Anne Hutchinson

Anne Hutchinson was a Puritan spiritual adviser and one of the central figures in the Antinomian Controversy. Her belief that grace was allotted to all that accepted Jesus as their savior was in conflict with the prevailing Puritan theology, and caused a schism in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Eventually, she and her supporters were banished from the colony and excommunicated from the church.

1,472 Questions
Anne Hutchinson

How were Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williams Similar?

They both did what they each wanted to do. And they did not want the government to be close to the church. They also wanted the people to listen to them self.

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Anne Hutchinson

Why was Anne Hutchinson forced to leave Massachusetts?

Because she denounced many of the local pastors as not being truly appointed by God and was using her home to hold her own religious meetings.

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Anne Hutchinson

Did Anne Hutchinson believe that antinomianism was heresy?

I don't think so, because her followers were called antinomians, although in a derogatory way.

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Anne Hutchinson

Who is Anne Hutchinson?

Anne Hutchinson is an inspirational woman who stood up to the puritans in court to fight for the freedom to follow any religion you wish. Her wish was not granted and she was banned from the colony to live with Indians, and later on entered the Rhode Island.

She was born in England in the year 1591.

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Anne Hutchinson

What did Anne Hutchinson do?

Anne Hutchinson was one of the English dissenters who separated from the Church of England. She held religious meetings in her house and preached her interpretation of the Bible and criticized the New England ministers for deluding their congregation. She was taken to court. At this hearing she claimed to have received direct messages from God (the Antinomian heresy). She was accused of blasphemy and was banished from Massachusetts. She then moved to Roger Williams' colony of Rhode Island, which was a safe haven for all religious backgrounds such as Jews and Quakers.

The banishment happened in 1638.

Anne Hutchinson did not begin by preaching "her own interpretation", she held meetings in her home for other women, where they would review the sermons of the ministers. These meetings were actually encouraged by the clergy, as they believed women should take part in religious study and activity. However, the trouble arose when Anne began stating that the sermons of Rev. Cotton were the only ones that did not preach a Covenant of Works. In so doing, she accused the other ministers of preaching works, not grace.

This was a grave accusation for anyone to make, as the foundation of Puritan theology is the doctrine of Grace (Man can do nothing to save himself, only rely upon the grace of God, thereby making works/actions, of no use towards salvation). Puritan theology had its flaws in this, they did believe that salvation was strictly through grace, but their belief in sanctification (as taught by the Apostle Paul) held that evidence of a person's salvation might be seen through the works they did. You can see where this may cause problems, it blurred the lines between what one man saw as evidence and another as an attempt to secure salvation through works.

Anne believed that only John Cotton preached a true Covenant of Grace. Initially, he supported her, until upon closer questioning it became apparent that her beliefs were more consistent with Antinomianism. This belief has nothing to do with her later claim to receive direct revelation from God.

Antinomianism is a belief that because of salvation, one is no longer required to abide by the laws of man. Be careful here, this is not the same thing as the Calvinist/Puritan belief that Christians are freed from Old Testament law because of Christ, or that sins committed are covered by the death of the Messiah. Rather, this belief held that morally, you were no longer held by human laws. The potential for such a belief was utter chaos (i.e. murder, theft, etc. would therefore no longer be evidence of a person's depravity). It was not this BELIEF that Anne was brought to trial for, despite its potential to encourage license, but her choosing favorites among the ministers, and publishing her opinion. This was unrelated to her being a woman, such divisiveness would have been intolerable among all citizens.

Anne was tried twice, first in November in 1637 and again in March of 1638. During her first trial she was questioned as to why she made such accusations of the other ministers (she was not tried by ministers of the church, church leaders were barred from holding government positions). At this time, Winthrop's actions and questioning show him to be attempting a "teaching" moment, the original intention did not foresee Anne's banishment, but her apology for accusing other ministers of preaching a covenant of works (it was not heresy that they accused her of in her first trial, but slander). He charged her with violating the biblical commandment to "honor thy father and mother", taking a rather complex interpretation of the commandment, as she had dishonored them by dishonoring the church fathers, which required a good deal of "reading in" to the actual meaning of the law.

