Counter-Reformation

The Counter-Reformation was the period following the Protestant Reformation, in which the Catholic Church experienced a revival. The Counter-Reformation began with The Council of Trent in the mid-1500s, and concluded with the end of the Thirty Years' War in 1648. The movement focused on reforming some elements of the Catholic Church, including church hierarchy, political involvement, and religious orders.

619 Questions
Counter-Reformation

What country remained Catholic throughout the Reformation and counter reformation?

Portugal, Spain, and Italy remained Catholic.

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When did the Reformation and counter reformation wars end?

From Wikipedia: The European wars of religion were a series of religious wars waged in Europe from ca. 1524 to 1648, following the onset of the Protestant Reformation in Central, Western and Northern Europe.

One of the first "endings" was the Peace of Augsburg September 25, 1555.

The Peace of Westphalia was one of a series of peace treaties in 1648 that ended the Thirty Years’ War (Holy Roman Empire) and the Eighty Years’ War (Spain and the Dutch Republic. The Peace of Westphalia was really the end to the Wars of Religion, establishing Calvinist along with Lutheranism.


The religious wars in Ireland, England, and Scotland came to an end in 1651.

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Why did the Counter-Reformation begin?

This is a huge subject, I shall try to highlight some things that you can look for, but WikiAnswers is hardly the suitable place to fully answer such a question. First of all, I would suggest two books, both excellent, Diane Moczar’s book, Ten Dates Every Catholic Should Know, and James Hitchcock’s book, History of the Catholic Church From the Apostolic Age to the Third Millennium.

There is much background material covered in both, especially concerning the “coldness” which had settled into society and religion for two centuries before the protestant catastrophe.

It wasn't so much the conduct of the Church, although the conduct of individuals - from Popes to laity - certainly played a part in it. But it was a whole host of factors including several major famines, the Black Death (starting around 1350), the Avignon Papacy ( 1378 - 1417: The Great Schism when the Pope moved to Avignon, and no one knew who the real Pope was. For most of this period there were two claimants to the Papal throne, near the end of it, three. This threw Christendom into crisis with the end result of greatly weakening the Papacy and contributing to the protestant revolt a hundred years later.

That and the rise of heresies including those of the Bohemia, John Hus, the heresy of Nominalism. And then there was the rise of Renaissance thought. Originally Renaissance thought saw the good in the Greek and Latin classics and tried to bring them into the Christian present. Thomas Aquinas has done a magnificent job of this earlier in the 13th century with Aristotle, on whom he based his classic Summa Theologiae which is still used to this day in teaching theology. But later Renaissance intellectuals had a whole different mind set and through their fascination with pagan ideas, they adopted the worldly outlook of their writers.

Finally there was the rise of the business culture and the love of money - the root of all evil according to the Sacred Scriptures. The love of money and business became prevalent in this era wiping out the great Age of Faith that had just ended.).
.
Then the heresy of Conciliarism (following the Great Schism, Council of Pisa 1409 (which did not end the Schism), Council of Constance (1414-1418 which did end the Schism but claimed superiority over the Pope), Council of Basel (1431-1449), according to which a Church council was a higher authority than the pope (this Council “fell apart”) and finally the Fifth Lateran Council (1512-1517) which ended the heresy of Conciliarism and started modest Church reform. Then there was the coldness that was seeping into religious life, which was first noticed by St. Francis of Assisi. The collect from the Tridentine liturgy for the Feast of St. Francis on September 17 refers to this growing coldness:

O Lord Jesus Christ, Who, when the world was growing cold, didst renew the sacred marks of Thy passion in the flesh of the most blessed Francis, to inflame our hearts with the fire of Thy love, graciously grant that by His merits and prayers we may continually bear the cross and bring forth fruits worthy of penance.

