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Stem Cells

Stem cells are a biological cell that can turn into a specialized cell, and then divide to create more.

2,593 Questions
Stem Cells

What is the tissue in plants that contain stem cells?

In a plant, the meristematic tissue contains stem cells

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Stem Cells

How are stem cells made in the body and lab?

well first of all you go to the lab and talk to a scientist to see what he says then go home and get your DNA to find out how stem cells are made in your body. its simple why did you ask me.

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Stem Cells

Why are scientists worried of the sources of stem cells?

think it Is cus it is cus they r in bone marrow? not 100 percent will say if i find out differently.

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Plumbing
Chemistry
Stem Cells

What are vertical stem drop pipes used for?

to catch sand, and things in the water line that would clog a facuet up

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Biology
Human Anatomy and Physiology
Genetics
Stem Cells

What are the different types of cells in the kidney?

There are many different cell types in the kidney. Like in other organs, cells of the kidney can be divided into cells that make up the functional part of the kidney (called the parenchyma) and cells that make up the connective tissue and supporting structure of the kidney (the stroma). In studying an organ's cells, most focus on the parenchymal cells, because it is those cells that are typically unique to a given organ. This is true for the kidney.

Parenchymal cells of the kidney are those that make up the millions of functional units of the kidney, called nephrons. A nephron is a tubular structure divided into several segments. Depending on the source, the names of the segments vary; one useful way of dividing the nephron is into the following segments: proximal tubule, loop of Henle, distal tubule, and collecting duct.

Each nephron segment has several unique cells. The major cell of the proximal has no particular name, but is responsible for heavy-duty reabsorption of solutes and water from the fluid that's filtered from the blood.

The major cell of the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle is a cell that contains a special transporter called the sodium-potassium-2 chloride cotransporter (NKCC). The action of these NKCC-containing cells allows the kidney to produce concentrated urine when an individual has gone without water for a while. These same cells are also targeted by a class of drugs (called loop diuretics) that treats high blood pressure. A very similar cell occurs later in the nephron; this cell uses the same NKCC protein to sense low volume states, such as when an individual has lost a large volume of blood.

The major cell of the distal tubule is a cell that contains the so-called thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (TSC). This cell is responsible for reabsorbing about 5% of the sodium filtered by the kidney each day. It is targeted by another type of drug (called thiazides) that treats high blood pressure.

The collecting duct contains two cell types, called principal cells and intercalated cells. Principal cells are predominantly responsible for sodium reabsorption and potassium secretion in the kidney. This process is stimulated in the principal cells by the action of the hormone aldosterone.

There are two types of intercalated cell in the collecting duct, but both are responsible for acid-base homeostasis. The alpha intercalated cell is responsible for secreting excess acid and reabsorbing base (in the form of bicarbonate). The beta intercalated cell is responsible for secreting excess base (bicarbonate) and reabsorbing acid.

The kidney has many other cell types besides these, but these are the most commonly referenced cells in discussions of kidney physiology.

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Stem Cells

How are stem cells like the stem of a plant?

Stem cells are like the stem of a plant cell because they both can help replace or fix something. whoop whoop :D

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Stem Cells

What are some of the current experimental ways that stem cells are being used to treat diseases or illnesses?

Scientist use the very first cell and leave it to groww in to a tissue perhaps.

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Stem Cells

What is the mass of stem cells produced in the first few days after fertilization called?

A morula (mulberry) is an early stage in the development of the embryo at which it consists of a solid spherical ball of apparently identical cells. The morula stage is when one of the earliest prenatal diagnostic test can be carried out, by removing a single cell (blastomere) and carrying out genetic diagnosis on its DNA. Each one could develop into a complete animal (or human) since they are genetic the same.

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Biology
Genetics
Stem Cells

What are the pros and cons of stem cell research?

Pros and Cons of Stem Cell Research What are Stem Cells?

