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# What's next after the House of Night series is complete?

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# What are the roman numerals to 1000?

Well, here is a quick overview, so you don't have to write out all of them. 1 - I 5 - V 10 - X 50 - L 100 - C 500 - D 1000 - M They go from highest to lowest when written, and… they are added up as you go along, like 1776: MDCCLXXVI Also, if you're on the verge of reaching a new letter, like the numbers 4, 9, 14, 19, 49, 99, 499, and 999, it will be written as such: IV IX XIV XIX IL IC ID IM This method of putting an I in front of the next changing letter, derives from the written out form of a Latin number, being "undeviginti", meaning "one from twenty". There are more rules and exceptions, but that is a summary of why. PLEASE RECOMMEND ME! :) (MORE)

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# Basic Roman numerals up to 1000?

I = 1; V = 5; X = 10; L = 50; C = 100; D = 500; M = 1000

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# 1-1000 in roman numerals?

In today's notation 1-1000 in Roman numerals are: Units from 1 to 9: I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX Tens from 10 to 90: X, XX, XXX, XL, L, LX, LXX, LXXX, XC Hundre…ds from 100 to 900: C, CC, CCC, CD, D, DC, DCC, DCCC, CM Thousand: M To select a number simply write down the hundreds first then followed by the tens and then the units. Examples: 986 = CM+LXXX+VI = CMLXXXVI and 666 = DC+LX +VI = DCLXVI (MORE)

In Math

# Roman Numerals Letters and Numbers

Whether you're in elementary school, high school, or college, letters always appear in your math lessons. One way that this happens is through the ancient Roman numeric system… known as Roman numerals. Roman numerals can be fun, but for some students, they can be difficult and overly complex. In this article, you'll find all of the important questions about Roman numerals answered simply and efficiently, so that you can know everything about this method of expressing numbers through letters.The Roman numbers that are used today are as follows: * The number 1 is represented by the letter I. * The number 5 is represented by the letter V. * The number 10 is represented by the letter X. * The number 50 is represented by the letter L. * The number 100 is represented by the letter C. * The number 500 is represented by the letter D. * The number 1,000 is represented by the letter M.The Roman numeral I is the most complicated Roman numeral of them all (so far as the smaller numbers are concerned), as it is the numeral used to subtract from V and X. Only three I numerals can be used consecutively. This means that you cannot create the number four using nothing but the letter I. Instead, you must follow the second rule for Roman numeral I. This rule states that if an I or a sequence of them follows a different Roman numeral, each Roman numeral I is subtracted from the initial value of the number that it (or they) followed. For example, the number four is created by placing Roman numeral V (for 5) behind a single Roman numeral I (for 1). This will translate as 5 minus 1, which results in the number 4. Hence, you would create the number 9 by writing the Roman numeral X (for 10) following a single Roman numeral I. A slightly more complex number is fourteen, which would play out as follows: XIV, meaning 10 plus 5 minus 1. Now that you understand the rules for I, you can apply them to larger numbers. These rules also work for the letters X (10) and C (100). However, X only subtracts from L (50) and C, and C only subtracts from M (1,000) and D (500). Apart from that difference, the same rules of subtraction that apply to the letter I apply to the letters X and C.As you create larger numbers, Roman numerals can become more complex. Sequences of thousands and numbers that subtract singular numbers repeatedly can be incredibly complicated and can occasionally take quite some time to decipher. Here are some examples: * MMMMCMXCIX is the Roman numeral for 4,999. The M's (1000) translate as 4,000, and the CM (1000 minus 100) represents 900. The next numbers are XCIX, meaning 90 and then 9, resulting in 4,999. * MCMXCIV is the Roman number for 1994. Translating from left to right, here is how this equation is figured: 1,000 (M) plus (1,000 minus 100 equals 900) (CM) plus (100 minus 10 equals 90) (XC) plus (5 minus 1 equals 4) (IV), which equals 1,000 plus 900 plus 90 plus 4. When you add these together, the total is 1994.There are several theories as to where Roman numerals came from. One of the more prominent theories is that Roman numerals were derived from original tally marks. The reason for this theory is that Roman numerals are derived from letters that can all easily be created using the same straight lines. Even C can be created using merely two straight lines that were used to create tally sticks. This not only made it very easy to carve into stone later on, but it made it quite easy to communicate. Clearly, the actual notches made from the original tally marks differ slightly from Roman numerals, but the resemblance is obvious, and the rules are similar. However, Roman numerals are far more efficient than the tallies.Roman numerals can be tough to master. However, once you do master them, you'll be able to read and understand them quite easily. While the rules of subtraction may seem difficult and complicated, memorizing which letter corresponds with which number is the part that is the most difficult. Memorize the symbols and letters, and everything else about Roman numerals should be easy to understand.Alfred Hooper has another theory about the origins of Roman numerals. He believes that they were derived explicitly from or for hand signal usage. (MORE)