There, of course, are many more reasons in these two centuries that led to the protestant revolt, I would suggest that you pick up Diane Moczar's book, Ten Dates Every Catholic Should Know, and read chapter the chapter headed 1517 AD The Protestant Catastrophe.
Probably the single biggest behavior that effected the Church in the Late Middle Ages was the Great Schism, which ran from 1378 to 1417. This was known as the Avignon Papacy,
.
from A Catholic Dictionary, edited by Donald Attwater, Second edition, revised 1957

The Great Schism, otherwise know as the Schism of the West was not strictly a schism at all but a conflict between the two parties within the Church each claiming to support the true pope. Three months after the election of Urban VI, in 1378, the fifteen electing cardinals declared that they had appointed him only as a temporary vicar and that in any case the election was invalid as made under fear of violence from the Roman mob. Urban retorted by naming twenty-eight new cardinals, and the others at once proceeded to elect Cardinal Robert of Geneva as Pope Clement VII, who went to reside at Avignon. The quarrel was in its origin not a theological or religious one, but was caused by the ambition and jealousy of French influence, which was supported to some extent for political reasons by Spain, Naples, Provence, and Scotland; England, Germany, Scandinavia, Wales, Ireland, Portugal, Flanders and Hungary stood by what they believe to be the true pope at Rome. The Church was torn from top to bottom by the schism, both sides in good faith (it was impossible to know to whom allegiance was due), which lasted with its two lines of popes (and at one time three) till the election of Martin V in 1417. It is now regarded as practically certain that the Urbanist popes were the true ones and their names are included in semi-official lists; moreover, the ordinal numbers of the Clementine claimants (who, however, are not called anti-popes,) were adopted by subsequent popes of the same name.


Extracted from What Every Catholic Wants to Know Catholic History from the Catacombs to the Reformation, by Diane Moczar, c 2006 by Our Sunday Visitor Publishing Division

The five key elements that made up the "medieval synthesis" were:

- The harmony between Faith and reason.
- The balance of power among nation-states as parts of Christendom
- The balancing of the authority of the king with local self-government.
- The harmony between the goals of individual self-fulfillment and those of society.
- The equilibrium - and an uneasy one, it is true - between Church and state.
In the fourteenth century everything started to fall apart beginning with famine and plague. Cold, wet weather between 1315 and 1322 brought ruined crops in northern Europe and the resulting famine produced mass starvation, the mortality rate was as high as ten percent. But within 25-20 years the Black Death struck Europe. Between 1347-1350 an estimate average of thirty percent of the population on the continent died. In some cases, the death toll was much higher. It returned again in 1363 and would recur periodically for the next three centuries. All of this caused social friction and rebellions, not to mention some bizarre heresies. In addition to all of this the Hundred Years's War began, the Ottoman Turks began their onslaught of Europe, and the Papacy was going through many troubles beginning with the Avignon papacy. All of this set the stage, so to speak for the protestant catastrophe.

Which brings us to the Fifth Lateran Council (1512-1519) the first serious, official attempt to reform the Church. Giles of Viterbo, the general of the Augustinians was the most prominent Church member and he took the popes to task for most of the current abuses in the Church, although he put great hope in Leo X (1513-1521) who had succeeded Pope Julius II (who had called the Council).

The Lateran Council issued a whole laundry list of abuses that they wanted to end, including “worldly prelates, bishops neglecting their responsibilities, and cardinals living away from Rome. The Council Fathers castigated the clergy for irregular ways of attaining benefices, nepotism, and unchastity. It condemned Averroism . . and even established Catholic pawn shops under Church auspices, to provide affordable loans to the poor.”

For a complete detailing of the Catholic reformation please see Chapter 9 from Hitchcock’s book History of the Catholic Church.

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Counter-Reformation

Did the counter reformation affect Venice Italy?

The Counter Reformation affected artists, so one can assume that through their powerful control of media, the Counter Reformation was felt through the Venetian sphere. Tintoretto is an example of a wily painter who eventually controls his revolutionary approaches to art through pious works that are concerned with important aspects of the Christian heritage. He begins to clothe his figures, which is related to the censorship created during the Council of Trent.

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Counter-Reformation

What was the cause and effect of the Catholic Counter-Reformation?

Catholic AnswerThe cause of the Catholic Reform was the protestant revolt when dissidents in collision with disaffected rulers managed to drag thousands of people out of the Church, away from the Sacraments, thus denying them salvation. The effect was a major overhaul of the Church from top to bottom beginning with the Papacy and the Council of Trent. There was a real, positive effect on religious orders, on education for the clergy, on reform in the monasteries, plus a new beginning in religious orders such as the Jesuits and a reform of some of the older ones, like the Carmelites. The reform was not totally successful in reconverting the peoples that had been lost to the Church, although in some areas, such as Geneva with Bishop St. Francis de Sales, there was a wholesale return to the Church due to the Bishop's preaching and his example.

