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Hantaro Nagaoka was born in Nagasaki, Japan on August 15, 1865. He went to Tokyo University and got his Bachelors degree went to later colleges such as universities of Berlin, Munich, and Vienna. Then he attended the First International Congress of Physicists in Paris in 1990.

After that he started getting interested in the Atomic Theory. His interest in the atom theory led to Nagaoka wanted to disprove J.J. Thompson's theory wrong. Thompson's theory stated that opposite charges are impenetrable. He proposed a different model in which a positively charged center is surrounded by multiple revolving electrons,

of Saturn and its rings. Nagaoka used Saturn's rings as a metaphor for the position and movement of electrons in the atom. In this model electrons are orbiting bodies around positivly charged nucleus that is the planet. This model was proposed in 1903. He called this model the "Saturnian"model.

Nagaoka later did research in spectroscopy and other fields. In 1909, he published a paper on the inductance of solenoids. In March 1924, he described studies in which he claimed to have successfully formed a milligram of gold and some platinum from Mercury. Nagaoka was granted the Order of Culture by the Japanese government in 1937. He also got rewarded for his scientific work by the Nagaoka Crater, which is a crater on the moon that is named after him.

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