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In 2001, the NEAR-Shoemaker space probe became the first unmanned probe to soft-land on an asteroid, although it was primarily designed to do its studies from orbit.

Launched in 1996, it orbited the near-Earth asteroid 433 Eros for about a year, and in February 2001 used the last of its propellant to soft-land on the asteroid. Since it was undamaged, it continued to perform surface studies until it was shut down, about two weeks later.

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Q: What feat did the spacecraft NEAR Shoemaker accomplish?
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How do you get 20 cloud touches without fever mode?

Here's the deal! I just accomplished the feat with room to spare. U can't intentionally lose fever mode until the end of the islands, if u break up your jumps u will slow down too much and have no chance, u need to play a normal game, and make sure u always get 2 cloud touches at the beginning of the islands assuming u r not already in fever mode. After 2 great slides, then still go for a good slide, and hope u r slightly off. If u crash into an upslope to avoid fever, u will lose too much momentum and not recover. But if u r lucky, one of your slides will be slightly off, which will allow 2 more great slides with no fever. However if u r in fever towards the end of an island, it is worth sabotaging your fever, because u will regain all momentum on the downramp! U have to keep momentum, ruin fevers at the end of islands which u will have to get a feeling for, and then u need luck to get a slightly off jump, because no one is good enough to intentionally barely miss. Of u follow these rules, u should get it in about 25-50 tries! Good lick

What are three evidences of sea-floor spreading?

The three are different. The first is Molten Material,which is indeed erupting along mid-ocean ridges. The scientists dived to the ocean floor in Alvin, a small sumbarine. Alvin was built to withstand the crushing pressures four kilometers down in the ocean. A ridge's central valley, Alvin's crew found strange rocks shaped like pillows. Other rocks looked like toothpaste squeezed from a tube. Such rocks form only when molten material hardens quickly under again and again along the mid-ocean ridges.The second is Magnetic Stripes, which are patterns of the ocean floor that provided more support for sea-floor spreading. Earth's magnetic poles have reversed themselves many times during Earth's history. The last reversal happened 780,000 years ago.The third and final one is Drilling Samples, which came from rock samples obtained by drilling into the ocean floor. The Glomar Challenger, a drilling ship built in 1968, gathered the samples. The Glomar Challenger sent drilling pipes through water six kilometers deep to drill holes in the ocean floor. This feat has been compared to digging a hole into the sidewalk from the top of the Empire State Building.Information from: California Earth Science Textbook, pages 152-153.Hope this helps! ☺-SmallvilleGrl

What is the lowest body temperature ever?

May '08, the lowest temperature ever reached is 10^-10 K. See related link for more information about the Nova Program. At the Low Temperature Lab at the Helsinki University of Technology on August 12, 2000, they cooled a piece of rhodium metal to 100 pK, or 100,000 nK, or 100 trillionths of a degree above absolute 0. The lowest temperature a gas of *fermions* has been cooled to is 50 nK (50,000 pK), creating the first fermionic condensate, which is another state of matter like Bose-Einstein condensate, solid, liquid, and gas. This was accomplished with sodium-40, an isotope with half-integer spin, thus making it *fermionic*, so it obeys the Pauli-Exclusion Principle, which is why it's such a feat to get the atoms cold enough for their de Broglie wavelengths to be comparable to their average separation distances from each other. You'll note the temperature is relatively high compared to the above temperatures - the reason is that the repulsive force from the atoms not wanting to be in the same ground energy level makes it more difficult for scientists to cool them. The lowest temperature a macroscopic (relatively large) object has been cooled to is 0.8 K on April 8 2007 at MIT. The object was a massive whole gram, versus above, where we're talking about hundreds or thousands of mere atoms.

What evidence of sea floor spreading?

The three are different. The first is Molten Material,which is indeed erupting along mid-ocean ridges. The scientists dived to the ocean floor in Alvin, a small sumbarine. Alvin was built to withstand the crushing pressures four kilometers down in the ocean. A ridge's central valley, Alvin's crew found strange rocks shaped like pillows. Other rocks looked like toothpaste squeezed from a tube. Such rocks form only when molten material hardens quickly under again and again along the mid-ocean ridges.The second is Magnetic Stripes, which are patterns of the ocean floor that provided more support for sea-floor spreading. Earth's magnetic poles have reversed themselves many times during Earth's history. The last reversal happened 780,000 years ago.The third and final one is Drilling Samples, which came from rock samples obtained by drilling into the ocean floor. The Glomar Challenger, a drilling ship built in 1968, gathered the samples. The Glomar Challenger sent drilling pipes through water six kilometers deep to drill holes in the ocean floor. This feat has been compared to digging a hole into the sidewalk from the top of the Empire State Building.Information from: California Earth Science Textbook, pages 152-153.Hope this helps! ☺-SmallvilleGrl

What is the percentage of different soils in India?

