evaporators: Methods of feeding, capacity and economy, effect of liquid head and boiling point elevation. 9 Lect,Reference books1. McCabe W.L., Smith J.C., Harriot P. " Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering" 5 th Ed. McGraw Hill, International ed.1993.2. Kern D.Q., "process Heat Transfer" Tata McGraw Hill ed. 1997.3. Holman J. P. "Heat Tranfer" 7 th ed. McGraw Hill, 1993.4. Coulson J.M.et.al. " Coulson Richardson's Chemical Engineering Vol.1" 5 th ed. Butterworth Heinemann Ltd., 1996.5. Backhurst J.R. and Horker J.H., "Coulsion and Richardson's chemical engineering" Vol. 4" 2 nd ed. Pergamon, 1994.6. Sinnout R.K. "Coulson Richardson's chemical engineering vol.6" pergamonpress, 1993209350 Principles of DesignTeaching scheme Exam scheme-Lecture: 4 hrs. /week Paper: 100 MarksDrawing:2hrs./week Termwork: 50marks ________________________________________________________________________1. Introduction to process equipment design: nature of design, design factors, degrees of freedom, design variables, optimization, nature of process equipments, general design procedure, basic considerations in design, standards, codes, and their significance, equipment classification and their significance, equipment classification and their selection, review due to compression and tension, bending, torsion, temperature effects, design pressure, design temperature, design stress, design loads, review of fabrication techniques, economics and environmental considerations in design procedure. 9 Lect.2. Shear force and bending moment diagram for simply supported beams, cantilever beams, compound beams. Torsional and bending stresses in machine parts, Torsional shear stresses, bending stress in straight beams, Principal stresses and principal planes, theories of failure (Analytical as well as Mohr circle method).Variable stresses in machine parts: Fatigue, endurance limit, stress concentration, notch sensitivity, and fluctuating stresses. 8 lect.3. Introduction to various types of joints such as: Revetted joint, Welded joint, screw joint, cotter joint, knuckle joint. Pipes and pipe joints, pipe fittings and their applications. 9 Lect.4. Design of machine elements such as, Shaft, keys, couplings. 9 Lect.5. Design of machine elements such as, bearings, belt drives and pulleys. 9 Lect6. Valves: Globe valve, Stop valve, 3-way valve, steam trap, non rising stem, Diaphragm: general construction, working, selection for applicationPumps: general construction, working, application of different pumps, fans, blowers.9 Lect.Term Work1. Assembly drawings of valves.2. Assembly drawings of pumps.3. P & I Draigm.4. Design of shaft, key, coupling, pulley.5. AUTOCAD assignment on A4 sheetsSectional drawing of assemblies of components with the help of AUTOCADComponents: Knuckle joints flange coupling, stuffing box, cotter Joints etc.References:1. "Design of machine elements". Spott M.M. Prentice Hall.2. "A text book of machine design" Khurmi R.S. and Gupta J.K.3. "Design of machine elements" V.B. Bhandari.4. "Introduction to chemical Engineering" Badger W.L. and Banchero J.T., McGraw Hill.5. "Strength of materials" - Beer and Johnson.6. "Process Equipment design", M. V. Joshi, McMillan India.7. "Chemical Engineering Vol. 6", J. M. Coulson, J. F. Richadson and R. K. Sinott, Pergamon Press.209351: Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics-ITeaching Scheme: Exam. Scheme:Lectures: 3 hrs/week Theory: 100 Marks1) Introduction to chemical engineering thermodynamic and first law:The scope of thermodynamics, fundamental and derived quantities, first law of thermodynamics: Formation of 1 st law of thermodynamics, state and path functions, thermodynamic systems, steady state flow system, phase rule, reversible process heat capacity. (7 lectures)2) Volumetric properties of pure fluids: The P.V.T. behavior of pure substance, the viral equation, the ideal gas, the constant volume, constant pressure, adiabatic, polytrophic processes, real gas, applications of Viral equation, critical properties, Vander Wall equation, Benedict- Webb - Rubin equation, Redlich -Kwong equation. (8 lectures)3) Second law of thermodynamics: Carnot cycle, entropy, mathematical statement of 2 nd law, statement of 3 rd law. (8 lectures)4) Thermodynamic properties of Fluids: Maxwell relationships, residual properties, residual properties by equations of state, two-phase systems, Clausius- Clapeyron equation, type of thermodynamic diagram, availability. (8 lectures)5) Refrigeration: Refrigeration cycle (p-v, t-s, h-s, and h-x diagrams) for vapor compression and Adsorption refrigeration systems, Evaluation of COP, duty and load of such cycles, heat pumps, liquefaction. (5 lectures)6) Solution Thermodynamics: Fundamental property relations, chemical potential, criteria for phase equilibrium, partial properties, ideal gas mixtures, fugacity and fugacity coefficients for pure species, for species in solution, generalized correlations, ideal solutions. (8 lectures)Reference Books:1) Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics: J. M. Smith & H. C. Vanness2) Principles of Chemical Equilibrium : Kenneth Denbigh3) Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics : B. F. Dodge4) Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics : T. E. Daubert5) Thermodynamics for Chemists: Glasstone S.6) Thermodynamics for Chemical Engineers: Weber and Meissner7) Chemical and Process Thermodynamics: B. G. Kyle8) Molecular Thermodynamic: Praunitz9) Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics: Narayanan10) Chemical Engineering thermodynamics: Y.V.C. Rao209352: Mechanical OperationsTeaching scheme: Examination scheme:Lectures: 3 Hrs / week Paper: 100 MarksPracticals: 2 Hrs / week Practical: 50 Marks1. Particle Technology and size reduction: 10 