Supernovae

A supernova is an explosion of a supergiant star. It will put off huge amounts of energy, much more than if all the nuclear warheads on Earth were detonated at once.

1,922 Questions
Supernovae

How does a supernova effect humans?

The distance that the supernova is from Earth would affect how much it effects us. If our sun were to go supernova at this moment, there would be a seven minute delay until the light from the nova reaches us. It is likely that a "shock wave" would be produced and the earth would probably be destroyed very soon after we realise that a super nova has happened. If a supernova occurred in Alpha Centauri, it would take 4 years for us to realise so, and the effects from such supernova are yet unknown, but would probably include an increase in radiation entering our solar system. It is likely that our Sun's magnetosphere would prevent a large amount of the radiation from getting into the solar system. It is also unlikely that any matter would have enough momenteum to travel the 4 light years between Alpha Centuari and Sol (our sun). Any super nova that occurs outside our own solar system would normally only increase the amount of raditation that impacts that magnetosphere. Supernovas that have occurred in the Milky Way Galaxy, in the past have had very little effect on Humans here on Earth.

Another answer:

According to our present understanding, all elements heavier than lithium are created naturally only in stars, and all elements heavier than iron are created during supernova events. Many of those elements are required to make planets, life, and ultimately, humans. Supernovae are the events that spread those elements out into the void, where they eventually collect as clouds of gas and collapse into planets and other astronomical bodies. Thus, we would not exist if supernovae has not previously seeded the universe.

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Supernovae

How powerful is a supernova explosion?

For a few days, the supernova will shine about as bright as an entire galaxy - as bright as 100 billion suns.

The light from a supernova that occurs within 50 light years would likely be enough to sterilize the earth through intense UV radiation.

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What may form after a supernova?

Depending on the mass of the original star, a supernova explosion may cause a neutron star (for medium to large stars) or a black hole (for large or very large stars). If the original star was rotating fairly rapidly, the neutron star may be a "pulsar", the name given to a rapidly spinning neutron star that emits pulses of X-rays. "Rapidly" spinning in this case is upwards of three revolutions per second.

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What is a supernova?

A "supernova" is a nova (Latin "new") explosion of a very large star, creating a nebula of illuminated gas that is one of the most visible of all celestial phenomena.

Remember that a star is a nuclear fusion "engine" that is powered by the fusion of lighter elements to create heavier ones (up through iron). As lighter elements are fused to create heavier ones, energy is released in huge quantities. Gravity holds the star together against the outward force of all the fusion reactions, and the star operates in equilibrium. The extreme energy in the star allows for fusion reactions to continue to occur. But eventually the core of the star is largely sulfur and silicon. The contraction and heating of the star's core allows it to begin massively fusing silicon into iron, and this reaction absorbs energy rather than releasing it.

At some point, the energy created in fusion is insufficient to hold the star "up" against its own gravity, and, having exhausted its "regular" fuel, it will collapse. This is the supernova process. The star collapses causing the outer layers to violently explode outward as gases and dust. The compression of the body of the star in the collapse creates enormous thermal energy that supports the endothermic fusion reactions that create those trans-iron elements (up through uranium). It all occurs in a relatively short period of time. Afterwards, the remnant core may become a super-compressed neutron star, or even a black hole, if the star is massive enough.

Supernovae help enrich the interstellar medium with heavy elements, and shockwaves from the explosion may also trigger star formation. It is believed that the Sun and Solar System formed as a result of a nearby supernova.

While a supernova has not been observed from Earth since 1604, supernova remnants indicate that they occur, on average, about once every 50 years.

See the links and related questions below for more information

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Supernovae

Does neutrino or supernova travel faster than or at speed of light?

No, neutrinos have been shown to have a small non-zero mass. They can't get to c (the speed of light in a vacuum). The only thing a supernova can eject at the speed of light is photons.

Update: Recently an experiment has measured neutrinos traveling above the speed of light. An explanation is yet to be offered.

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Will our sun become a supernova?

The Sun does not have enough mass to become a supernova because its mass is less than the Chandrasekhar mass (approximately 1.4 Suns) and it has no way to gain mass.

When the Sun comes to the end of its life (In about 5 billion years) [See Link] it will slowly emerge into a red giant. The dying Sun will then throw off its outer layers, forming a nebula. The only object remaining will be the extremely hot core, which will slowly cool and then fade as a white dwarf over many billions of years.

