An artificial pacemaker is a medical device that regulates the heartbeat via electrical impulses that are delivered by electrodes, which contracts the muscles of the heart. Pacemakers are given to people who have a slow natural pacemaker or those who have a cardiac obstruction blocking natural electrical impulses.

1,521 Questions

What is the pacemaker of the mammalian heart?

The primary pacemaker of the mammalian heart is the sino-atrial node. If the SA node fails, the atrioventricular node (AV node) takes over pacemaking.


Intercalated discs and pacemaker cells are characteristic of?

cardiac muscle


Does having a pacemaker make you uninsurable for medical insurance?

Yes, in the state of Tennessee it does. I have been denied by all independent agencies, and by TennCare, too. They all say I am uninsurable even though I have lifetime coverage on any and all heart problems through a workers compensation settlement.

Many people who are denied insurance use other alternatives.

If your employer has a group plan, that is your best bet. The advantage of a group plan is that pretty much everyone is accepted, regardless of health. If you can't get coverage that way, check with your state. Depending on where you live, you may be able to get coverage though a state program. In Colorado, I am under the state's "CoverColorado" program and in Wisconsin I was covered under "HIRSP". (I've had a pacemaker since I was 20.) Check out your state's department of health for available programs. It seems that not all states have such programs in place, though I know a few (like Tennessee) are in the process of implemeting such a program.


What health insurance company will insure a person with a pacemaker?

Google a search for "guaranteed issue" plans and policies online. Depending on the state where you live, these limited benefit plans can offer you some form of coverage when you don't qualify for traditional plans.

In the state of Florida, these type of plans will become available in January 2009. Google a search for "Cover Florida" for details.

PCIP is federal health insurance for people with pre-existing conditions. It is inexpensive, about $200/mo depending on your age. Eligibility and premiums are not based on income.

State assigned risk (guaranteed issue) plans cost $600-1000/mo. FL and TN have plans that are inexpensive, but have extremely low annual and lifetime maximums of $10K and 25K.

Medical Terminology

What is the pacemaker of the heart?

uhhhhhhhhh, Why ya asking?!?!


Does having a pacemaker make you uninsurable for long-term care insurance?

Many companies will consider you for coverage after 90 days to 6 months after recovery from implantation. Everything must be stable.I found this in a pamphlet from the Health Insurance Association of America:

Preexisting conditions are health problems you had when you became insured. Insurance companies may require that a period of time pass before the policy pays for care related to these conditions. For example, a company may exclude coverage of preexisting conditions for six months. This means that if you need long term care within six months of the policy's issue date for that condition, you may be denied benefits. Companies do not generally exclude coverage for preexisting conditions for more than six months.

I don't know if that really answers your question. Maybe someone else can elaborate specifically on your situation with a pacemaker.

A pacemaker does not ordinarily disqualify you for LTCi. What LTC underwriters are primarily looking for are conditions that would make you a higher risk of needing extended care. Different companies have different underwriting requirements. Find an agent that your comfortable with and give it a shot. Worse thing that can happen is that you get declined and have to try somewhere else. You'll get any preliminary premium returned if your are declined.

Also, LTC policies generally do not have a pre-existing condition clause. You will either be approved or not. For some conditions if you ARE declined you may re-apply after a designated period of recovery time.

Medical Technologies
The Difference Between

What is the difference between a defibrillator and a pacemaker?

Putting it into simple terms, a pacemaker helps the heart beat whereas a defibrillator stops the heart for a moment. Pacemakers generate electrical activity in the heart for patients with certain cardiac arrythmias. A defibrillator actually generates a shock so strong that it stops the heart's electrical activity. The heart (unlike most muscles) generates its own electrical impulse and can therefore hopefully restart itself after this big shock. Defibrillators are usually used for more serious cardiac arrythmias.
Yes, a very big difference:

  • a defibrillator is used to stop a heart that is beating in a random rhythm without moving blood in a pattern called Ventricular Fibrillation, to do this the defibrillator applies a single large shock which stops the heart completely briefly then the heart (usually) self starts with a normal rhythm that moves blood as it should; if the heart restarts in the random rhythm it will be necessary to repeat the single large shock
  • a pacemaker is used to keep a heart beating with a normal rhythm that sometimes "forgets" to beat by applying small periodic shocks all the time at the pace of the normal rhythm

Can you play soccer with a pacemaker?