alluvial soils :- there ARE 24 % OF ALLUVIL SOILS IN INDIA AND IT IS FOUND IN THE MOST PART OF INDIA AND Aand ms dhoni is th biggest captian in the worlld and i like hims so much most part of india and alllindians like him very nixely and ilove him and ui love him o much . dhoni is the biggest captain of world as he is the first player as the biggest player of 21st centutary and illke hi si much. he was born on7 july 1981 in jharkhandMahendra Singh DhoniFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaMS DhoniDhoni at a promotional event in January 2013.Personal informationFull nameMahendra Singh DhoniBorn7 July 1981 (age 31)Ranchi, Bihar, IndiaNicknameMahi, MS, MSDHeight5 ft 9 in (1.75 m)Batting styleRight-hand batsmanBowling styleRight-hand mediumRoleWicket-keeper, India captainInternational informationNational side· IndiaTest debut (cap 251)2 December 2005 v Sri LankaLast Test22 March 2013 v AustraliaODI debut (cap 158)23 December 2004 v BangladeshLast ODI27 January 2013 v EnglandODI shirt no.7T20I debut (cap 2)1 December 2006 v South AfricaLast T20I28 December 2012 v PakistanDomestic team informationYearsTeam1999/00-2004/05Bihar2004/05-Jharkhand2008-presentChennai Super KingsCareer statisticsCompetitionTestODIFCT20IsMatches7721911842Runs scored4,2097,2596,371748Batting average39.7051.8537.6931.16100s/50s6/288/489/420/0Top score224[1]183*22448*Balls bowled7812108-Wickets010-Bowling average-14.00--5 wickets in innings----10 wickets in match----Best bowling-1/14--Catches/stumpings212/36206/68320/5521/8Source: ESPNCricinfo, 28 March 2013Mahendra Singh Dhoni ( pronunciation (help·info)) (born 7 July 1981), commonly known as M. S. Dhoni, is an Indian cricketer and the current captain of the Indian national cricket team and the Chennai Super Kings. He is an attacking right-handed middle-order batsman andwicket-keeper. He made his One Day International (ODI) debut in December 2004 against Bangladesh, and played his first Test a year later against Sri Lanka.Dhoni is the captain of India in all three forms of the game. His Test and ODI records are the best among all Indian captains to date. He took over the ODI captaincy from Rahul Dravid in 2007 and led the team to its first ever bilateral ODI series wins in Sri Lanka and New Zealand. Under his captaincy, India won the 2007 ICC World Twenty20, the CB Series of 2007-08, the 2010 Asia Cup and the 2011 ICC Cricket World Cup. In the final of the 2011 World Cup, he scored 91 not out of just 79 balls to take India to victory for which he was awarded the Man of the Match. After taking up the Test captaincy in 2008, he led the team to series wins in New Zealand and West Indies, and the Border-Gavaskar Trophy in 2008, 2010 and 2013. In 2009, Dhoni also led the Indian team to number one position for the first time in the ICC Test rankings. In 2013, under his captaincy, India became the first team in more than 40 years to whitewash Australia in a Test series. He has also captained the Chennai Super Kings to victory in the 2010 and 2011 seasons of Indian Premier League along with the 2010 Champions League Twenty20.Dhoni also holds the post of Vice-President of India Cements Ltd. after resigning from Air India. India Cements is the owner of the IPL team Chennai Super Kings, and Dhoni has been its captain since the first edition of IPL.[2][3]Dhoni has also been the recipient of many awards including the ICC ODI Player of the Year award in 2008 and 2009 (the first Indian player to achieve this feat), the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna award in 2007 and the Padma Shri, India's fourth highest civilian honour, in 2009. He was named as the captain of ICC World Test XI and ICC World ODI XI teams for 2009. In 2009, Dhoni topped the list of world's top 10 earning cricketers compiled by Forbes.[4] In June 2013, Forbes ranked Dhoni at 16th in the list of highest paid athletes in the world, estimating his earnings at $31.5 million.[5][6][7] The TIME magazine has added Dhoni in its "Time 100" list of 100 most influential people of 2011.[8] SportsPro has rated Dhoni as the 16th most remarkable athlete in the world.[9]Contents[hide]· 1 Early life and background· 2 Personal life· 3 Playing style· 4 Early careero 4.1 Junior cricket in Biharo 4.2 Bihar cricket teamo 4.3 Jharkhand cricket teamo 4.4 India A team· 5 ODI career· 6 Test career· 7 Captain of Indiao 7.1 Match banso 7.2 World Cup· 8 Indian Premier Leagueo 8.1 Season by season at IPL· 9 Statistics and recordso 9.1 ODI cricketo 9.2 ODI recordso 9.3 Record in international cricketo 9.4 Test cricketo 9.5 Test records· 10 Captaincy record· 11 Honorary Awards and Appreciations· 12 Endorsements· 13 Notes· 14 External linksEarly life and backgroundDhoni was born in Ranchi, Bihar (now in Jharkhand),[10] and he identifies as being a Rajput.