She was placed under house arrest, and ordered to desist in playing favorites among the ministers. She did not, however, abide by this rule, and in March 1638 was once more brought to court. In this trial, Anne once again defended her position, and after the court broke for a two week period, she remained in the home of the Rev. Cotton for counsel. From the transcripts of the trial, it becomes evident that Cotton, and even Winthrop, thought that during this period she seemed inclined to be counseled towards repentance.

However, when the courts reconvened she made a very grave mistake. Her previous trial in November had record of her defending her belief as to the other ministers. However, in her trial in March, she denied making the prior statements. Brilliantly evasive in her answers, she responded to the court's volley of questions as they grew increasingly dumbfounded by her denial. Nearing the end, she made the final error that would seal her fate. Perhaps she was fatigued (understandably so) from standing for hours on end in court, perhaps she had grown frustrated with being counseled by the ministers, we will never no her reasons, but near the end of the trial she stated that she knew the Rev. Cotton to preach a true Covenant of Grace, and the other ministers to preach a false Covenant of Works, because she had received divine revelation from God himself.

This, set the court in an uproar. Such a belief had been considered heretical by the core doctrines of the Christian church since the early days of Catholicism (this was not merely a Puritan belief, but a logical limitation imposed to maintain some semblance of continuity and consistency to a religion that already had branched off in various directions). Her final statement put an end to the trial. In transcripts, one can almost sense the irritation in the court's tone as it delivers her sentence. Anne, however, seems to have lost track of her answers, or hasn't realized the two errors she has made, for she asks the court "Wherefore am I banished" (in other words, "why?"). The court's terse reply "the court knows wherefore it is satisfied".

Pay careful attention to the progression of this second trial, and then focus at last on the court's final words. They have argued with her for weeks, this is her second trial after a slap on the wrist some four months prior, two weeks past they had thought she was well on the way to being once more a respected member of society, after all, a theological slip now and again will occur, yet she now denies having made the previously recorded statements, and demands proof that she ever made them, to add to that, she makes an utterly foolish claim to receiving divine revelation. In essence, the court has grown tired of the entire ordeal, and sees no possibility to teach or alter the belief of one who has now refused to admit she held the original belief that brought her to trial.

Interestingly enough, the reason for her banishment, as stated on the court document that convicted her, is that she lied to the court, an offense that we today would be punished for, though certainly not by banishment. Should she have been punished in such an extreme way? It is easy for our modern minds to respond in the negative, however, it is important to keep in mind two factors when commenting on historical situations: firstly, the secular society of the time had extreme punishments for offenses we would not consider worthy of little more than imprisonment (you might lose a hand for theft, a punishment that held over from the middle ages well into the 16th and very early 17th centuries), horse thieves were simply hung. Secondly, remember how unpopulated New England was during this time, Anne's initially divisiveness, subsequent lie to the court and final claim to revelation seemed to the court to be evidence of someone who might tear their little colony apart if allowed to remain.

Was it the wisest decision? Probably not, but hindsight is always 20/20, and we cannot know their personal motivations beyond what is recorded in the trial and stated on the conviction. Anne's gender was not a factor, during her first trial, of the three causes listed, only one mentioned she was a woman, and did not take issue with the meetings she held, but with her denunciation of particular ministers.

Last, was Anne correct in her beliefs? Certainly she raised important issues, Puritan theology, like much of reformed doctrine, has the potential (like any belief) to be taken to an extreme, or to be tripped up because of its complexity, certainly some Puritan ministers walked a fine line between confusing their followers with their emphasis on works as a result of sanctification, and this outward show might have been emphasized far more than the covenant of grace.

