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The Earth's crust is divided into two types: continental crust and oceanic crust. The oceanic crust is made of basalt while the continental crust is comprised mainly of granite. Basalts higher density compared to granite accounts for why the oceans are topographically lower than the continents.

In terms of chemical composition, basalts vary in composition but generally have a chemical composition in the range, 45-55 wt% SiO2, 2-6 wt% total alkalis, 0.5-2.0 wt% TiO2, 5-14 wt% FeO and 14 wt% or more Al2O3. Contents of CaO are commonly near 10 wt%, those of MgO commonly in the range 5 to 12 wt%. On the other hand, granite also has a variable composition but on average has a composition of 72.04% SiO2, 14.42% Al2O3, 4.12% K2O, 3.69% Na2O, 1.82% CaO, 1.68% FeO. 1.22% Fe2O3, 0.71% MgO and 0.30% TiO2, 0.12% P2O5, 0.05% MnO.

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Q: What is the chemical composition of the crust?
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