[11] His paternal village Lvali is in the Lamgarha block of the Almora District of Uttarakhand. Dhoni's parents, moved from Uttarakhand to Ranchi where Pan Singh worked in junior management positions in MECON. Dhoni has a sister Jayanti Gupta and a brother Narendra Singh Dhoni.[12][13] Dhoni is a fan of Adam Gilchrist, and his childhood idols were cricket teammate Sachin Tendulkar, Bollywood actor Amitabh Bachchan and singer Lata Mangeshkar[14][15]Dhoni studied at DAV Jawahar Vidya Mandir, Shyamali,(now the school is known as JVM, Shyamli, Ranchi) Ranchi, Jharkhand where he initially excelled in badminton and football and was selected at district and club level in these sports. Dhoni was a goalkeeper for his football team and was sent to play cricket for a local cricket club by his football coach. Though he had not played cricket, Dhoni impressed with his wicket-keeping skills and became the regular wicketkeeper at the Commando cricket club (1995-1998). Based on his performance at club cricket, he was picked for the 1997/98 season Vinoo Mankad Trophy Under-16 Championship and he performed well.[13] Dhoni focused on cricket after his 10th standard.[16] Dhoni was a Train Ticket Examiner (TTE) at Kharagpur railway station from 2001 to 2003, under South Eastern Railway in Midnapore (W), a district in West Bengal. His colleagues remember him as a very honest, straightforward employee of the Indian Railways. But he also had a mischievous side to his personality. Once, while staying at the railway quarters, Dhoni and a couple of his friends covered themselves in white bedsheets and walked around in the complex late in the night. The night guards were fooled into believing that there were ghosts moving around in the complex. The story made big news on the next day.[17][18][19]Personal lifeSakshi Singh Rawat, Dhoni's wifeDhoni married Sakshi Singh Rawat, a native of Dehradun, Uttarakhand, on 4 July 2010. At the time of their marriage, she was studying Hotel Management and was working as a trainee at the Taj Bengal, Kolkata. After the retirement of Sakshi's father from tea gardens, their family shifted to their native place, Dehradun.The wedding stumped the media and the fans as it took place only a day after the couple got engaged.[20][21] Bollywood actress Bipasha Basu, a close friend of Dhoni, was quick to inform the media that the wedding was planned for months and was not a spur of the moment decision.[22]Playing styleDhoni is a right-handed batsman and wicket-keeper. Dhoni is among the wicket-keepers who have come through the ranks of junior and India A cricket teams to represent the national team. Parthiv Patel, Ajay Ratra and Dinesh Karthik also followed this route.Dhoni tends to play mostly from the back foot with a pronounced bottom hand grip. He has a very high bat speed through the ball which often results in the ball racing across the ground. From this initial stance his feet do not show much movement which sometimes results in chasing balls while not coming to the pitch of the ball or some deliveries catching the inside edge.Early careerJunior cricket in BiharDhoni was included in the Bihar U-19 squad for the 1998-99 season and scored 176 runs in 5 matches (7 innings) as the team finished fourth in the group of six and did not make it to the quarter-finals. Dhoni was not picked for the East Zone U-19 squad (CK Nayudu Trophy) or Rest of India squad (MA Chidambaram Trophy and Vinoo Mankad Trophy). Bihar U-19 cricket team advanced to the finals of the 1999-2000 Cooch Behar Trophy where Dhoni made 84 to help Bihar post a total of 357. Bihar's efforts were dwarfed by Punjab U-19s' 839 with Dhoni's future national squad teammate Yuvraj Singh making 358.[23] Dhoni's contribution in the tournament included 488 runs (9 matches, 12 innings), 5 fifties, 17 catches and 7 stumpings.[24] Dhoni made it to the East Zone U-19 squad for the CK Nayudu trophy but scored only 97 runs in four matches as East Zone lost all four matches and finished last in the tournament.Bihar cricket teamDhoni made his Ranji Trophy debut for Bihar in the 1999-2000 season as an eighteen-year-old. He made a half century in his debut match scoring 68* in the second innings against Assam cricket team.[25] Dhoni finished the season with 283 runs in 5 matches. Dhoni scored his maiden first-class century while playing for Bihar against Bengal in the 2000/01 season in a losing cause.[26] Apart from the century, his performance in the 2000/01[27] did not include another score over fifty and in 2001/02 season he scored just five fifty in each season in four Ranji matches.