There has been much controversy in the press recently about the pros and cons of stem cell research. What is the controversy all about? "Stem" cells can be contrasted with "differentiated" cells. They offer much hope for medical advancement because of their ability to grow into almost any kind of cell. For instance, neural cells in the brain and spinal cord that have been damaged can be replaced by stem cells. In the treatment of cancer, cells destroyed by radiation or chemotherapy can be replaced with new healthy stem cells that adapt to the affected area, whether it be part of the brain, heart, liver, lungs, or wherever. Dead cells of almost any kind, no matter the type of injury or disease, can be replaced with new healthy cells thanks to the amazing flexibility of stem cells. As a result, billions of dollars are being poured into this new field.

Where Do They Come From?

To understand the pros and cons of stem cell research, one must first understand where stem cells come from. There are three main sources for obtaining stem cells - adult cells, cord cells, and embryonic cells. Adult stem cells can be extracted either from bone marrow or from the peripheral system. Bone marrow is a rich source of stem cells. However, some painful destruction of the bone marrow results from this procedure. Peripheral stem cells can be extracted without damage to bones, but the process takes more time. And with health issues, time is often of the essence. Although difficult to extract, since they are taken from the patient's own body, adult stem cells are superior to both umbilical cord and embryonic stem cells. They are plentiful. There is always an exact DNA match so the body's immune system never rejects them. And as we might expect, results have been both profound and promising.

Stem cells taken from the umbilical cord are a second very rich source of stem cells. Umbilical cells can also offer a perfect match where a family has planned ahead. Cord cells are extracted during pregnancy and stored in cryogenic cell banks as a type of insurance policy for future use on behalf of the newborn. Cord cells can also be used by the mother, the father or others. The more distant the relationship, the more likely it is that the cells will be rejected by the immune system's antibodies. However, there are a number of common cell types just as there are common blood types so matching is always possible especially where there are numerous donors. The donation and storage process is similar to blood banking. Donation of umbilical cells is highly encouraged. Compared to adult cells and embryonic cells, the umbilical cord is by far the richest source of stem cells, and cells can be stored up in advance so they are available when needed. Further, even where there is not an exact DNA match between donor and recipient, scientists have developed methods to increase transferability and reduce risk.

Embryonic Cells

The pros and cons of stem cell research come to the surface when we examine the third source of stem cells - embryonic cells. Embryonic stem cells are extracted directly from an embryo before the embryo's cells begin to differentiate. At this stage the embryo is referred to as a "blastocyst." There are about 100 cells in a blastocyst, a very large percentage of which are stem cells, which can be kept alive indefinitely, grown in cultures, where the stem cells continue to double in number every 2-3 days. A replicating set of stem cells from a single blastocyst is called a "stem cell line" because the genetic material all comes from the same fertilized human egg that started it. President Bush authorized federal funding for research on the 15 stem cell lines available in August 2001. Other stem cell lines are also available for research but without the coveted assistance of federal funding.

So what is the controversy all about? Those who value human life from the point of conception, oppose embryonic stem cell research because the extraction of stem cells from this type of an embryo requires its destruction. In other words, it requires that a human life be killed. Some believe this to be the same as murder. Against this, embryonic research advocates could argue that the tiny blastocyst has no human features. Further, new stem cell lines already exist due to the common practice of in vitro fertilization. Research advocates conclude that many fertilized human cells have already been banked, but are not being made available for research. Advocates of embryonic stem cell research claim new human lives will not be created for the sole purpose of experimentation.

Others argue against such research on medical grounds. Mice treated for Parkinson's with embryonic stem cells have died from brain tumors in as much as 20% of cases.

1 Embryonic stem cells stored over time have been shown to create the type of chromosomal anomalies that create cancer cells.

2 Looking at it from a more pragmatic standpoint, funds devoted to embryonic stem cell research are funds being taken away from the other two more promising and less controversial types of stem cell research mentioned above.

UPDATE

Researchers have announced that embryonic cells are not the only stem cells now available for research. Stem cells can now be taken from living adult humans without harming the donor.

PROS

Some people think stem cell research has the potential to minimize suffering of people with many different diseases.

Some people think that stem cells can teach us about how cells become different from each other.

Some people think we will be able to grow replacement organs and prolong the life of people with disease.

The crux of the argument in bioethics committees (see link for AAAS) is whether excess embryos created for in vitro fertilization should be destroyed or used for research. The death of the excess embryos is inevitable either way. As bioethics committees use the four principles or derivations there of in their debates the principal of beneficence wins over the principal of non-maleficence where the parents' consent is obtained.

