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Cards in this guide (34)
Definition of Personality:

Suite of correlated behavioural tendencies of individuals that are relatively stable across situations and time

Eysenck (1976) - extroverts are more prone to ______ and children are more likely to be exposed to step-parents


Narcissism was introduced by ______ (1898)


Narcissism was elaborated by _____ (1914/1957)


kernberg (1975) and Kohut (1977) describe narcissism as...

Vulnerable, inadequate self, resulting from unfulfilled childhood needs

DSM-III (1980) essential features include...

Grandiose sense of self importance, excessive need for admiration, lack of empathy.

DSM definition of subclinical narcissism facilitated development of scales including the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI; Raskin & Terry, 1988) to assess 'grandiose' narcissism:

Entitlement, superiority, self-sufficiency, vanity, authority, exploitativeness, exhibitionism

Narcissistic attributes:

Have a grandiose self-image , crave attention and admiration (addicted to self-esteem), brag, show off, and dominate conversations, entertain illusions of their own superiority, have contempt for others affiliate with high-status others, fantasise about personal success, believe they are special and deserve special treatment

High agency:

Dominance, power, achievement, success, independence

Low agency:

Affiliation, intimacy, warmth, caring

Paulhus (1998) - others perception of narcissists:

Liked initially by partner due to charisma but soon wears off, later evaluated as arrogant, bragging and hostile

Narcissists behaviours are not consistent with _______ and successful group living, there are not ideal friend/partner material.

Social harmony

Watson et al. (1984) - Narcissism and global empathy are _______ correlated


Hepper, Hart and Sedikides (2014) - High narcissists were consistently _____ empathetic than low narcissists (regardless of condition) towards Chris' recent breakup


Hepper, Hart and Sedikides (2014) - Narcissists low empathy does NOT reflect


Hepper, Hart and Sedikides (2014), Batson et al. (1991) and davis et al. (1996) - empathy can be _____ (at least short-term) by instructing people to take the other persons perspective


Maladaptive narcissists:

Narcissists who not adjusting adequately or appropriately to the environment or situation.

Consequences of low empathy:

Increased engagement in criminal behaviour, bullying in schools and the workplace, use of non-optimal parenting styles

Selfishness: Tragedy of the commons (Campbell, Bush, Brunell, & Shelton, 2005) - forestry study

Narcissists invested more than non-narcissists, groups containing more narcissists destroyed the commons but had less to show for it, those working with them suffered the poorest harvest

Aggression: Bushman and Baumeister (1998) -

Ego- threat led to higher aggression than no ego threat evaluations for all pp's, positive correlations between narcissism and aggression

Holtzman and Strube (2010) - Narcissism associated with obvserver rated ________ in meta-analysis (1000+ pp's)

Physical attractiveness

Jonason et al. (2009) - male narcissists successful at pursuing ST mating tactics can be explained by high levels of

Extraversion and positive self perception

Foster, Shrira and Campbell (2006) - greater narcissists associated with ______ restricted socio-sexuality


Sex with narcissists - they devalue...

Communal rewards

Sex with narcissists - they put greater value on...

Physical pleasure

Rhodewalt and Eddings (2002) - For low narcissists, being chosen led to recall of romantic histories that were _____ successful at time 1. Being rejected led to recall of romantic histories that were _____ successful than at time 1

More; less

Rhodewalt and Eddings (2002) - For high narcissists, being chosen led to recall of romantic histories that were _____ successful at time 1. Being rejected led to recall of romantic histories that were _____ successful than at time 1

Less; more

Campbell (2005): The Chocolate Cake hypothesis -

At first, narcissist are very appealing but over time however, partner turns controlling and not concerned with interests

Narcissists, long term mating:

Likely to engage in marital violence and sexual coercion, trophy wife contributes to popularity, game players, lacking in commitment, more susceptible to infidelity, more vengeful, respond to relationship conflict with more negative behaviour and decreased commitment

Narcissists become more committed partners when they experience

Communal activation


Lack of commitment, infidelity and unrestricted socio-sexuality could promote transmission and spread STI's

Consequences of narcissists maladaptive behaviour - NARCISSIST

Lack of communication and interest in forming intimate relationships = vulnerable at times of stress

Impact of lack of close friends on narcissists

Narcissists are psychologically healthy and is negatively correlated with daily sadness, anxiety, loneliness and depression and positively related to subjective wellbeing

Narcissism is linked with:

Troubled relationships, hostility, aggression, competitive orientation, more crime and violence, societal repercussions

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