[28]Jharkhand cricket teamDhoni's performance in the 2002-03 season included three half-centuries in the Ranji Trophy and a couple of half-centuries in the Deodhar Trophy as he started gaining recognition for his lower-order contribution as well as hard-hitting batting style. In the 2003-04 season, Dhoni scored a century (128*) against Assam in the first match of the Ranji ODI tournament. He was part of the East Zone squad that won the Deodhar Trophy that year and contributed with 244 runs in 4 matches. In the Duleep Trophy finals, Dhoni was picked over international cricketer Deep Dasgupta to represent East Zone.[29] He scored a fighting half-century in the second innings in a losing cause.[30]Dhoni's talent was discovered via the BCCI's small-town talent-spotting initiative TRDW. Dhoni was discovered by TRDO PC Podar, captain of Bengal in the 1960s, when he saw Dhoni play forJharkhand at a match in Jamshedpur in 2003, and sent a report to the National Cricket Academy.[31]India A teamHe was recognised for his efforts in the 2003-04 season, especially in the ODI format and was picked for the India A squad for a tour of Zimbabwe and Kenya.[32] Against the Zimbabwe XI inHarare Sports Club, Dhoni had his best wicket-keeping effort with 7 catches and 4 stumpings in the match.[33] In the tri-nation tournament involving Kenya, India A and Pakistan A, Dhoni helped India A chase down their target of 223 against Pakistan A with a half-century.[34] Continuing his good performance, he scored back to back centuries - 120[35] and 119*[36] - against the same team. Dhoni scored 362 runs in 6 innings at an average of 72.40 and his performance in the series received attention from the then Indian captain - Sourav Ganguly[37] and Ravi Shastri amongst others. However, the India A team coach Sandeep Patil recommended Dinesh Karthik for a place in the Indian squad as wicket-keeper/batsman.[38]ODI careerODI Career of Dhoni. Brown line indicates 10 match average while the orange line indicates career average progression.The Indian ODI team in the early 2000s saw Rahul Dravid as the wicket-keeper to ensure that the wicket-keeper spot didn't lack in batting talent.[37] The team also saw the entry of wicket-keeper/batsmen from the junior ranks with talents like Parthiv Patel and Dinesh Karthik (both India U-19 captains) named in the Test squads.[37] With Dhoni making a mark in the India A squad, he was picked in the ODI squad for the Bangladesh tour in 2004/05.[39] Dhoni did not have a great start to his ODI career, getting run out for a duck on debut.[40] In spite of an average series againstBangladesh, Dhoni was picked for the Pakistan ODI series.[41] In the second match of the series, Dhoni, in his fifth one-day international, scored 148 in Vishakapatnam off only 123 deliveries. Dhoni's 148 surpassed the earlier record for the highest score by an Indian wicket-keeper,[42] a record that he would re-write before the end of the year.Dhoni had few batting opportunities in the first two games of the Sri Lankan bilateral ODI series (October-November 2005) and was promoted to No. 3 in the third ODI at Sawai Mansingh Stadium (Jaipur). Sri Lanka had set India a target of 299 after a Kumar Sangakkara century and, in reply, India lost Tendulkar early. Dhoni was promoted to accelerate the scoring and ended the game with an unbeaten 183 off 145 balls, winning the game for India.[43] The innings was described in Wisden Almanack (2006) as 'Uninhibited, yet anything but crude'.[44] The innings set variousrecords including the highest individual score in ODI cricket in the second innings,[45] a record that still stands. Dhoni ended the series with the highest run aggregate (346)[46] and was awarded the Man of the Series award for his efforts. In December 2005, Dhoni was rewarded a B-grade contract by the BCCI.[47]Dhoni bowling in the nets. He rarely bowls at international level.India scored 328 in 50 overs with Dhoni contributing 68 in their first match of 2006 against Pakistan. However, the team finished poorly scoring just 43 runs in the last eight overs and lost the match due to Duckworth-Lewis method.[48] In the third match of the series, Dhoni came in with India in a precarious situation and scored 72 runs off just 46 balls that included 13 boundaries to help India take a 2-1 lead in the series.[49][50] The final match of the series had a repeat performance as Dhoni scored 77 runs off 56 balls to enable India win the series 4-1.[51] Due to his consistent ODI performances, Dhoni overtook Ricky Pontingas number one in the ICC ODI Rankings for batsmen on 20 April 2006.[52] His reign lasted just a week as Adam Gilchrist's performance against Bangladeshmoved him to the top spot.