from

Modern Catholic Dictionary by John A. Hardon, S.J. Doubleday & Co., Inc. Garden City, NY 1980

A period of Catholic revival from 1522 to about 1648, better know as the Catholic Reform. It was an effort to stem the tide of Protestantism by genuine reform within the Catholic Church. There were political movements pressured by civil rules, and ecclesiastical movements carried out by churchmen in an attempt to restore genuine Catholic life by establishing new religious orders such as the Society of Jesus and restoring old orders to their original observances, such as the Carmelites under St. Teresa of Avila (1515-98). The main factors responsible for the Counter Reformation, however, were the papacy and the council of Trent (1545-63). Among church leaders St. Charles Borromeo (1538-84), Archbishop of Milan, enforced the reforms decreed by the council, and St. Francis de Sales of Geneva (1567-1622) spent his best energies in restoring genuine Catholic doctrine and piety. Among civil rulers sponsoring the needed reform were Philip II of Spain (1527-98) and Mary Tudor (1516-58), his wife, in England. Unfortunately this aspect of the reformation led to embitterment between England and Scotland, England and Spain, Poland and Sweden, and to almost two centuries of religious wars. As a result of the Counter Reformation, the Catholic Church became stronger in her institutional structure, more dedicated to the work of evangelization, and more influential in world affairs.

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Counter-Reformation

How does the Counter Reformation affect the present condition of the Catholic Church?

The Catholic Reformation (known as the Protestant Reformation to Protestants and Seculars) spelled out Catholic Dogma and Doctrine, issued a Catechism, and suppressed all Rites of the Mass less than 200 years old. It set things in stone, so to speak, and until the Second Vatican Council, there was little to no change in the institutional Church.

from The Catholic Encyclopedia

The term Counter-Reformation denotes the period of Catholic revival from the pontificate of Pope Pius IV in 1560 to the close of the Thirty Years' War, 1648. The name, though long in use among Protestant historians, has only recently been introduced into Catholic handbooks. The consequence is that it already has a meaning and an application, for which a word with a different nuance should perhaps have been chosen. For in the first place the name suggests that the Catholic movement came after the Protestant; whereas in truth the reform originally began in the Catholic Church, and Luther was a Catholic Reformer before he became a Protestant. By becoming a Protestant Reformer, he did indeed hinder the progress of the Catholic reformation, but he did not stop it.

from A Catholic Dictionary, edited by Donald Attwater, Second edition, revised 1957

The Counter-Reformation is the name given to the Catholic movement of reform and activity which lasted for about one hundred years from the beginning of the Council of Trent (q.v., 1545), and was the belated answer to the threatening confusion and increasing attacks of the previous years. It was the work principally of the Popes St. Pius V and Gregory XIII and the Council itself in the sphere of authority, of SS. Philip Neri and Charles Borromeo in the reform of the clergy and of life, of St. Ignatius and the Jesuits in apostolic activity of St. Francis Xavier in foreign missions, and of St. Teresa in the purely contemplative life which lies behind them all. But these were not the only names nor was it a movement of a few only; the whole Church emerged from the 15th century purified and revivified. On the other hand, it was a reformation rather than a restoration; the unity of western Christendom was destroyed; the Church militant (those still on earth) led by the Company of Jesus adopted offence as the best means of defence and, though she gained as much as she lost in some sense, the Church did not recover the exercise of her former spiritual supremacy in actuality.

from Modern Catholic Dictionary by John A. Hardon, S.J. Doubleday & Co., Inc. Garden City, NY 1980

A period of Catholic revival from 1522 to about 1648, better know as the Catholic Reform. It was an effort to stem the tide of Protestantism by genuine reform within the Catholic Church. There were political movements pressured by civil rules, and ecclesiastical movements carried out by churchmen in an attempt to restore genuine Catholic life by establishing new religious orders such as the Society of Jesus and restoring old orders to their original observances, such as the Carmelites under St. Teresa of Avila (1515-98). The main factors responsible for the Counter Reformation, however, were the papacy and the council of Trent (1545-63). Among church leaders St. Charles Borromeo (1538-84), Archbishop of Milan, enforced the reforms decreed by the council, and St. Francis de Sales of Geneva (1567-1622) spent his best energies in restoring genuine Catholic doctrine and piety. Among civil rulers sponsoring the needed reform were Philip II of Spain (1527-98) and Mary Tudor (1516-58), his wife, in England. Unfortunately this aspect of the reformation led to embitterment between England and Scotland, England and Spain, Poland and Sweden, and to almost two centuries of religious wars. As a result of the Counter Reformation, the Catholic Church became stronger in her institutional structure, more dedicated to the work of evangelization, and more influential in world affairs.

