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Mg# indictes the level of evolution of a volcanic rock (e.g. Basalt) since leaving its birth place (mantle). Mg# of a primitive basalt which originates in the mantle is ~70. As the basalt undergoes evolution while passing through crust (interacting with and assimilating other rock types in the crust) the Mg# goes down from primitive number 70. For example: To get an idea of Mg#s of basalts see the below given Mg#s

Least evolved basalt (60 - 69)

Moderately evolved basalt (50 - 59)

Evolved basalt (40 - 49)

Highly evolved basalt (< 40)

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Q: What does magnesium number tell us about the source of volcanic melts?
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