[53]Two cancelled series in Sri Lanka, one due to the withdrawal of South Africa from the Unitech Cup due to security concerns[54] and the replacement three-match ODI bilateral series against Sri Lanka washed due to rain,[55] was India's prelude to another disappointing tournament - DLF Cup 2006-07. Dhoni scored 43 runs as the team lost twice in three games and did not qualify for the finals. India's lack of preparation showed in the 2006 ICC Champions Trophy as they lost toWest Indies and Australia, though Dhoni scored a half-century against West Indies. The story of the ODI series in South Africa was the same for both Dhoni and India as Dhoni scored 139 runs in 4 matches and India lost the series 4-0. From the start of the West Indies ODI series, Dhoni had played 16 matches, hit just two fifties and averaged 25.93. Dhoni received criticism on his wicket-keeping technique from former wicket-keeper Syed Kirmani.[56]Preparations for the 2007 Cricket World Cup improved as India recorded identical 3-1 victories over West Indies and Sri Lanka and Dhoni had averages in excess of 100 in both these series. However, India unexpectedly crashed out the World Cup after losses to Bangladesh and Sri Lanka in the group stage. Dhoni was out for a duck in both these matches and scored just 29 runs in the tournament. After the loss to Bangladesh in 2007 Cricket World Cup, the house that Dhoni was constructing in his home-town Ranchi was vandalised and damaged by political activists of JMM.[57] The local police arranged for security for his family as India exited the World Cup in the first round.[58]Dhoni put his disappointing performances in the World Cup behind him by scoring 91* against Bangladesh after India were left in a tight spot earlier in the run-chase. Dhoni was declared the Man of the Match for his performance, his fourth in ODI cricket. He was also later adjudged the Man of the Series after the third game of the series was washed away. Dhoni had a good Afro-Asia Cup, scoring 174 runs in 3 matches at an average of 87.00, with a blitzkrieg 139 not out of 97 balls, a Man of the Match innings, in the third ODI.Dhoni was named vice-captain of the ODI team for the series against South Africa in Ireland and the subsequent India-England seven-match ODI series.[59]Dhoni, who received a 'B' grade contract in December 2005, was awarded an 'A' grade contract in June 2007. And also he was elected as captain of the Indian squad for the World Twenty20 in September 2007. On 2 September 2007, Dhoni equaled his idol Adam Gilchrist's international record for the most dismissals in an innings in ODI by catching five English players and stumping one.[60] He led India to the ICC World Twenty 20 trophy in South Africa with a victory over arch-rivals Pakistan in an intensely fought final on 24 September 2007, and became the second Indian captain to have won a World Cup in any form of cricket, after Kapil Dev. During the series between India and Australia, Dhoni hit an aggressive 124 runs in just 107 balls, in the second ODI, and a measured knock of 71 runs in 95 balls, along with Yuvraj Singh, saw India home by 6 wickets, in the third ODI. Dhoni took his first wicket in international cricket on 30 September 2009. He bowled Travis Dowlin of the West Indies during a match of the 2009 Champions Trophy.Dhoni batting against South Africa during the group stage match of 2013 ICC Champions Trophy.Dhoni topped the ICC ODI Batsman rankings for several months continuously in 2009. Michael Hussey from Australia replaced him for the top spot in the beginning of 2010.[61]Dhoni had an excellent year in ODIs in 2009 scoring 1198 runs in just 24 innings at an astonishing average of 70.43. Dhoni was also the joint top-scorer in ODIs in 2009 along with Ricky Ponting, but the latter having played in 30 innings.On 12 February 2012, Dhoni made an unbeaten 44 to guide India to their first win over Australia at Adelaide. In the final over, he hit a monstrous six which traveled 112 metres off the bowling of Clint McKay. During the post-match presentation, he described this six as more important than the one he hit during the ICC World Cup final in 2011.[62]Test careerTest Career of Dhoni. Each bar indicates a single innings and the red line indicates the progression in his career batting average. Analternative image showing a 10 innings moving average is available.Following his good one-day form against Sri Lanka, Dhoni replaced Dinesh Karthik in December 2005 as the Indian Test wicket-keeper.[63]Dhoni scored 30 runs in his debut match that was marred by rain. Dhoni came to the crease when the team was struggling at 109/5 and as wickets kept falling around him, he played an aggressive innings and was the last man dismissed.[64] Dhoni made his maiden half-century in the second Test and his quick scoring rate (half century came off 51 balls) aided India to set a target of 436 and the Sri Lankans were bowled out for 247.