How is cotton made?
- Cotton is from the cotton plant (gossypium). The cotton fibre grows around the seed pod of the plant, and the colour of the soft fibre varies from white to a greyish yellow.
- When the cotton boll is ready for harvesting, the cotton boll is picked.
- When cotton bolls are harvested, the seeds are removed and used for cooking oils. The raw cotton is ready for making textiles.
- The cotton boll contains about 30 seeds, together with cotton fibres attached. The raw cotton fibres have to be separated from the seed by a process called ginning.
- At the spinning mill, the cotton fibres are sorted, spun and twisted into yarn.
- Cotton cloth can be woven or knitted by machine. It is mostly
used to make cotton fabric used for clothes, socks, underwear, etc.
It is a light and breathable fabric, making it ideal for bed linen
Cotton is produced in 80 countries around the world.
The plant grows in dry semi-humid conditions.
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How Silk is Made . Silk - the most beautiful of all textile fibers is acclaimed as the queen of textiles. It comes from the cocoon of the silk worm and requires a great deal… of handling and processing, which makes it one of the most expensive fibers also. Today China is the leading silk producer of the world. Other major silk producing countries include Japan, India and Italy.. Production of Silk Characteristics of Silk Identifying of Silk Four Varieties of Natural Silk. The Silk Worm Production of Silk from Cocoon to Factory Sericulture: The production of cocoon for their filament is called sericulture. The species Bombyx mori is usually cultivated and is raised under controlled condition of environment and nutrition. The life cycle of silk worm encircle in the four stages. The egg, the silk worm, the pupa and the moth. The silk worm which feeds on mulberry leaves forms a covering around it by secreting a protein like substance through its head.. This stage is called cocoon, the desirable stage for the silk producers. . Filature operations: The cocoons raised by the farmer are delivered to the factory, called a filature, where the silk is unwound from the cocoons and the strands are collected into skeins. Some cocoons are scientifically bred in such factories. The filature operations consist of the following stages. a) Sorting cocoons : The cocoons are sorted according to the color, size, shape and texture as these affect the final quality of the silk. Cocoons may range from white and yellow to grayish. b) Softening the Sericin : Silk filament is a double strand of fibroin, which is held together by a gummy substance called sericin or silk gum. After the cocoon has been sorted, they are put through a series of hot and cold immersions, as the sericin must be softened to permit the unwinding of the filament as one continuous thread. c) Reeling the filament : Reeling is the process of unwinding the silk filaments from the cocoon and combining them together to make a thread of raw silk. As the filament of the cocoon is too fine for commercial use, three to ten strands are usually reeled at a time to produce the desired diameter of raw silk which is known as "reeled silk". The useable length of reeled filament is 300 to 600 m. d) Bailing : The silk filament is reeled into skeins, which are packed in a small bundles called books, weighting 2 to 4.5 kg. These books are put into bales weighing about 60 kg. In this form raw silk is shipped to silk mills all over the world. . Characteristics of Silk Silk is very strong in terms of tensile strength, meaning it can withstand a lot of pulling type pressure without breaking. This should not, however, be confused with wear ability or abrasion resistance. Silk will not stand up to the heavy wear that other fibers will.. Silk can take on many different appearances. A raw silk fabric may fool you into thinking that it is cotton or synthetic. The more refined the silk and the smaller the yarn, the more it resembles the look and feel that we know as silky.. Silk is a protein fiber like wool. This gives it many of its characteristics. It is sensitive to a range of chemical situations and cannot withstand prolonged exposure to either high alkalinity or to acid or oily soils. It will become brittle with age and exposure to sunlight. . . . Identifying Silk The burn test is the best way to be sure. Burning silk will leave a powdery ash and will extinguish itself when the flame is removed, just like wool. The easy way to tell silk and wool apart in the burn test is the smell. Where wool will have the smell of burning hair, the silk will have a much more disagreeable smell.. (MORE)
Cotton is a plant. To make it into fabric, it must be harvested, cleaned, spun into thread and woven (on a loom).
Through separating the individual fibers and using a machine to weave them together