Interestingly, the fact that our solar system contains heavy elements indicates that supernovae have occurred here before. Our sun is probably the third star to exist in this cosmic neighbourhood, and our solar system formed from the particles left over from prior stars destroying themselves in spectacular manner

Links are provided below for more information.

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Supernovae

What is bigger than a supernova?

A Hyper Nova

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What determines the outcome of a supernova?

The Supernova is the death of a star - whatever happens to the remnants is in the lap of gravity.

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Supernovae

What conditions of a supernova cause elements that are heavier than iron to form?

The rapid collapse of the star compresses atoms together and may cause nuclear fusion and make heavier elements.

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Why can you see a supernova explosion?

Because they are massive explosions that can outshine a whole galaxy.

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What is the difference between a nova a supernova and a neutron star?

A nova is a star which has a close companion star, and draws stellar material off of it's companion, occasionally flaring up very brightly in the process. A supernova is a massive and hot star to begin with, that tends to go through it's life cycle at high speed, and ending it's life in a cataclysmic explosion. Supernova remnants then collapse into a neutron star - a spinning, very hot pile of stellar ash, so dense that a teaspoonful of it would weigh thousands of tons. If the collapsed supernova star was big enough, it's gravity upon collapse is so intense than not even light can escape from it, and it becomes what is called a "Black Hole".

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Supernovae

How does a supernova get so big that it explosion?

It starts out that way, by condensing from an especially large nebula.

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Datsun
Supernovae

Why would your Datsun 280zx stall if the rpm goes over 2000?

Could very well be the spark plugs or possibly fuel injectors. I had the same problem and it was the spark plugs. check for dead spots in your tps. also check that the resistance in your airflow meter is consistant.

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Supernovae

How strong is a supernova?

Very. Hundreds to millions of times the solar output, squeezed into a few seconds. A supernova at one of our closest neighbors would end all life on Earth.... not maybe from the blast, but at least from retaining heat from our own Sun.

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Supernovae

Will all stars that become supernovae leave behind a neutron star?

No, some leave a black hole instead of a neutron star.

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Supernovae

Who was the Danish astronomer who proved that a supernova was far away?

Tych Brahe

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Astronomy
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Supernovae

Is there a star or supernova by the name of Xibalba?

Xibalba is the name of the Mayan underworld ... essentially the equivalent of the Greek Hades (the place, not the god). Also, the Mayans appear to have regarded a dark rift in the Orion Constellation as being the road to Xibalba. On Ganymede, one of Jupiter's moons, there is a feature (a sulcus, which is basically a kind of ditch) named after it; that's the only modern non-fictional astronomical reference to it that I know of The nebula in the movie, The Fountain, is referred to as Xibalba, which the Mayans believed to be the Orion Nebula. There is no star or nebula technically referred to as Xibalba, but as you can see throughout the movie, it is shown to be within the constellation Orion and specifically the location of the Orion Nebula. According to Wikipedia: "The Maya of Central America had a folk tale which dealt with Orion's part of the sky, known as Xibalba. Their traditional hearths included in their middle a smudge of glowing fire that corresponded with the Orion nebula. This is clear pre-telescope evidence that the Maya detected a diffuse area of the sky contrary to the pin points of stars."

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Tablets and Handheld Computers
Novas
Supernovae

How do you reset your supernova dlx pandigital?

1. Power off the Nova by holding the power button for two seconds until you see "Power Off" on the screen. Choose the "power off" option and then press the "Ok" button. Let the device completely power down before you continue with the next steps. At this time also remove any SD card you might have inserted into the device.

2. Press and hold the volume + button. While still holding this button, press down on the power button. You will then see a screen that says Pandigital. This is the boot screen.

3. After the device boots up you will go to a black screen with triangle, press volume + button and the power button. What should come up is a screen with blue text, this is the system recovery screen. While on the system recovery screen, press the volume - button until "wipe data and cache" is highlighted. Press the power button to select this option

4. Press the volume - button until "Yes -- delete all user data" is highlighted. Press the power button to select this option.

5. The device will reformat and return to the system recovery screen.

6. "Reboot system now" should be highlighted by default. Press the power button to select this option. (this is directly from pandigital customer service)

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Supernovae

What type of star is left behind after a supernova?

Depending on the original mass, either a neutron star or a black hole.

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Astronomy

What happens to a star that gets too big?