[65]India toured Pakistan in January-February 2006 and Dhoni scored his maiden century in the second Test at Faisalabad. India were left in a tight spot as Dhoni was joined by Irfan Pathan with the team still 107 away from avoiding follow-on. Dhoni played his typical aggressive innings as he brought up his maiden Test hundred in just 93 balls after scoring the first fifty in just 34 deliveries.[66]Dhoni at fielding practice.Dhoni followed the century with some prosaic batting performances over the next three matches, one against Pakistan that India lost and two against England that had India holding a 1-0 lead. Dhoni was the top scorer in India's first innings in the third Test atWankhede Stadium as his 64 aided India post a respectable 279 in reply to England's 400. However Dhoni and the Indian fielders dropped catches and missed many dismissal chances including a key stumping opportunity of Andrew Flintoff (14).[67]Dhoni failed to collect the Harbhajan Singh delivery cleanly as Flintoff went on to make 36 more runs as England set a target of 313 for the home team, a target that India were never in the reckoning. A batting collapse saw the team being dismissed for 100 and Dhoni scored just 5 runs and faced criticism for his wicket-keeping lapses as well as his shot selections.On the West Indies tour in 2006, Dhoni scored a quick and aggressive 69 in the first Test at Antigua. The rest of the series was unremarkable for Dhoni as he scored 99 runs in the remaining 6 innings but his wicket-keeping skills improved and he finished the series with 13 catches and 4 stumpings. In the Test series in South Africa later that year, Dhoni's scores of 34 and 47 were not sufficient to save the second Test against the Proteas as India lost the series 2-1, squandering the chance to build on their first ever Test victory in South Africa (achieved in the first Test match). Dhoni's bruised hands ruled him out of the third Test match.[68]On the fourth day of the first Test match at Antigua Recreation Ground, St John's, Antigua during India's tour of West Indies, 2006, Dhoni's flick off Dave Mohammed to the midwicket region was caught by Daren Ganga. As the batsman started to walk back, captain Dravid declared the innings when confusion started as the umpires were not certain if the fielder stepped on the ropes and Dhoni stayed for the umpire's verdict. While the replays were inconclusive, the captain of the West Indies side, Brian Lara, wanted Dhoni to walk off based on the fielder's assertion of the catch. The impasse continued for more than 15 minutes and Lara's temper was on display with finger wagging against the umpires and snatching the ball from umpire Asad Rauf. Ultimately, Dhoni walked off and Dravid's declaration was effected but the game was delayed, and Lara's action was criticised by the commentators and former players. Lara was summoned by the match referee to give an explanation of his actions but he was not fined.[69]Dhoni scored two centuries in Sri Lanka's tour of India in 2009, a series of three matches in which he led India to a 2-0 victory. With this feat, India soared up to the number one position in Test cricket for the first time in history. India scored 726-9 (decl) in the third match of this series, which is their highest Test total ever.[70]Captain of IndiaDhoni behind StumpsDhoni was named the captain of Indian squad for the inaugural ICC World Twenty20 held in South Africa in September 2007.[71] India were crowned champions as Dhoni led the team to victory against Pakistan in a thrilling contest.[72] He, then, went on to become the ODI captain of the Indian team for the seven-match ODI series against Australia in September 2007.[73] He made his debut as full-time Test captain of India during the fourth and final Test against Australia at Nagpur in November 2008 replacing Anil Kumble who was injured in the third test and who then announced his retirement. Dhoni was vice-captain in this series up to that point.[74] India eventually won that Test thus clinching the series 2-0 and retained the Border-Gavaskar Trophy.[75] Dhoni had previously captained India on a stand-in basis against South Africa and Australia in 2008 and 2009 respectively.It was under his captaincy that India climbed to No. 1 in the ICC Test Rankings in December 2009. After that he managed to lead India in a series-leveling world championship of Tests against the South Africans in February 2010. India also managed to draw the Test series 1-1 in South Africa later that year.After winning the 2011 ICC Cricket World Cup final against Sri Lanka on 2 April 2011 with his match winning knock of unbeaten 91, Tendulkar heaped praises on Dhoni, claiming him to be the best captain he has played under. Tendulkar mentioned that it was Dhoni's calm influence that was rubbing off on all his team-mates and described Dhoni's handling of pressure was incredible.Only nine players have captained ten or more Tests playing as a wicket-keeper. Dhoni leads the table with 33 Tests as captain, 15 ahead of Gerry Alexander in second place.