Good information about stem cell research is here: See related links

CONS

Some people think of embyos as having the potential for life and that potential should be preserved.

Some people think the embyos have dignity which should be preserved.

Some people think embryos have a soul.

Some people think that stem cell research constitues murder.

The crux of the matter for objectors is weither the right to life and dignity of the unborn child is being considered. Many would also object to the destruction of embryos in in vitro fertilisation. The use of adult cloned cells is considered very objectionable as it equates to creating a life(clone) with the express intention of destroying it.(See link to SPUC)

Extra Information being discussed:

Pros:

- Embryonic stem cells are plenty and are not hard to find

- Embryos do not classify as life, but do classify as Potential for life

- Embryonic stem cells do not cost a fortune to get

- Piles of different diseases could be cured by using stem cells, and this would save the NHS and other health services a huge amount of money since there would be less use of drugs

Cons:

- Adult stem cells are rare

- Adult stem cells are in some of the hardest to get to places, such as attached to the bone marrow

- Adult stem cells aren't really stem cells, stem cells are unspecialized cells whereas adult stem cells can only produce a certain type of cell, such as the blood cell

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Stem Cells

How are muscle cells formed by stem cells?

In postnatal muscle, skeletal muscle precursors (myoblasts) can be derived

from satellite cells (reserve cells located on the surface of mature myofibers) or from cells

lying beyond the myofiber, e.g., interstitial connective tissue or bone marrow. Both of

these classes of cells may have stem cell properties. In addition, the heretical idea that postmitotic myonuclei lying within mature myofibers might be able to re-form myoblasts or

stem cells is examined and related to recent observations for similar post-mitotic cardiomyocytes. In adult hearts (which previously were not considered capable of repair), the role of

replicating endogenous cardiomyocytes and the recruitment of other (stem) cells into cardiomyocytes for new cardiac muscle formation has recently attracted much attention. The

relative contribution of these various sources of precursor cells in postnatal muscles and

the factors that may enhance stem cell participation in the formation of new skeletal and

cardiac muscle in vivo are the focus of this review. We concluded that, although many endogenous cell types can be converted to skeletal muscle, the contribution of non-myogenic

cells to the formation of new postnatal skeletal muscle in vivo appears to be negligible.

Whether the recruitment of such cells to the myogenic lineage can be significantly enhanced

by specific inducers and the appropriate microenvironment is a current topic of intense interest. However, dermal fibroblasts appear promising as a realistic alternative source of exogenous myoblasts for transplantation purposes. For heart muscle, experiments showing the

participation of bone marrow-derived stem cells and endothelial cells in the repair of damaged cardiac muscle are encouraging.

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Health
Genetics
Barack Obama
Stem Cells

What is the definition of stem cell research?

The research of undeveloped cells in aborted fetuses. These cells can be inserted into a diseased or abnormal part of a person's body and they can develop into whatever kind of cell they're surrounded by. This can repair and heal the affected area.

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Biology
Genetics
Stem Cells

How do somatic cells and reproductive cells differ from each other?

== == Somatic cells are body cells that contain 46 chromosomes and reproduce very rapidly. Reproductive cells are sex cells(sperm and egg)(dont rproduce as fast as somatic cells)and they contain 23 chromosomes.

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Stem Cells

What does the term potency refer to when talking about stem cells?

Their ability to differentiate into other cell types.

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Stem Cells

How can stem cells be used to treat diseases like diabetes?

Weird fellow!There is no way to cure diabetes with stem cells.

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Science
Genetics
Stem Cells

How long has stem cell research been going on?

For about 50 years. Stem Cells were first found in the 1960's.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stem_cell

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Biology
Genetics
Stem Cells

What are the cons of stem cell research?

Human stem cell research requires the destruction of human embryos and/or therapeutic coning, which brings up ethical and religious issues. "Many religions, including Buddhism and Christianity do not believe in this harm , or that it destroys the afterlife."- Whoever said this is stupid, Christians do believe this is wrong because its close to abortion. Its just the same as destroying a human person. there is good and bad to this research.