Generally, yes. You should always check with your doctor or physician prior to engaging in any strenuous activity. The pacemaker doesn't interfere with any physical activities, unless they involve a strong magnetic or electric field, which soccer does not.


If the av node were forced to assume pacemaker activity what would be the resulting pulse rate?



Is it illegal for a company that makes transistors to stop supplying a pacemaker company that they have a contract with?

depends on the contract. if they do "Have to" supply the company then the damages awarded by a judge would be great. read the contract though, it may not spell this out. if they "Don't have to" supply the company, then, the owner operator of the pacemaker company shouldn't have left him\herself do dependant on one individual component supplier. they should have left themselves an option. It wouldn't be illegal as in 'call the cops and throw him in jail', but they could be held liable for damages in civil court IF they are in violation of a legally binding contract. Here's the flipside of this question: WHY is the transistor company considering cutting off the supply to the pacemaker company? I can think of two reasons--that the transistor company for some reason no longer has anything to sell to the pacemaker company, or the pacemaker company for some reason gave the transistor company grounds to drop them. The first scenario: The transistor company quit making the part number the pacemaker company buys. In this case, most vendors will assist their customers in transitioning to a different part. If the pacemaker company for whatever reason refuses to change, the transistor company can cite that as a reason to drop the customer. The second scenario: The pacemaker company quit paying invoices. I have seen a lot of contracts; I have never seen one that doesn't state payment terms in clear language.


Why would someone need an artificial pacemaker?

If a person's natural heart rate (sinus rhythm) is too slow then the heart will not be able to pump enough blood to meet the needs of their body. A pacemaker is a small implantable device that can increase the heart rate by using an electrical stimulus to cause the heart muscle to contract. The pacemaker can be programed to stimulate the heart at a desired rate to increase the heart rate and enable cardiac output to be sufficient.


What are possible complications from pacemaker implant surgery?

Because pacemaker implantation is an invasive surgical procedure, internal bleeding, infection, hemorrhage, and embolism are all possible complications.


Does the pacemaker make a buzzing noise?

Not normally.


Does having a pacemaker make you ineligible for term life insurance?

No it doesn't.

If you need a pacemaker due to having tachycardia(heart speeds too fast) or bradycardia (heart slows), life insurance is available with a number of impaired risk life insurance companies. the following pacemaker life insurance info may be helpful

The main concern for life insurance companies is the risk of infection after the pacemaker is implanted. With that being said, most companies will postpone you for life insurance for a period of 3-6 months after implant. Once this time passes, you may be able to get a policy at "standard" rates or a table rated policy.

All you can do is check with the companies... There's a price for everything.


What are pacemaker potentials and the action potential they trigger?

Pacemaker potentials are automatic potentials generated and are exclusively seen in the heart. They arise from the natural "leakiness" of the membrane that pacemaker cells have, resulting in passive movement of both Na+ and Ca2+ across the membrane, rising the membrane potential to about -40mV. This results in a spontaneous depolarization of the muscle that has a rise in the curve that is nowhere near as steep as the action potential of other cells. Upon depolarization, the cell will return back to its resting membrane voltage, and continue the potential again.


What is a ventricular demand pacemaker?

this is a particular setting on a pacemaker which essentially senses if the ventricle depolarises, if it does not the PM will activate it and ensure the heart carries on beating.


A demand pacemaker (there are several types) kicks in after your cardiac function varies outside a pre-set normal rate. It then brings your heartbeat into a more efficient rhythm. (Sinus-rhythm.)

A demand pacemaker does not take the place of an implanted defibrillator! If a genuinely life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia develops, it takes a defibrillator -- an implanted one or an external unit used by someone trained to respond -- to correct ventricular fibrillation. If it is not corrected, v-fib is fatal.


