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A fish living freshwater would be hyperosmotic to its surroundings. This means that it is surrounded by water that is less salty than its blood. Therefore, the main challenge for Freshwater Fish is to retain enough salt from fresh water for normal bodily functions, resulting in very dilute urine, since they have to get rid of more water relative to salt. A marine fish (salt water fish) has the opposite problem. It is hypoosmotic to its environment, meaning that it lives in water that is saltier than its blood. Therefore, the main challenge for marine fish is to expel enough salt from saltwater to enable it to use the water it takes in for normal bodily functions, resulting in concentrated urine, since they have to get rid of more salt relative to water.

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Q: What osmotic regulatory challenges would a fish living in freshwater have versus a fish living in salt water?
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