In Math

# A Brief Tutorial on Arithmetic Using Roman Numeral Letters

If you were a student living in ancient Rome, and were given a homework assignment involving math, it probably wouldn't be all that difficult. While the system of Roman numera…l letters may at first glance appear to be cumbersome, it really isn't. It takes less effort to write C instead of 100, or M instead of 1,000. The Romans did not have to worry about calculus since it hadn't been invented yet. Their mathematics primarily consisted of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, and they had the abacus, an ancient version of the pocket calculator to help them out.The Roman numerals are based upon counting. The letter I, meaning 1, could be a notch on the stick. The other letters V, X, L, C, and M, are essentially shorthand. It would be hard to read a string of 33 I's without making a mistake. XXXIII is much easier to read and much faster to write. The largest number represented by a letter is 1,000. That letter is an M. The Romans didn't need numbers that represented billions or trillions. They didn't have to count that many things, and could do a lot with the letters they had to represent larger numbers. The year 1989 for example would be written MCMLXXXIX. M is 1,000, CM is 900, LXXX is 80, and IX is 9. The letters V, X, L, and C stand for 5, 10, 50, and 100, respectively.If you wish to add two numbers expressed as Roman numerals, you do three things. First you convert numbers using prefixes, such as IX which means 9, to the same number expressed with suffixes. In this case 9 would be written as VIIII. You then concatenate the numbers, which means placing one against the other. If you want to add 9 or IX to 23, which is XXIII, you change IX to VIIII and add it to XXIII, giving you VIIIIXXIII. Unless you are a Roman, that doesn't mean anything. You next have to group like letters together. That gives you XXVIIIIIII. XX is 20, and VIIIIII is 5 plus 7, which equals 12. The shorter designation for 12 is XII. Your answer becomes XXXII which is 32.Subtraction is no more difficult. To subtract 19, or XIX, from 124, or CXXIV, you first remove the prefixes and change them to suffixes, changing 19 to XVIIII and 124 to CXXIIII. Now you write 124 ? 19 as CXXIIII ? XVIIII. You need to eliminate common terms as you would in an algebraic equation, so you'll need a 'V' on each side. Change CXXIIII to CXVVIIII because 5 plus 5, or V plus V, equals 10, or X. Now you have CXVVIIII ? XVIIII. Eliminating the like terms, which in this case are X, V, and IIII, leaves you with CV or 105. It gets easier with practice.Here you place one number in a left-hand column and the number it is to be multiplied to in a right hand column. The numbers are of course in Roman numeral notation. Divide the number in the left-hand column by 2 and discard the remainder. Multiply the number in the right hand column by 2. Repeat the process, always throwing out any remainder in the left-hand column, which if present will be a 1. When you are done, you will end up with a 1 in the left hand column and a large number in the right hand column. Now take both columns and strike out the rows where the left-side numbers are even numbers. Add together the numbers in the remaining right-hand column rows and the result is your answer. What you have essentially done is used a binary system to arrive at your answer, much as a computer does.To do division with Roman numerals you have to work the problem as a computer would. That is to say you would have to do a series of subtractions. There is no one method that seems to be better than any other method. It is somewhat of a brute force calculation in which an abacus could come in very handy. About the only shortcut you could employ would be to divide both numbers by two until you get the lowest possible two numbers. In other words, use a factoring process. You can only do that of course if both numbers are even numbers to start with. Roman schoolboys probably hated division.The Romans did not have a symbol for zero. That does not create a problem if you are counting or adding. If you are subtracting and end up at zero, in the Roman way of thinking you simply end up with nothing. Insofar as fractions are concerned, they were not expressed as numerical notations but as words. The Roman would write "one third" instead of some variation of III. They did make use of what is called an uncia, which means 1/12 of anything. One-half for example would consist of 6 uncias. There was not any standard system in place to deal with either fractions or decimals.If you stop to think about it, the Roman system might make more sense when it comes to counting than the Arabic numbering system in use today. A III has more to say than does a 3 to the uninitiated. While multiplication requires a bit of skill, and division requires quite a bit more, most Romans did not have to worry themselves with arithmetic. Most of the mathematical answers they required in their day-to-day living could be arrived at by counting, even if it meant cutting notches on a stick, where some believe the system got its start.The Roman numerals are based upon counting. The letter I, meaning 1, could be a notch on the stick. The other letters V, X, L, C, and M are essentially shorthand. It would be hard to read a string of 33 I's without making a mistake. XXXIII is much easier to read and faster to write. (MORE)