Additionally, no one can deny that Mrs. Hutchinson was a very intelligent, dare I say brilliant, woman. Yet we cannot suppose that she was any more gifted in this area than other Puritan women of the same class; education, and even the concept of a public education system, was begun by Puritans, everyone must be literate, because only through reading the Bible did they believe one could know God. Because of this, women were educated just as rigorously as men in their formative years.

To conclude: Anne Hutchinson stated that the Rev. Cotton was the only minister among them who preached a true Covenant of Grace, the others she accused (to those who came to her home) as preaching a Covenant of Works. She was tried twice, during her first trial she was told to remedy her beliefs and search her soul for truth, and given house arrest. During her second, she began penitently, and after the break returned surprisingly opposed to cooperate. She made two mistakes: she lied to the court by denying her previous statements, and compounded this with a claim to divine revelation; this made her appear hostile to the court, and they convicted her of lying (please note this: it was not a conviction of heresy that earned her banishment).

So, can we rely on their reason as recorded? To read other motivations into it would be unprofitable, yet many scholars choose to do so with no evidence; keep in mind, had they wished to convict her of heresy, stepping outside her role as a woman or dancing about on the church roof at high noon then they would have felt no guilt or need to hide such reasons, as they would have been publicly considered cause enough for banishment.

Anne Hutchinson initially had support from those who agreed that the other ministers were preaching a less appropriate doctrine, yet she lost this support not because of Winthrop's election, but because of her admission to Antinomianism (a radical belief that lost even the full support of the Rev. Cotton, who initially testified on her behalf in the first trial, and later attempted to counsel her to repentance of the doctrine during the second), and certainly the later claim to divine revelation, these were beliefs that held to extremities of doctrine that were not open to discussion in the church.

Frequently, modern scholars project their own beliefs onto Anne, there is no denying she was a fascinating, bold and brilliant woman, but she was not an early feminist (she even states in her first trial that she did not hold her meetings to teach men the gospel, as she refers to this as a sin), she did not "preach" to others, nor was she banished simply for stated beliefs contrary to the majority, or that questioned authority, her questions raised were valid, but her trial later showed that her beliefs tended towards an extreme that the vast majority found shocking.

She was banished and went to Rhode Island, she died in her mid fifties, when her family home was attacked by Native Americans they had welcomed to share a meal with.

In conclusion, we cannot presume to know the reason behind her statements in the final trial, nor can we know what, if any, other motivation the court as a whole might have had for her banishment. In studying the banishment of Anne Hutchinson, we should consider the ways in which it provides an example of political and legal workings in early America, and always remain aware of the inevitable bias our modern minds will be inclined to.
The reason Anne Hutchinson was banned from MA was because she preached, but only men were allowed to preach.

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Anne Hutchinson

Who were Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson?

Roger Williams: believed that the colony needed to tolerate different religious beliefs. Roger fled Massachusetts and found the settlement of providence later it became the colony of Rhode Island it was the first European colony to allow people to have beliefs different from his own.

Anne Hutchinson: was brought to trial she believed people should pray directly to God rather than depend upon church teachings was forced to leave Massachusetts traveled to Rhode Island and started the settlement of Portsmouth.
Williams and Hutchinson were residents of Puritan Massachusetts Bay Colony. They began to preach ideals that the Puritans didn't agree with. Williams came first and was banished. He went south and founded Rhode Island. Hutchinson came later and when she was banished, she joined Williams in Rhode Island.

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Anne Hutchinson

How did Anne Hutchinson die?

After Will died in 1642, Anne decided to remove herself from English control and moved to the Dutch colony in Pelham Bay, New York. The Dutch relations with the Siwanoy Indians of that area were very heavy-handed. In 1643, Anne and six of her children were mistaken for Dutch settlers and were killed by the Sinoway

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Anne Hutchinson

Why were puritan angry with Anne Hutchinson?