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Counter-Reformation

What are some effects of the Counter-Reformation?

Missionaries brought Catholic beliefs to Native Americans.

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Counter-Reformation

The Reformation and counter reformation led to?

There being more religions then just Catholic.

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Counter-Reformation

What were followers' beliefs reformation and Catholic -counter reformation?

Christians should be judges by their beliefs in God.

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Counter-Reformation

Which astronomer was imprisoned by the church during the counter reformation?

Galileo Galilei.

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Counter-Reformation

How might the Jesuits' focus on education have contributed to the Counter Reformation?

The Jesuits focus on education contributed to the Counter Reformation. Because of their education, the society could believe them more. Their education was based on a balance of faith and reason. The Jesuits studied languages so they could spread Catholicism across Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Such training allowed the Jesuits to play a major role in supporting the Counter Reformation.

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Counter-Reformation

When did the Counter Reformation begin within the Catholic Church?

Roman Catholic AnswerThe Catholic Reform (known to contempory protestants as the "counter-reformation" started around 1522, the two prime moving forces behind it were Pope Pius V and the Council of Trent.

from

Modern Catholic Dictionary by John A. Hardon, S.J. Doubleday & Co., Inc. Garden City, NY 1980

A period of Catholic revival from 1522 to about 1648, better know as the Catholic Reform. It was an effort to stem the tide of Protestantism by genuine reform within the Catholic Church. There were political movements pressured by civil rules, and ecclesiastical movements carried out by churchmen in an attempt to restore genuine Catholic life by establishing new religious orders such as the Society of Jesus and restoring old orders to their original observances, such as the Carmelites under St. Teresa of Avila (1515-98). The main factors responsible for the Counter Reformation, however, were the papacy and the council of Trent (1545-63). Among church leaders St. Charles Borromeo (1538-84), Archbishop of Milan, enforced the reforms decreed by the council, and St. Francis de Sales of Geneva (1567-1622) spent his best energies in restoring genuine Catholic doctrine and piety. Among civil rulers sponsoring the needed reform were Philip II of Spain (1527-98) and Mary Tudor (1516-58), his wife, in England. Unfortunately this aspect of the reformation led to embitterment between England and Scotland, England and Spain, Poland and Sweden, and to almost two centuries of religious wars. As a result of the Counter Reformation, the Catholic Church became stronger in her institutional structure, more dedicated to the work of evangelization, and more influential in world affairs.

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Counter-Reformation

What reforms did the Catholic Church institute during the Counter-Reformation?

It made mainly two mprovements.

One- The Council of Trent which educated clergy and got rid of corruption.

Second- They targeted poverty and improved churches in rural areas.

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Counter-Reformation

How is the counter reformation related to the Protestant Reformation?

The counter reformation was the Catholic Church's way of fighting back against the protestants.

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Counter-Reformation

What is the Counter-Reformation?

The Counter Refomation denotes the period of Catholic revival from the pontificate of Pope Pius IV in 1560 to the close of the thrty year war. The reform included the foundation of seminaries for the proper training of priestes in the Spititual life and the theological traditions of the church. It return order to their spiritual foundations and new spirtiual movements focusing on the devoional life and personal relationship with Christ.

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Counter-Reformation

How did the counter reformation revitalize the Catholic Church?

Catholic AnswerThe Catholic Reform (know to seculars and protestant historians as the counter-reformation) revitalized the Church in head and members. It overhauled the clerical educational system after the obvious and appalling lack of education in Martin Luther became glaringly apparent to anyone who could read. It sponsored new religious orders, including the Jesuits and the Discalced Carmelites, and spawned many great saints.