What element is in pacemakers?



Cost of heart pacemaker?

What is the cost of a pacer maker in a 95 year old man?

Well a pace maker can cost up to 10,000 to 45,000 depending on the qualtiy and the condition its in. Or some could be found cheaper


Did Robbie McNay play with Gerry and the Pacemakers?

I met him on a cruise, during Christmas/New Years, and he SAID he did!


The tertiary pacemaker is also known as the?

AV node


Where did Gerry and the Pacemakers ask the Ferry to go?



Is an artificial pacemaker an implanted device that acts as an automatic defibrillator?


my gradpa has one and so yes it is


Can you weld with a pacemaker?

Welding is possible by someone with a pacemaker. The arc generated by the welding process is very concentrated and will not cause a problem in someone implanted with the device. It is important to be especially cautious however to avoid electrical shock as such an incident may damage a pacemaker or cause it to fail.

Welding on a pacemaker is extremely dangerous,

It is a must to take an opinion from a certified doctor


Can you still smoke with a defibrillator and pacemaker device?

yes, but its not recommended, smoking takes oxygen out of your blood and lessens your ability to fight infection, theirfore can cause heart murmur ,stroke and heart attack will increase, but cutting down to 5 or less a day you will double your chances of survival into your 70' is strongly suggested that you quit, theirs gum patches and inhalers to help you along with an 800 number, on


Can you recycle pacemakers?

- Yes! A pacemaker device is designed to last anywhere between 6 and 10 years. Though FDA regulations does not permit the recycling of pacemakers for humans in the United States, we have come to find many scientific journals that say recycling pacemakers is a safe practice. Here are a few excerpts from some of the scientific journals we have found that support recycling pacemakers

Many skeptics of pacemaker recycling cite potential problems with sterilizing the extracted pacemaker and guaranteeing its mechanical ability for a second recipient. While these concerns may have been viable years ago technological developments and clinical research has proven them to be archaic.

The Cardiovascular Department at the University of Michigan Medical Center is now engaged in a pacemaker recycling study where they utilize the following procedure to adequately sterilize recycled pacemakers. According to their article published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, "Pipe cleaners and other instruments were employed to ensure that all debris was removed, specifically at the lead insertion sites. Devices were then bathed with isopropyl alcohol and soaked overnight in Asepti-zyme at a concentration of 1:128. Pacemakers were wiped with 70% ethanol, air dried, packed in gas permeable envelopes, and decontaminated via an 8-h ethylene oxide gas sterilization protocol." The U of M program has successfully re-implanted 12 pacemakers in the Philippines.

As far as the mechanical quality of potential recycled pacemakers, there seems to be no difference in quality except in battery life. The non-profit organization, Heart Too Heart and the University of Michigan both require that a pacemaker's battery has 70% or greater batter life remaining before it even becomes a candidate for reuse. Further, several longitudinal research studies have shown that there is no recognizable difference in mechanical quality between new and recycled pacemakers. In fact, some suggest that doctors can be more confident with a recycled pacemaker because of its proven track record. The following is another study that has shown pacemaker recycling to be a safe and life-saving opportunity for people in less privileged countries. Over 3,500 patients were studied in two groups from 1976 to 1981. One group received a new device and the other received a recycled pacemaker. The study concluded that "There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups, either in terms of indications for implantation or in terms of actuarial survival of patients. In addition, there was no significant change in survival of the pulse generator. The reutilization of pacemakers appeared to be in no way detrimental to patients."

- If you would like to read more scholarly work on the safety of pacemaker recycling the following articles all come from a scholarly background.


- 1. Is there an afterlife for pacemakers and defibrillators?(2007). Harvard Heart Letter, 17(6), 7.

