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How do planets change orbital speed change?

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Planets with elliptical orbits are affected by the difference in the strength of the Sun's gravity as they move closer to, or farther away from, the Sun. The only other major effect on planets are the gravity of other planets, notably Jupiter and Neptune.
Except for Mars, Ceres, Pluto, and trans-Neptunian planets, the effect is extremely small -- it has resulted in stable orbital resonances between several small outer planets and the planet Neptune.
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