[76]In March 2013, Dhoni became the most successful Indian Test captain when he eclipsed Sourav Ganguly's record of 21 victories from 49 Tests.[77] Ganguly also said in an interview to a news channel that Dhoni is the all-time greatest captain of India and he has a great record to support this credential.Match bansDue to slow-over rate, Dhoni being the captain of Indian cricket team has seldom faced with a restrictions to play in the matches. In December 2009, he was suspended for two ODI matches against Sri Lanka when ICC match referee Jeff Crowe imposed the ban as India was three over beyond the specified duration. Hence Virender Sehwag was named the skipper for the two matches in Cuttack and Kolkata.[78] Further, in January 2012 he was banned for the fourth Test match against Australia in Adelaide. Dhoni was two over short during the third Test in Perth.[79]Consequently, Sehwag captained the team in the Adelaide test and Wriddhiman Saha kept the wickets. In the CB Series in February, Dhoni again faced a one match ban for slow-over rate against Australia.World CupUnder Dhoni's captaincy, India won the 2011 World Cup. In the final against Sri Lanka, chasing 275, Dhoni promoted himself up the batting order, coming before Yuvraj Singh. When he came to bat India needed more than six runs per over with three top order batsmen already dismissed. He started building a good partnership with Gautam Gambhir. Due to good strokeplay and active running between wickets, they kept up with the required run rate. Dhoni was on 60 off 60 balls, but later accelerated with a greater flow of boundaries, ending with 91 not out off 79 balls. Befitting the occasion, he finished the match of in style with a huge six over long-on off bowler Nuwan Kulasekara and won Man of the Match. Later in the post match presentation, he admitted that he came up the order so as to counter the Muralitharan spin threat as he was very familiar with Murali's bowling, who was his team-mate in the Indian Premier League (IPL) franchise Chennai Super Kings. He had come after the dismissal of Virat Kohli, also a right-handed batsman. By partnering the left-handed Gambhir, he ensured a right-left combination at the crease that makes it difficult for bowlers to settle into a rhythm.The bat used by Dhoni in the final match was sold for 72 Lac. The money goes to Sakshi Rawat Foundation, operated by Dhoni's wife Sakshi Rawat to help orphan children.[80]Indian Premier LeagueDhoni was contracted by the Chennai Super Kings for 1.5 Million USD. This made him the most expensive player in the IPL for the first season auctions.[81] Dhoni is the present captain of theChennai Super Kings Team. Under his captaincy, Chennai Super Kings have won two Indian Premier League titles and the 2010 Champions League Twenty20.Season by season at IPLIPL Batting Statistics of Suresh RainaYearTeamInnsRunsHSAveSR100502008Chennai Super Kings[82][83][84][85][86]144146541.40133.540220091333258*41.50127.200220101128766*31.88136.660220111339270*43.55158.700220121735751*29.75128.410120131646167*41.90162.89042008-2013 Total84224370*38.01141.15013Statistics and recordsODI cricketODI career records by opposition#OpponentMatchesRunsAverageHigh Score100s50sCatchesStumping1Africa XI[87]317487.00139*10332Australia2984040.001241428103Bangladesh1333867.60101*111384Bermuda12929.002900105England32109452.0996093186Hong Kong1109-109*10137Ireland13434.003400308Netherlands119-19*00109New Zealand1130951.5084*027210Pakistan29120860.401482925611Scotland1-----2-12South Africa1938625.73107027113Sri Lanka55204160.02183*216581514West Indies1952147.36950316515Zimbabwe2123123.0067*0201Total217722552.35183*84820668ODI centuries:ODI centuries#RunsMatchAgainstStadiumCity/CountryYear11485PakistanACA-VDCA StadiumVishakapatnam, India20052183*22Sri LankaSawai Mansingh StadiumJaipur, India20053139*74Africa XI[87]MA Chidambaram StadiumChennai, India20074109*109Hong KongNational StadiumKarachi, Pakistan20085124143AustraliaVCA StadiumNagpur, India20096107152Sri LankaVCA StadiumNagpur, India20097101*156BangladeshSher-e-Bangla Cricket StadiumDhaka, Bangladesh20108113*212PakistanMA Chidambaram StadiumChennai, India2012ODI records· On 31 October 2005 Dhoni scored 183* runs of just 145 balls against Sri Lanka in Sawai Mansingh Stadium, Jaipur, which is the highest score made by any batsman in the second innings which was latter bettered by Australian player Shane Watson who scored 185* of 96 balls against Bangladesh at Dhaka on 11 April 2011.[45]· The innings featured 10 Sixes - the most by an Indian in an innings, and the fifth highest in ODIs.[88]· He broke Adam Gilchrist's record of 172 for the highest score made by a wicket keeper.