# Historical Influences on Chinese Numerals

Chinese numerals have gone through several evolutions throughout the course of history. In ancient China, mathematics was considered an art form, and those with a high ability… for doing calculations were considered masters of the arts. Numerals have many important meanings in China, from simple counting through the highly metaphysical numerology system. This list presents an overview of five of the ways the Chinese number system has changed over time.In 1899, Chinese archaeologists found bones inscribed with ancient Chinese script. Included with these bones were examples of the number system. This was found to be very different from the number symbols used in standard script today. Much numerical information was found on these bones; it included the numbers of men lost to war, populations of the times, and even identified that ancient Chinese math was based on a decimal system, much like the one that is used throughout the world today.The bamboo rod method of calculating mathematics was created around 2,000 BC. It used bamboo rods placed in groups and lines, allowing for higher calculation than was previously seen. Only the numbers from one to nine were represented in this form of mathematics; zero did not have a place due to the hands-on approach of laying the rods. Rods could be arranged in specific columns and rows to represent extremely high numbers.Around 220 BC, the book, "Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art" was written. It was during this time that the Chinese mathematical system was standardized. This book is still referred to by many math teachers and math masters in China, even today.Around 263 AD, Chinese mathematician Liu Hui produced a long commentary on the "Nine Chapters of the Mathematical Art." This influence caused a further evolution of the number system and included a better way to solve for pi. In fact, Liu Hui was the first math master to correctly solve pi to 3.14 in China.The belief that numbers were directly associated with the metaphysical also had an impact on the symbols used within Chinese numerals. It is believed that the ancient mythical Chinese leader Hu created the idea of numerology during his time as emperor. To this day, some numbers are considered more important to Chinese people than others.Chinese numerals continue to go through many evolutions. Today, math masters in China work the same jobs found in America. They often become teachers, physicists, scientists, and researchers. Many math masters also become computer programmers or web developers. This is likely because there is a common link between math and coding; most code is based on mathematical calculations at its base.Math is considered one of the most important subjects to learn within Chinese schools, and the level which students are encouraged to attain is much higher than what is found in American culture. Often, Chinese students are practicing calculus by the time they reach the equivalent of junior high. (MORE)

In Language

# Romans and the Art of Writing

In the 7th century BC, Rome began its adventure in writing. Although the skill of reading and writing was restricted to the wealthy, it was a crucial element to the developmen…t of the Romans in order to record thoughts and ideas. It was even used as a form of entertainment during Rome's time. The Romans had quite a variety of tools to write with, both expensive and inexpensive, and in fact some of their methods are quite similar to the ones we use today. Many of the methods and the alphabet itself is very similar to that which is seen today.The Romans adopted the Latin alphabet, which was introduced to them by the Greeks. They expanded this alphabet to better suit their own needs. Within the first century BC, this alphabet was refined by the Romans to consist of a total of 21 letters, and it was soon expanded to contain the letters K, Y, and Z. This Latin alphabet was very similar to our own, and it should not be surprising as much of our alphabet was inspired by this alphabet. Writing was an art of refinement for the Romans. They experimented with the art and have eventually settled on writing with a left to right method, similar to that of English methods today.The Romans often chiseled their alphabet into pillars, buildings, and other stone structures. These 'writings' had no form of punctuation to speak of and typically look to be an uninterrupted paragraph of text. They wrote using ink and papyrus, a form of paper made from the papyrus plant. They also used wax tablets, into which they could carve their letters. These wax tablets could be erased and were far less expensive than more permanent methods of writing, and thus were used frequently as a tool for instruction.The Romans did not spread the wealth of knowledge when it came to reading or writing. Typically only the children of wealthy parents were taught how to read and write. These children typically started their tutoring at the age of six. These children practiced using what was called a 'stylus', which was a stick used to write letters onto wax tablets during that era. This allowed the children to easily rub out letters as needed to better refine their writing abilities. Wax tablets, due to their cost effectiveness, made tutoring a bit more accessible to the wealthy.Rome's writing was diverse in nature. It was a tool used to communicate ideas between those who had the necessary schooling to read and write. It was also a method to express oneself through the writing of poetry or other arts of entertainment. While reading and writing was a tool of the privileged, it was nonetheless a valuable tool for recording thoughts and ideas so that they may be referred to at a future date. Unfortunately many of these writings did not survive the test of time, though the chiseled letters of stone remain to inform researchers as to how the Romans developed and used this alphabet.The alphabet they took in and refined is very similar to that we have today. Writing may have been an art restricted to the wealthy in the Roman era, but they took great pride in it as can be seen by the wondrous works carved into their structures that still stand to this day. Even their methods have carried on for a very long time. It would be false to give Rome all the credit for today's writing, but they've certainly had a hand in its development.The Latin alphabet had a high impact in English literature today, but the numbers used today stem from Arabic culture. Roman numerals are vastly different to what we use today, and they typically consisted of a combination of Latin letters to represent the thought of a number. (MORE)