They were mad at her because she was against their beliefs that women should not be able to do anything important and have the same rights as men. Also, everything is supposed to be hard in life and nothing should be easy at all. She did not beleive that and chose to "rebel" in a way.

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Anne Hutchinson

What did Anne Hutchinson do to get kicked out of the hill?

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Anne Hutchinson

Is thomas Hutchinson related to Anne Hutchinson in any way?

Yes.

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Anne Hutchinson

Who banished anne hutchinson for challenging the authority of puritan leaders?

massachusetts
Massachusetts

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Anne Hutchinson

Why were Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson exiled from Massachusetts?

Roger William was exiled because he believed that Puritans were not pure because they were not completely separate from the church of England Anne Hutchinson was exiled because she held town meetings, voicing her opinion that a person did not need to follow a list of rules in order to get into heaven, all you need to be is a good christian. Both were exiled due to the Puritans fear that people will soon follow.

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Anne Hutchinson

What did john wheelwright agreed with anne Hutchinson's sister's-in-law?

Anne Hutchinson WAS John Wheelwright's sister-in-law. They agreed on Antinomianism.

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Anne Hutchinson

Why was anne Hutchinson forced to leave the massachusetts bay colony?

The Puritan government relied on a single belief system in the colony to keep their influence and power. Anne Hutchinson and her followers did not conform to the system and threatened that power.

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Anne Hutchinson

What did roger Williams and anne Hutchinson have a common?

Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williams were both banished from their colonies. They were forced to leave and shunned until they did so.

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Anne Hutchinson

What was Anne Hutchinson maiden name?

Marbury.

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Anne Hutchinson

What did Anne Hutchinson and Roger Wiliams have in common?

Both Rogers and Hutchinson were banished from Massachusetts Bay Colony for their religious beliefs and relocated to Rhode Island, the colony Rogers founded.

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Anne Frank
Colleges and Universities
Anne Hutchinson

What college did Anne Frank go to?

Anne Frank never went to college. She died when she was 15 and had gone into hiding at age 13.

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Anne Hutchinson

How did the Puritans win over their own religious dissent from the Church of England with their persecution of dissenters like Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williams?

she and all of her children except one were killed by a group of Indians who came calling in a friendly manner, and then suddenly turned on their unsuspecting victims.

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Anne Hutchinson

How many children did Anne Hutchinson have?

Anne had 16 children with her husband Will Hutchinson of 31 years. Their names are (in birth order): Edward, Susanna, Richard, Faith, Bridget, Francis, Elizabeth, William, Samuel, Anne,Susanna, Mary, Katherine, William, Susanna, and Zuriel.

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Anne Hutchinson

What are the names of Anne Hutchinson children?

Their names were.... (in birth order)

Edward

Susanna (died young)

Richard

Faith

Bridget

Francis (died in Indian attack)

Elizabeth (died young)

William (died young)

Samuel

Anne (died in Indian attack)

Mary (died in Indian attack)

Katherine (died in Indian attack)

William (died in Indian attack)

Susanna (held captive by Indians and later married John Cole)

Zuriel (died in Indian attack)

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Anne Hutchinson

How is Anne Hutchinson related to the puritans?

she doesnt want to be under any rules just like the puritans

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Anne Hutchinson

Who was Anne Hutchinson?

Anne Hutchinson (July 20, 1591 - August 20, 1643) was the unauthorized Puritan minister of a dissident church discussion group and a pioneer settler in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New Netherlands. Her brilliant mind and kindness won admiration and a following. Hutchinson held Bible meetings for women that soon had great appeal to men as well. Eventually, she went beyond Bible study to proclaiming boldly facets of her own theological interpretations of the ministers sermons of that day, some of which offended colony leadership. Great controversy ensued, and after an arduous trial before a jury of officials from both government and clergy, eventually she was banished from her colony.

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Anne Hutchinson

What age was Anne Hutchinson when she died?

52

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