Lect.Particle size and shape, Mixtures of particles, Determination of particle size, Standard screen series, screen analysis, Screen effectiveness and capacity, Industrial screening equipments.Crushing efficiency, energy requirements calculations by using different crushing laws, Size reduction equipments: Primary crushers, secondary crushers, Intermediate & fine grinders, Ultra fine grinders, Cutting machines, Open circuit & Closed circuit grinding.2. Handling And Transport of Solids: 8 Lect.Storage of solids, characteristics of Bulk solids. Conveyors: Working principles, Construction, Advantages, Disadvantages and design calculation of Screw conveyors, Belt Conveyors, Chain & Flight conveyors, Bucket elevators, Pneumatic conveyors.3. Mixing and Agitation: 5 Lect.Necessity of mixing & agitation in chemical industries, Types of Impellers & propellers, Different flow patterns in mixing, Calculation of power requirement of mixing equipment, Mixing equipment of pastes & viscous material, Solid - Solid Mixing, Agitator selection.4. Filtration: 6 Lect.Filter media and filter aids, classification of filtration, pressure drop through filter cake, filter medium resistance, specific cake resistance, Continuous Filtration, Washing and dewatering of filter cakes, Centrifugal filtration.5. Fluid - Solid systems: 12 Lect.a. Motion of particles in liquid, drag force, drag coefficientsb. Gravity settling method: Terminal velocity, Stoke's law and Newton's law, free settling, sink and float method, differential settling.c. Sedimentation and thickening: Batch sedimentation, equipments for sedimentation, Kynch theory of sedimentation, calculation of area and depth of continuous thickeners, batch thickeners, and continuous thickeners.d. Fluidization: flow through packed beds, characteristics of fluidized systems, minimum fluidization velocity, types of fluidization, applications of fluidization technique, spouted beds and fixed bed.6. Benefication Operations, Mineral dressing and centrifugal settling operations:4 Lect.Froth flotation, magnetic separator, scrubbers, fiber and fabric filter, and electrostatic precipitators.Mineral jig, cyclone separator, hydro cyclone types and centrifuges, centrifugal clarifier.References:McCabe W. L. &Smith J.C. "Unit Operations in Chemical Engineering". McGraw Hill Publications.Coulson J. M. & Richardson J.F. "Chemical Engineering Vol. 2", Pergamon Press.Badger W. L & Banchero J.T. "Introduction to Chemical Engineering", McGraw Hill Publications.Foust A. S "Principles of Unit Operation".George G. Brown, "Unit operations", CBS publishers and distributors.List of PracticalsMinimum numbers of Experiments to be performed for the term work eight out of the following list.To determine effectiveness of given set of standard screen.To determine energy consumption and crushing law constants for jaw crusher.To determine Critical speed of Ball mill & Average particle size of the product obtained in ball mill OR Average particle size of product obtained in Bhrustone mill.To determine mixing Index of a mixture in Ribbon Blender. OR To determine mixing Index of mixture in Sigma Mixer.To determine filter medium resistance and cake resistance by using Vacuum Leaf filter.To determine filter medium resistance and cake resistance by using Plate & frame Filter Press OR by using centrifuge machine.To determine area of batch thickener by conducting batch sedimentation test.To determine minimum fluidization Velocity & to verify Ergun's Equation.To determine separation efficiency by using froth flotation cell.To determine separation efficiency by using magnetic separator.To determine efficiency of Cyclone separator.Any one Experiment based on the syllabus of subject Mechanical Operation.209353: Workshop PracticeTeaching Scheme: Exam Scheme:Practical: 2 hr/week Term Work: 50 Marks_______________________________________________________________________________________________Topics to be covered at the time of practicals:General purpose Machine Tools.Joining Processes.Pattern making and Foundry.List of Practicals:One job on lathe with taper turning thread cutting, drilling.One job on lathe + milling machine - keyway cutting, gear cutting etc.One job of welding.One job of pattern making and foundry - one simple job of non- ferrous material.A record of the work performed should be presented in the form of a journal based on topics under (A) and the jobs completed under practicals (B).Reference Books:Hajra Choudhary; Workshop Technology; Vol. I & II
Dimensional consistency is symbolic calculations that involves physical measurements. In physics equations, it is used in calculating the frequency.
In the same way as you made sure that the chemical elements balanced on both sides of a chemical reaction equation, so also the physical dimensions balance.
Consistency may be related to viscosity: high consistency is high viscosity.
The teacher showed no consistency in displining.The glue's consistency was like thick pancake batter.Lacking consistency, the students made many mistakes.People should develop consistency in their work habits.Though she prided herself on her consistency, others thought she was inconsistent.
Consistency is a noun. Consist is the verb from.
Placticity is the consistency.
The consistency of any sort of liquid. i.e. the consistency of soup or gravy or sauces.
Consistency Theory was created in 1200.
In the one voice one look consistency, this consistency is applied only to marketing and improving the brand's image. Strategic consistency is the focus on applying that voice to all aspects of the company's communications, including internal messaging.
Consistency of tense is to not change tense in the middle of a sentence or paragraph.
The word consistency is a noun. The plural form is consistencies.