from the Catholic Encyclopedia

The term Counter-Reformation denotes the period of Catholic revival from the pontificate of Pope Pius IV in 1560 to the close of the Thirty Years' War, 1648. The name, though long in use among Protestant historians, has only recently been introduced into Catholic handbooks. The consequence is that it already has a meaning and an application, for which a word with a different nuance should perhaps have been chosen. For in the first place the name suggests that the Catholic movement came after the Protestant; whereas in truth the reform originally began in the Catholic Church, and Luther was a Catholic Reformer before he became a Protestant. By becoming a Protestant Reformer, he did indeed hinder the progress of the Catholic reformation, but he did not stop it. from A Catholic Dictionary, edited by Donald Attwater, Second edition, revised 1957

The Counter-Reformation is the name given to the Catholic movement of reform and activity which lasted for about one hundred years from the beginning of the Council of Trent (q.v., 1545), and was the belated answer to the threatening confusion and increasing attacks of the previous years. It was the work principally of the Popes St. Pius V and Gregory XIII and the Council itself in the sphere of authority, of SS. Philip Neri and Charles Borromeo in the reform of the clergy and of life, of St. Ignatius and the Jesuits in apostolic activity of St. Francis Xavier in foreign missions, and of St. Teresa in the purely contemplative life which lies behind them all. But these were not the only names nor was it a movement of a few only; the whole Church emerged from the 15th century purified and revivified. On the other hand, it was a reformation rather than a restoration; the unity of western Christendom was destroyed; the Church militant (those still on earth) led by the Company of Jesus adopted offence as the best means of defence and, though she gained as much as she lost in some sense, the Church did not recover the exercise of her former spiritual supremacy in actuality. from Modern Catholic Dictionary by John A. Hardon, S.J. Doubleday & Co., Inc. Garden City, NY 1980

A period of Catholic revival from 1522 to about 1648, better know as the Catholic Reform. It was an effort to stem the tide of Protestantism by genuine reform within the Catholic Church. There were political movements pressured by civil rules, and ecclesiastical movements carried out by churchmen in an attempt to restore genuine Catholic life by establishing new religious orders such as the Society of Jesus and restoring old orders to their original observances, such as the Carmelites under St. Teresa of Avila (1515-98). The main factors responsible for the Counter Reformation, however, were the papacy and the council of Trent (1545-63). Among church leaders St. Charles Borromeo (1538-84), Archbishop of Milan, enforced the reforms decreed by the council, and St. Francis de Sales of Geneva (1567-1622) spent his best energies in restoring genuine Catholic doctrine and piety. Among civil rulers sponsoring the needed reform were Philip II of Spain (1527-98) and Mary Tudor (1516-58), his wife, in England. Unfortunately this aspect of the reformation led to embitterment between England and Scotland, England and Spain, Poland and Sweden, and to almost two centuries of religious wars. As a result of the Counter Reformation, the Catholic Church became stronger in her institutional structure, more dedicated to the work of evangelization, and more influential in world affairs.

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Counter-Reformation

What was the purpose of the counter reformation?

Obedience to the church

Roman Catholic AnswerThe purpose of the counter reformation was two fold:

1. To reform the Church and purge it of any abuses.

2. To address the concerns of those who revolted and bring them back to the Church.

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Counter-Reformation

What was the name of the Council that started the Catholic Reformation counter reformation?

Council of Trent

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Counter-Reformation

How did the Counter-Reformation affect artists?

The catholic church felt that paintings should encourage people to do good. Therefore, artists were directed by the catholic church to paint less mythical fables and myths, and more bible scenery. Furthermore, paintings were to be less mystical and "deepgoing" and more expressive and easier to understand.

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Counter-Reformation

What was the purpose of the Council of Trent that was held during the Counter-Reformation?

The Council Of Trent played an important part in determining the outcome of the Counter Reformation. It produced a definite Catholic Doctrine which clearly showed the differences between Catholic and Protestant beliefs. It was called to examine Catholic Doctrine and reform, two separate sections dealt with these simultaneously.

Catholic answer

The 19th oecumenical council held at Trent in the Austrian Tyrol, 1545-63, summoned for the purpose of combating Protestantism and reforming the discipline of the church; the longest and one of the most important of all general councils.

It dealt in detail with the doctrinal innovations of the Reformers and with those gross abuses which gave them an opportunity to take root. It was one of the most important events of modern history and has had lasting effect.