· The innings set the record for the most number of runs scored in boundaries (120 - 15×4; 10×6) breaking the record held by Saeed Anwar. However this was later broken by Herschelle Gibbs (126 runs in boundaries - 21×4; 7×6) against Australia during his knock of 175.· The score of 183* equalled Ganguly's innings during the 1999 Cricket World Cup as the highest individual score against Sri Lanka.· Among Indian batsmen who have played more than 50 matches, Dhoni has the highest average.[89] Dhoni's batting average is also the highest amongst wicketkeepers in ODIs.· In June 2007, Dhoni(139*) and Mahela Jayawardene(107)[87] set a new world record for the sixth wicket partnership of 218 runs against Africa XI during the Afro-Asia Cup.[90]· Dhoni passed Shaun Pollock's record for the highest individual score by a number seven batsman in one-day internationals during his unbeaten innings of 139.[91] Incidentally, Pollock record stood for just three days as his score of 130 came in the first match of the 2007 Afro-Asia Cup while Dhoni's century came in the third and final match of the series.· Dhoni also holds the records of the most dismissals in an innings by an Indian wicketkeeper and joint International (with Adam Gilchrist) with 6 dismissals (5 catches and one stumping) against England at Headlingly 2 September 2007.· Dhoni holds the Indian record of most dismissals in ODIs. He went past Nayan Mongia's 154 for India on 14 November 2008 when he caught Ian Bell off Zaheer Khan at Madhavrao Scindia Cricket Ground, Rajkot. However including 3 ODIs against Africa XI, his 155th dismissal was TM Dilshan caught off Munaf Patel at R. Premadasa Stadium, Colombo on 24 August 2008.· Dhoni, when he was on four during his innings of 23 against Sri Lanka at R.Premadasa Stadium, Colombo on Saturday, completed 4,000 runs in ODIs. Having already effected 165 dismissals (125 catches + 40 stumpings), Dhoni became the sixth wicketkeeper after Adam Gilchrist, Andy Flower, Alec Stewart, Mark Boucher and Kumar Sangakkara to complete the "double" of 4,000 runs and 100 dismissals in the history of ODIs. Dhoni's feat of completing the "double" of 4,000 runs and 100 dismissals in only 114 innings is a world record. He is the youngest wicket-keeper batsman to do so (27 years and 208 days).· Dhoni is the only captain in the ODI history to score a century while batting at No.7.He did this against Pakistan on 30th December2012.Dhoni's results in international matchesMatchesWonLostDrawnTiedNo resultTest[92][93]732918260-ODI[94]20811678-212T20I[95]311415-11Record in international cricketMan of the Series Awards:S NoSeries (Opponents)SeasonSeries Performance1Sri Lanka in India ODI Series2005/06346 Runs (7 Matches & 5 Innings, 1×100, 1×50); 6 Catches & 3 Stumpings2India in Bangladesh ODI Series2007127 Runs (2 Matches & 2 Innings, 1×50); 1 Catches & 2 Stumpings[96]3India in Sri Lanka ODI Series2008193 Runs (5 Matches & 5 Innings, 2×50); 3 Catches & 1 Stumping4India in West Indies ODI Series2009182 Runs (4 Matches & 3 Innings with an average of 91); 4 Catches & 1 Stumping5India in England ODI Series2011236 Runs (5 Matches & 5 Innings with an average of 78.66, 3×50)6England in India ODI Series2011212 Runs (5 Matches & 4 Innings with out been dismissed even once in the series, 2×50)Man of the Match Awards:S NoOpponentVenueSeasonMatch Performance1PakistanVishakapatnam2004/05148 (123b, 15×4, 4×6); 2 Catches2Sri LankaJaipur2005/06183* (145b, 15×4, 10×6); 1 Catch3PakistanLahore2005/0672 (46b, 12×4); 3 Catches4BangladeshMirpur200791* (106b, 7×4); 1 Stumping5Africa XI[87]Chennai2007139* (97b, 15×4, 5×6); 3 Stumpings6AustraliaChandigarh200750* ( 35b, 5×4 1×6); 2 Stumpings7PakistanGuwahati200763, 1 Stumping8Sri LankaKarachi200867, 2 Catches9Sri LankaColombo (RPS)200876, 2 Catches10New ZealandMcLean Park, Napier200984*, 1 Catch & 1 Stumping11West IndiesBeausejour Stadium, St. Lucia200946*, 2 Catches & 1 Stumping12AustraliaVidarbha Cricket Association Stadium, Nagpur2009124, 1 Catches, 1 Stumping & 1 Runout13BangladeshMirpur2010101* (107b, 9×4)14Sri LankaWankhede Stadium201191*15EnglandRajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium201187*, 1 Catch & 1 Stumping16PakistanChennai2012113*17PakistanFeroz Shah Kotla201336, 1 Catch & 1 StumpingTest cricketTest performance:[97]Test career records by opposition#OpponentsMatchesRunsAverageHigh Score100s50sCatchesStumpings1Australia1792236.882241543142Bangladesh319396.5089021233England1680832.3299084644New Zealand748260.2598052155Pakistan532364.6014812916South Africa1056037.33132*122417Sri Lanka949149.10110222118West Indies1043026.8814412367Total77420939.7122462821236Test centuries:Test centuries#RunsMatchAgainstStadiumCity/CountryYear11485PakistanIqbal StadiumFaisalabad, Pakistan2006211038Sri LankaSardar Patel StadiumAhmedabad, India20093100*40Sri Lanka

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