In Ancient

# The Four Styles of Ancient Roman Frescoes

One of the most expansive empires of its kind, the Roman Empire left behind countless pieces of intriguing history. Whether through great leaders and armies or art and public …works, Roman innovation shined in the ancient world. Though some aspects of ancient Roman culture are relatively unknown, one of Rome's most well-known artistic contributions comes in the form of the fresco. Frescoes, which are paintings rapidly produced upon newly laid plaster, depict some of the most memorable scenes in Roman history. Here are the four main styles of Roman frescoes.In the masonry style, also known as the incrustation style, a certain brand of illusion is carried out. The aim of the masonry style is to call forth an image of wealth from the appearance of the walls upon which it is used. To do this, a Roman artist would paint walls to appear as if they were comprised of colorful, flat stones. Such stones, if truly present, would likely be imported and therefore expensive. As a result, the owner of a home with masonry style frescoes would appear replete with wealth to outsiders.In contrast with frescoes created in the masonry style, the architectural (or illusionistic) style's products feature specific scenes. With the assistance of numerous perspective devices, architectural style Roman frescoes create the illusion of three-dimensional space in a two-dimensional area. Many such frescoes feature sacred buildings, figures, myths, or theater acts. Many Roman frescoes depicted scenes related to ancient Greek events because the public view of Greeks as sophisticated people lent the appearance of sophistication to Roman homeowners as well.The ornate, or ornamental, style reverts back to the masonry Sayle's two-dimensional ways. While it is said that the Architectural Style frames its scenes with realistic architecture, the Ornate Style abandons this practice in favor of thinner, finer figures. The scenes are expressly framed by the painter in the ornate fresco style, and, as the style's name implies, scenes are embellished substantially. The presence of such objects as improbably thin columns supporting floors are often signs of the ornamental style.The final style of Roman frescoes hearkens back to its predecessors to varying extents. First of all, the fourth style brings back the realistic architectural elements and three-dimensional illusions of the architectural style. Oftentimes, the scenes in frescoes of this style will be painted in such a way that it appears they form a sequence, as in a picture gallery. The complex fourth style employs panoramas and narrative painting as well as masonry style frescoes on the lower part of its images.Ancient art has been, and will likely continue to be, a major point of interest for historians and general scholars alike. Each civilization and culture has its own set of artistic tendencies, and few types of art define the ancient Roman people better than their frescoes. Whether in the masonry style, architectural style, ornate style, or any combination of the three (as in the fourth style), frescoes depict scenes that are key to understanding Roman life and the history they held dear. At once unique, brief, and powerful, Roman frescoes are integral parts of ancient history.Many Roman frescoes depicted scenes related to ancient Greek events because the public view of Greeks as sophisticated people lent the appearance of sophistication to Roman homeowners as well. (MORE)