Nothing but when the star explodes it turns into a blackhole

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Supernovae

Can a supernova destroy an entire galaxy?

No. However, it may cause serious damage to any living beings in nearby solar systems - even up to a thousand light-years away or so - assuming there are such living beings.

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Supernovae

What type of astronomer studies supernovas?

Though I am not 100 percent positive, I am 99 percent certain that Supernovas would be included in the studies done by an ASTROPHYSICIST.

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Supernovae

Why are supernova important?

According to the big bang theory [See Link - Big Bang] only the elements hydrogen, helium and a small amount of lithium were created. Around 400 million years after the big bang, the first stars were born. Classified as population III stars [See Link - Metallicity ] (Although non have been observed and their creation is still a theory) these stars were supermassive, much larger than any star that can be formed today. These stars created the first 26 elements up to iron via nucleosynthesis. [See Link - nucleosynthesis] Because of their high mass, these stars exhausted their fuel supply in about one million years and perished in enormous supernovae. These explosions would have dispersed the material, ejecting those elements throughout the universe. These ejections enabled the creation of population II stars, which were born out of the materials left by the death of the first generation. These are the oldest observed stars, and have a very low metal content. As future generations of stars were born and died they became more metal enriched, as the gaseous clouds from which they formed, received the metal-rich dust manufactured by previous generations. As each successive generation of stars used these elements, new elements were formed in supernova explosions. Every element heavier than iron, was produced in a supernova. This includes gold.

The different abundances of elements in the material that forms a star have important influences on the star's life, and may decisively influence the possibility of having planets orbiting it. [See Link - Metallicity] Supernova production of heavy elements over astronomic periods of time ultimately made the chemistry of life on Earth possible. Supernova explosions can also assist in the creation of new stars in stellar nurseries, acting as a trigger, sending shocked matter into the molecular cloud at very high speeds. [See Link - Star Formation]

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Well, theoretically, we are the end products of a massive supernova. So in other words, if another massive supernova took place, it could create life. There are also other results but this is the main one.


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Supernovae

What is a supernova remnant?

After a star has burned out its fuel supply, exhausting the hydrogen and helium that are being fused, one of three things can happen, depending on the mass of the star.

For a star with a mass similar to the Sun, it will turn into a white dwarf and radiate its remaining heat into space for billions of years. It will end its life as a black dwarf. (Though none exist at the moment, as the universe is not old enough).

For larger stars, depending on its chemical composition and temperature, the star explodes as a supernova and usually collapses into a neutron star. If the remaining mass is large enough, the pressure will be insufficient to stop a total collapse, and the star will become a black hole.

A supernova remnant [See Link] is the structure resulting from the massive explosion of a star in a supernova. The remnant is bounded by an expanding shock wave, including ejected material from the explosion and the interstellar material it sweeps up along the way.

The supernova explosion expels much or all of the stellar material with velocities around 3,000 km/s. When this material collides with the surrounding circumstellar or interstellar gas, it forms a shock wave that can heat the gas up to temperatures as high as 10 million °K, forming a plasma.

The stages involved are:

# Free expansion of the ejecta, until it sweeps up its own weight in circumstellar or interstellar medium. This can last tens to a few hundred years depending on the density of the surrounding gas. # Sweeping up of a shell of shocked circumstellar and interstellar gas. # Cooling of the shell, to form a thin, dense shell surrounding the hot interior. This is the pressure-driven phase. # Cooling of the interior. The dense shell continues to expand from its own momentum. # Merging with the surrounding interstellar medium. After roughly a million years, it will merge into the general turbulent flow, contributing its remaining kinetic energy to the turbulence. There are three types of remnant:

* Shell-like, such as Cassiopeia A * Composite, where the shell contains a central pulsar wind nebula, such as G11.2-0.3. * Mixed-morphology ("thermal composite") remnants, in which central thermal X-ray emissions are seen, enclosed by a radio shell.

*The illumination of the gases by heating provides the spectacular light-and-shadow appearance of supernova nebulae. It is believed that these dense clouds can become the stellar "nurseries" for further generations of stars.



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Supernovae

What role did supernova play in creating the natural elements?

It is precisely the supernovae that created those elements and dispersed them into space.

It is precisely the supernovae that created those elements and dispersed them into space.

It is precisely the supernovae that created those elements and dispersed them into space.

It is precisely the supernovae that created those elements and dispersed them into space.

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