Recent advances in stem cell harvesting have made the religious argument like the one above no longer relevant as abortion issues no longer apply.

March 2009

Mount Sinai Hospital's Dr. Andras Nagy discovered a new method of creating stem cells that could lead to possible cures for devastating diseases including spinal cord injury, macular degeneration, diabetes and Parkinson's disease. The study, published by Nature, accelerates stem cell technology and provides a road map for new clinical approaches to regenerative medicine. "This new method of generating stem cells does not require embryos as starting points and could be used to generate cells from many adult tissues such as a patient's own skin cells."

The research was funded by the Canadian Stem Cell Network and the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (United States).

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Flower Arranging
Bananas and Plantains
Stem Cells

How many stems of leptospermum come in a bunch?

It depends on the packager. Most floral products can be bought with as few as one stem, or as many as 50, depending on the grower. As with most things, it is just a question of what the market will pay.

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Science
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Stem Cells

What organelle provides the energy for the cell wall?

Plant cells have mitochondria just as animals cells do. These provide the energy for the production of cell walls.

Cellulose is the substance that makes up most of a plant's cell walls. Plant cells make their own carbohydrates that they use for energy and to build their cell wall.

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Stem Cells

How are embryonic human stem cells like plant cells?

The embryonic human stem cells are like a plant cell, because interphase carries out the variouse function as the growth and preparation of the human stem grows. The plant cells also grow and increases in the size and makes proteins for other cells. Mitosis then takes over, the cell is cut into two and reformed. also like the embryonic humanstem cells. and that is how they are alike .. to sum things up the over all preformance is they both grow and form by protiens. they are also shaped about the same.

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Stem Cells

Name the formed elements that arise from myeloid stem cells?

erythrocytes,platelets, monocytes,neutrophils,eosinophils and basophils

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Zoology or Animal Biology
Genetics
Blood
Stem Cells

Where are red blood cells produced?

Red blood cells (RBCs) are produced in the bone marrow.

Red blood cells are also known as erythrocytes and they transport oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and tissues. The production of red blood cells is also known as hematopoiesis; this process occurs in the bone marrow. The bone marrow is found in the spongy tissue in the middle of bones. In this tissue there are pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells. This means that they can develop into many different blood cell types (yes there is more than one type of cell found in the blood!).

To become a red blood cell, the pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell must first become an uncommitted stem cell. It then forms a committed progenitor cells. These progenitor cells can form red blood cells, lymphocytes and other white blood cells, and megakaryocytes (the parent cells of platelets).

To form a RBC, the committed progenitor cell must first form a erythroblast, then a reticulocyte, and then finally a erythrocyte (a red blood cell). Red blood cells have an average lifespanof 120 days in the body.

Erythropoeitin can also be used to stimulate RBC production based on low oxygen levels. An increase in RBCs increases oxygen transport in the blood. This is helpful in high performance athletes. Adding RBCs or erythropoetin to the blood stream is called blood doping in professional sports.

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Stem Cells

How are adult stem cells obtained?

from the bone marrow

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Stem Cells

Sperm develop from stem cells called?

spermatogonia

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Biology
Genetics
Barack Obama
Stem Cells

What is a stem cell?

A cell must meet two basic key criteria in order to be considered a stem cell:

1. Able to differentiate into multiple cell types upon induction.

2. Able to remain in an undifferentiated state over numerous cell divisions when not induced to differentiate.

There are numerous "stem cells", some with more potential than others. An embryonic stem cell is pluripotent by definition because it is able to become any cell in the body (though this is difficult in practice). Other stem cells are more restricted, such as the hematopoietic stem cell, which can only form the cell types found in blood and the immune system.

A new form of cell called an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS), can be generated by turning on at least 2 specific genes in skin or other non-stem cells. This is commonly done through use of a viral vector such as a retrovirus although it is now possible to avoid the use of virus. Preliminary studies indicate that iPS cells have identical capabilities as embryonic stem cells which may negate the need to derive embryonic stem cells from embryos. Still, everything we know about pluripotent stem cells comes from studies of embryonic stem cells and thus they are an integral part of the quest for therapeutic uses for stem cells.

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