The principal dogmatic decisions were: the confirmation of the Nicene creed; the authenticity of the Latin Vulgate and the canonicity of all books contained therein and of them only; the definition of the doctrine of Original Sin; the precision of the doctrine of Justification, condemning justification by faith alone and imputation of grace; the condemnation of thirty errors about the sacraments; the definition of the real Presence and of Transubstantiation as its mode: the precision of the doctrine of the sacraments of Penance and Extreme Unction; the declaration that holy communion in both kinds was not necessary for lay-people and clerics not celebrating, Christ being received whole and entire under either species; the precision of doctrine concerning the Sacrifice of the Mass and the sacraments of holy Orders and Matrimony; the affirmation of the doctrines of Purgatory, of the invocation of saints and the veneration of them, their relics and images, and of Indulgences.

Far-reaching decrees of reformation in discipline and morals were adopted involving many alterations of canon law, the decree Tametsi. One English bishop, Boldwell of St. Asaph, and three Irish, O'Hart of Achonry, MacCongail of Raphoe, and O'Herlihy of Ross, took part in the council; and Cardinal Pole, afterwards of Canterbury, was a presiding legate at the opening. From a Catholic Dictionary, Edited by Donald Attwater, 2nd ed, Revised.

The Council of Trenty ended in 1563, it decrees were published by the Holy Father, and it joined the ranks of the Councils of the Church as one of the more important ones having a lasting effect into our times.

Answer To examine and make clear the beliefs and practices of the Catholic Church.

The purpose of the Council of Trent was to refute and condemn the Protestant beliefs that were contradicting Catholic Christian beliefs.

Answer Additionally, Trent formally established the Catholic view of the Biblical canon.

To examine and make clear the beliefs and practices of the Catholic Church.

Direct the reform of the Catholic Church

Catholic Answer

The "Counter-reformation" is the name that protestants and secular historians give to the Catholic movement of reform and activity which lasted for about one hundred years beginning with the Council of Trent, it is better known as the Catholic Reform, as it actually had its roots before the protestant revolt. The Council of Trent was the 19th Ecumenical Council of the Church:

from A Catholic Dictionary, edited by Donald Attwater, Second edition, revised 1957

The Council of Trent

The 19th ecumenical council held at Trent in the Austrian Tyrol, 1545-63, summoned for the purpose of combating Protestantism and reforming the discipline of the Church; the longest and one of the most important of all general councils. It dealt in detail with the doctrinal innovations of the Reformers and with those gross abuses which gave them an opportunity to take root. It was one of the most important events of modern history and has had lasting effect. The principal dogmatic decisions were: the confirmation of the Nicene creed; the authenticity of the Latin Vulgate and the canonicity of all books contained therein and of them only; the definition of the doctrine of Original Sin; the precision of the doctrine of Justification, condemning justification by faith alone and imputation of grace; the condemnation of thirty errors about the sacraments; the definition of the Real Presence and of Transubstantiation as its mode: the precision of the doctrine of the sacraments of penance and Extreme Unction; the declaration that holy communion in both kinds was not necessary for lay-people and clerics not celebrating, Christ being received whole and entire under either species; the precision of doctrine concerning the sacrifice of the Mass and the sacraments of holy Orders and Matrimony; the affirmation of the doctrines of Purgatory, of the invocation of saints, and the veneration of them, their relics and images, and of Indulgences. Far-reaching decrees of reformation in discipline and morals were adopted involving many alterations in canon law, e.g. the decree Tametsi.

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Counter-Reformation

Which is correct term Catholic Reformation or Counter Reformation?

It is usually referred to as the Counter Reformation but either term is correct.

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Counter-Reformation

Leader of the Catholic Church during the Counter Reformation?

Pope Paul III

Roman Catholic AnswerThe Counter Reformation ran from 1522 to about 1648. During that time the following men held the office of Supreme Pontiff, leading the Church; although Pope St. Pius V was probably the most famous as he issued the Catechism and the reform of the Mass:

Adrian VI

Clement VIII

Paul III

Julius III

Marcellus II

Paul IV

Pius IV

St. Pius V

Gregory XIII

Sixtus V

Urban VII

Gregory XIV

Innocent IX

Clement VIII

Leo XI

Paul V

Gregory XV

Urban VIII

Innocent X

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Counter-Reformation

Who was active in the Catholic Reformation also known as the Counter Reformation?

