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From April 1933 onwards, German Jews were turned into second class citizens. They applied to people of Jewish origin as well as Jews in the religious sense. One of the first measures was a boycott of Jewish-owned businesses. Then there followed a hailstorm of anti-Jewish decrees (429 in all in Germany from 1933-1943). Here are some of the main decrees:

  1. A ban on employing Jews in the public sector and the dismissal of most Jews already in the public sector. (In Germany this included a huge range of occupations). (April 1933)
  2. Jewish businesses were forbidden to adverstise except in newspapers specifically for Jews.
  3. Jewish physicians (doctors) were not allowed to treat non-Jewish patients in publicly funded insurance schemes. Later the ban was extended to all treatment. (April 1933)
  4. Jews banned from the media and from working in theatres or acting on the stage or in films. (April 1933) [The Nazis were particularly preoccupied with the matter of Jews in the media].
  5. All female Jewish students expelled from univesities and colleges, and most male Jews as well. (April 1933)
  6. Jewish lawyers restricted. (May 1933)
  7. Sexual intercourse (presumed as well as actual) between Jews and others was made a very serious crime. (1935)
  8. In 1935 two 'classes' of citizenship were established - Germans and German Jews. (The latter had no protection abroad and weren't in any real sense citizens any more). From 1938 onwards the passports of German Jews were stamped with a huge red letter J).
  9. Jews who did not have obviously Jewish names were allocated additional names by the government.
  10. Very high (and frequently increased) charges for permission to leave Germany.
  11. Jews had to pay income tax at the top rate regardless of actual income.
  12. Remaining Jews expelled from university (1938).
  13. After the 'Night of the Broken Glass' (9-10 November 1938) the Jews had to pay a huge collective fine.
  14. Early 1939. Jews banned from central areas of Berlin and some other cities. Later in 1939, Jews were ordered to move to designated Jewish apartment blocks. These had a large J and the star of David above all entrances. Jews were even forbidden to own a radio or a pet! Jews were not allowed to use public transport. When food rationing was introduced, Jews' ration books were stamped with a large J and entitled the holder to less food than an ordinary ration book.
  15. If Jews were attacked in public places the police did nothing to protect them.
  16. Jews were forbidden to own businesses (with effect from January 1939)
  • In 1935 Jewish children weren't allowed to go to the same schools as other children.
  • Jewish people had to wear the star of david on their clothes so that others could identify them (1941 onwards).
  • Also they weren't allowed to go to the same places as other people, for example they couldn't go to some beaches or use the same benches in parks and later from the city centre of some cities, including Berlin.
  • In 1938 they were banned from going to theatres and cinemas, and from 1939 were banned from most restaurants and cafés. (There were a few cafés that were designated as Jewish).

The aim of these measures (up to the start of World War 2) was to make life so intolerable that the Jewish population left Germany.

The treatment of Jews with Czech or Polish citizenship in Germanywas even worse. In 1943 there was a final decree denying Jews access to the courts, stating that they had no rights and were to be dealt with as the police saw fit.

All these measures - certainly up to September 1939 - were publicly announced and reported in the media, both in Germany and abroad.

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Q: What anti-Jewish measures did the Nazi government take from 1933 to 1939?
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