In Ancient

# Life in Ancient Rome

Ancient Roman society helped to form the building blocks for the way many Western societies function today. Many famous Romans made great contributions to things such as mathe…matics, architecture, religion, language, and literature, just to name a few. The Roman society was also one of the first "civilized" societies in Western history. Their guidelines on government and law set the precedent for the way that law is practiced in most Western cultures and even some Eastern cultures. While the flaws and shortcomings of Roman society cannot be ignored, their contributions to Western culture greatly outweigh their mistakes. Here are some important facts to remember about the Romans and their society and lifestyle.Roman society was based on hierarchical beliefs. There were different classes of people, and within some of those classes there were sub-classes. The lowest of the classes were the slaves, or the servant class. The next class included the freedmen. These were former slaves who had been freed for any number of reasons. The highest class of citizens consisted of the free-born citizens. From this group of people, there could be various levels of class, such as the wealthy politicians and noblemen.Roman law was run by the Republic. The Roman Republic was very similar to a democracy. The different divisions of the Republic were made up of a senate and a legislature. These divisions worked to pass laws and elect officials. The laws in Rome were based largely on the Justinian code that was created around 580 A.D. This code consisted of a body of common laws that all Roman citizens were expected to abide by.Early Romans were taught primarily by their parents. Roman boys were more likely to receive education than Roman girls. Furthermore, slaves and members of the lower classes were not likely to receive any sort of formal education, because it was believed to be something suited only to the upper classes. Romans were taught primarily about religion and politics, and children of noblemen may have had further education in literature and culture. Over time, the Romans began to adopt ideas about education from the Greeks and implemented formal schooling into their education system.The major sources for income in Ancient Rome were farming and trade. While many other societies still relied heavily on the bartering system, Romans had developed a sophisticated coinage system for payment. These forms of payment could be used at a market or could be paid directly to a merchant or farmer for services. Workers were made up of a mix of slave and paid labor, with slave labor becoming less common as Rome ceased participating in foreign wars and conquests. Many historians view the Roman economy as being capitalistic in its practices.Ancient Roman society is largely remembered for its contributions to architecture and the arts. Some people may not realize that the Romans played a major role in the economic structure of many modern-day societies. Their coinage system was widely used throughout Europe up until the early 17th century. In addition to their economic feats, the Romans carved a path for the future with their technological advances. Some of these advances include plumbing, flushing toilets, Roman roads, and aqueducts. Many of the traditions from ancient Roman society are still practiced within Western cultures to this day.Even though ancient Romans made many advances in technology, one of their advances may have aided in the decline of the empire. Some historians believe that lead pipes used in their sewer systems may have caused a decline in the birth rate due to a rise in lead poisoning. (MORE)

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# Roman numerals up to 1000?

Roman numerals.... 1 = I 2 = II 3 = III 4 = IV (or IIII on old clocks, watches and sundials) 5 = V 6 = VI 7 = VII 8 = VIII … 9 = IX 10 = X 20 = XX 30 = XXX 40 = XL 50 = L 60 = LX 70 = LXX 80 = LXXX 90 = XC 100 = C 500 = D 1000 = M 2000 = MM 3000 = MMM The numbers 11 - 19 and 21 - 29 etc follow the same pattern as the numbers 1 to 9 but preceeded by X or XX etc. The same applies to numbers preceeded by 100s or 1000s. Some examples... 14 = XIV 44 = XLIV 88 = LXXXVIII 151 = CLI 423 = CDXXIII 666 = DCLXVI 1066 = MLXVI 2009 = MMIX (MORE)

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# How do you write 1-1000 in roman numerals?

1=i 5=v 10=x 50=l 100=c 500=d 1000=m the tricky part is: 4=iv 9=ix 14=xiv so on. Eg. 573=dlxxiii =500+50+10+10+1+1+1 =573 is that helpful? Imp…roved Answer: In today's modern notation Roman numerals from 1 to a 1,000 are: Units from 1 to 9: I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX Tens from 10 to 90: X, XX, XXX, XL, L, LX, LXX, LXXX, XC Hundreds from 100 to 900: C, CC, CCC, CD, D, DC, DCC, DCCC, CM Thousand: M To select a number simply write out the hundreds first followed by the tens and then the units. Examples: 999 = CM+XC+IX = CMXCIX and 123 = C+XX+III = CXXIII But because today's rules governing the Roman numeral system were introduced during the Middle Ages it's quite possible that the Romans themselves would have calculated the number 999 on a abacus counting device as DCCCCLXXXXVIIII and then simply wrote it down as IM (-1+1,000 = 999). (MORE)

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# What are the Roman Numerals after M which is 1000?

After M, a bar is placed over the base numeral to indicate that the numeral is multiplied by 1000. example: V with a bar over it is 5*1000 = 5000. A double bar over the …V would be equivalent of 5*1000*1000 or 5 million. (MORE)