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Has a US Supreme Court justice ever resigned?

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Yes. Sixteen justices have resigned from the Court since it was established in 1789. In the early years, the most common reason for resignation was the rigorous circuit riding schedule that forced the justices to travel long distances, on horseback or by carriage, most of the year. John Jay, the first Chief Justice, resigned after being elected Governor of New York. After Congress passed the Judiciary Act of 1869 that had a provision for retirement pay, more justices retired than resigned. Still, other justices continued to leave the Court due to illness, dislike of the work, or conflicts of interest.

The following list shows which justices resigned in order of appointment, and includes the years served as well as the appointing President.

1.........John Jay, (CJ)..................1789 - 1795........Washington
4.........John Blair, Jr....................1790 - 1795........Washington
5.........John Rutledge..................1790 - 1791........Washington
7.........Thomas Johnson..............1792 - 1793........Washington
32.......Benjamin R. Curtis............1857 - 1857........Filmore
33.......John Archibald Campbell....1853 - 1861........Pierce
37........David David....................1862 - 1877........Lincoln
62.......Charles Evans Hughes.......1910 - 1916........Taft
65.......Mahlon Pitney...................1912 - 1922........Taft
68.......John Hessein Clark............1916 - 1922........Wilson
69.......William H. Taft (CJ)...........1921 - 1930.........Harding
74.......Owen Roberts...................1930 - 1945........Hoover
81.......James F. Byrnes................1941 - 1942........Roosevelt
91.......Charles Evans Whittaker.....1957 - 1962.........Eisenhower
94.......Arthur Goldburg................1962 - 1965.........Kennedy
95........Abe Fortas.......................1965 - 1969.........Johnson
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