- [1] Food and Drug Administration. (June 18, 2009). CPG Sec. 310.100 Pacemaker Reuse (CPG 7124.12). Retrieved October 31, 2009, from

- 2Baman, T., Romero, A., Kirkpatrick, J., Romero, J., Lange, D., Sison, E., Tangco, R., Abelardo, N., Samson, G., Grezlik, R., Goldman, E., Oral, H., & Eagle, K. (2009). Safety and efficacy of pacemaker reuse in underdeveloped nations: a case series. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 54(16), 1557.

- 3 Mugica, J., Duconge, R., & Henry, L. (1986). Survival and mortality in 3,701 pacemaker patients: arguments in favor of pacemaker reuse. Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology, 9(6), 1282.



2. Anilkumar, R., & Balachander, J. (2004).
Refurbishing Pacemakers: A Viable Approach. Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal, 4(1), 1-2.


3. Francis, J., Anilkumar, R., & Mond, H. (2007). Reuse of Expanted Pacemakers: An Options for Ecomomically Underprivileged Patients in Developing Countries. Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal, 7(4), 192-194.


4. Jackson, M. (1996). Issues affecting refurbishment and re-use of pacemakers. Australian Health Review, 19(1), 68.


5. Linde, C. L., Bocray, A., Jonsson, H., Rosenqvist, M., Rdegran, K., & Rydn, L. (1998). Re-used pacemakers--as safe as new? A retrospective case-control study. European Heart Journal, 19(1), 154.


6. Mitka, M. (2007). Death not necessarily end for heart devices. JAMA, 297(2), 144.


7. Mugica, J., Duconge, R., & Henry, L. (1986). Survival and mortality in 3,701 pacemaker patients: arguments in favor of pacemaker reuse. Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology, 9(6), 1282.


8. Panja, M., Sarkar, C. N., Kumar, S., Kar, A. K., Mitra, S., Sinha, D. P., Chatterjee, A., Roy, S., Sarkar, N. C., & Majumder, B. (1996). Reuse of pacemaker. Indian Heart Journal, 48(6), 677.


9. Romero, J., Romero, A., Kirkpatrick, J. N., Lange, D. C., Eagle, K. A., & Baman, T. S. (2009). Pacemaker Reuse in a 65-Year-Old Woman in the Philippines with Severe Medical Need. Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology,


10. Sethi, K. K., Bhargava, M., Pandit, N., Mohan, J. C., Arora, R., Khanna, S. K., & Khalilullah, M. (1992). Experience with recycled cardiac pacemakers. Indian Heart Journal, 44(2), 91.


11. Tyers, G. F. (1992). Recycling and 'transplantation' of implantable electronic devices. The Canadian Journal of Cardiology, 8(7), 683.


Though the FDA does not endorse or prohibit recycling outside of the United States, a few organizations that have taken on the task of recycling pacemakers. These pacemakers come from patients in the US who have recently passed and are shipped to third world countries to save the lives of their people. Most pacemakers sent to third world countries are used to help save the lives of children. Between the 7 organizations we have researched, we have found they have jointly saved over 14,524 lives! For more information on joining the effort to recycle pacemakers, or to find out how to donate one yourself contact one of the following organizations:

1. Heart Too Heart/World Heart Aid- 220 34th St. West Billings, MT 59102

2. Solidarity Bridge- •

3. University of Michigan- Project My Heart Your Heart-

4. World Medical Relief-

5. Second Life Program- (what info did we have;I cant find any)

6. Heartbeat International-

Animals have become a growing speicies in need of pacemakers. Though the FDA does not permit recycling pacemakers between humans, they do not prohibit the recycling of pacemakers in pets. Check out the following website for information on how to recycle a pacemaker to your pet. Food and Drug Administration. (June 18, 2009). CPG Sec. 310.100 Pacemaker Reuse (CPG 7124.12). Retrieved October 31, 2009, from Baman, T., Romero, A., Kirkpatrick, J., Romero, J., Lange, D., Sison, E., Tangco, R., Abelardo,

N., Samson, G., Grezlik, R., Goldman, E., Oral, H., & Eagle, K. (2009). Safety and efficacy of pacemaker reuse in underdeveloped nations: a case series. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 54(16), 1557.


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