Catholic AnswerThere were any number of people active in the century that was the Catholic reform, many of them became great saints, including St. Pius V, St. Ignatius, St. Teresa, St. Charles Borromeo, St. Francis de Sales.

from

A Catholic Dictionary, edited by Donald Attwater, Second edition, revised 1957

The Counter-Reformation is the name given to the Catholic movement of reform and activity which lasted for about one hundred years from the beginning of the Council of Trent (q.v., 1545), and was the belated answer to the threatening confusion and increasing attacks of the previous years. It was the work principally of the Popes St. Pius V and Gregory XIII and the Council itself in the sphere of authority, of SS. Philip Neri and Charles Borromeo in the reform of the clergy and of life, of St. Ignatius and the Jesuits in apostolic activity of St. Francis Xavier in foreign missions, and of St. Teresa in the purely contemplative life which lies behind them all. But these were not the only names nor was it a movement of a few only; the whole Church emerged from the 15th century purified and revivified. On the other hand, it was a reformation rather than a restoration; the unity of western Christendom was destroyed; the Church militant (those still on earth) led by the Company of Jesus adopted offence as the best means of defence and, though she gained as much as she lost in some sense, the Church did not recover the exercise of her former spiritual supremacy in actuality.

from

Modern Catholic Dictionary by John A. Hardon, S.J. Doubleday & Co., Inc. Garden City, NY 1980

A period of Catholic revival from 1522 to about 1648, better know as the Catholic Reform. It was an effort to stem the tide of Protestantism by genuine reform within the Catholic Church. There were political movements pressured by civil rules, and ecclesiastical movements carried out by churchmen in an attempt to restore genuine Catholic life by establishing new religious orders such as the Society of Jesus and restoring old orders to their original observances, such as the Carmelites under St. Teresa of Avila (1515-98). The main factors responsible for the Counter Reformation, however, were the papacy and the council of Trent (1545-63). Among church leaders St. Charles Borromeo(1538-84), Archbishop of Milan, enforced the reforms decreed by the council, and St. Francis de Sales of Geneva (1567-1622) spent his best energies in restoring genuine Catholic doctrine and piety. Among civil rulers sponsoring the needed reform were Philip II of Spain (1527-98) and Mary Tudor(1516-58), his wife, in England. Unfortunately this aspect of the reformation led to embitterment between England and Scotland, England and Spain, Poland and Sweden, and to almost two centuries of religious wars. As a result of the Counter Reformation, the Catholic Church became stronger in her institutional structure, more dedicated to the work of evangelization, and more influential in world affairs.

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Counter-Reformation

How long did the counter reformation last?

One century

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Counter-Reformation

Why did the movement occur for the Catholic Counter Reformation?

Roman Catholic AnswerThe Catholic "Counter-Reformation" which is better known as the Catholic Reform primarily occurred when it did in response to the protestant revolt: the disaster of people being dragged out of the Church by leaders in Germany and England who did not want to owe allegiance to Rome. The German princes latched onto Martin Luther, who inveighed against the Church as he was unable to deal with his psychological problems, left his Order and solemn vows, without permission, and broke his vow of chastity to marry. Henry VIII, in England, tried to stay a "good Catholic" while arguing with the Holy Father that his marriage was invalid, and so please grant him an annulment right now.

from

Modern Catholic Dictionary by John A. Hardon, S.J. Doubleday & Co., Inc. Garden City, NY 1980

A period of Catholic revival from 1522 to about 1648, better know as the Catholic Reform. It was an effort to stem the tide of Protestantism by genuine reform within the Catholic Church. There were political movements pressured by civil rules, and ecclesiastical movements carried out by churchmen in an attempt to restore genuine Catholic life by establishing new religious orders such as the Society of Jesus and restoring old orders to their original observances, such as the Carmelites under St. Teresa of Avila (1515-98). The main factors responsible for the Counter Reformation, however, were the papacy and the council of Trent (1545-63). Among church leaders St. Charles Borromeo (1538-84), Archbishop of Milan, enforced the reforms decreed by the council, and St. Francis de Sales of Geneva (1567-1622) spent his best energies in restoring genuine Catholic doctrine and piety. Among civil rulers sponsoring the needed reform were Philip II of Spain (1527-98) and Mary Tudor (1516-58), his wife, in England. Unfortunately this aspect of the reformation led to embitterment between England and Scotland, England and Spain, Poland and Sweden, and to almost two centuries of religious wars. As a result of the Counter Reformation, the Catholic Church became stronger in her institutional structure, more dedicated to the work of evangelization, and more influential in world affairs.

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