Germany Austria Hungary Turkey and Bulgaria were members of?

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The answer is: The Central Powers.
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Was Austria-Hungary a part of Germany?

Austria-Hungary was not a part of Germany; it was a monarchy ruled by Franz Josef the first, that split into pieces after the First World War. During the same period, Germany was run by Kaiser Wilhelm the first and the second. ___ Until 1866 Austria was part of the German Confederation and in fact officially the 'top dog' in Germany. In 1866 Prussia expelled Austria by force (in a war, that is) and dissolved the German Confederation. The following year Austria agreed to share power with Hungary, and Austria-Hungary was formed. So the answer above is technically correct but it is useful to have more background.

Why were Germany and Austria-Hungary allies?

The central European countries were natural allies because of their common past as generally Germanic peoples, notably under the Holy Roman Empire (962 to 1806 AD) In 1882, they formed the Triple Alliance with Italy, under which Germany had an agreement to go to war if Austria-Hungary were to be attacked by Russia. Alliances such as this were what brought so many countries into World War I in 1914.

What territories were lost by Austria Hungary Bulgaria Germany and Russia?

Russia lost land that was formed into Finland, Lithania, Latvia, Estonia, Poland and some was added to Romania. Austria-Hungary was broken up into four separate countries: Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia. Germany lost all its colonial possesions, a piece out of the south-east that was added to Czechoslovakia and a strip of land that included the port city Danzig was given to Poland so it wouldn't be totally landlocked. Bulgaria lost all of its border on the Mediterranean.