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advantages: we get more breeds and more animals/plants easier people can make more more Disadvantages the animals/plants can have genetic diseases It is har…d to get rid of the genetic diseases because you have to breed them out
They may cause mutations Artifical selection is the process of interntional, or unentitional modeifcation of a species through human actions which encourage the breeding of c…ertain traits over others. Some disadvantages of artificial selection is that it is inhumane, can cause mutations or produce new problems. An example of the inhumane process is the new way of breeding chickens. These chickens are produced without fethers. Critics say the feather-free chickens will suffer more than normal birds. Males might be unable to mate, because they cannot flap their wings, and "naked" chickens of both sexes are more susceptible to parasites, mosquito attacks and sunburn.
Insertion sort provides several advantages: Simple implementation. Efficient for (quite) small data sets. Adaptive, i.e. efficient for data sets that are already substantially… sorted: the time complexity is O(n + d), where d is the number of inversions. More efficient in practice than most other simple quadratic, i.e. O(n2) algorithms such as selection sort or bubble sort; the best case (nearly sorted input) is O(n). Stable, i.e. does not change the relative order of elements with equal keys In-place, i.e. only requires a constant amount O(1) of additional memory space Online, i.e. can sort a list as it receives it. Disadvantages of insertion sort; It is less efficient on list containing more number of elements. As the number of elements increases the performance of the program would be slow. Insertion sort needs a large number of element shifts.
The main advantage is that they allow us a way to put information into a meaningful order. The main disadvantage is that even our best sorting algorithms have a O(n …log n) performance, which means that it takes a very long time to sort large sets of data.
Advantages: * determines the fitness of an organism by direct application. * employs a wide range of criteria * provides for opportunism Disadvantages: … * involves a lot of chance. * some organisms escape the full range of possible criteria * is under employed in boom times, over-employed in lean times. * recessive traits 'hide' from the process. *
advantages of binary heap
Insertion sort provides several advantages: Simple implementation. Efficient for (quite) small data sets. Adaptive, i.e. efficient for data sets that are already substantially… sorted: the time complexity is O(n + d), where d is the number of inversions. More efficient in practice than most other simple quadratic, i.e. O(n2) algorithms such as selection sort or bubble sort; the best case (nearly sorted input) is O(n). Stable, i.e. does not change the relative order of elements with equal keys In-place, i.e. only requires a constant amount O(1) of additional memory space Online, i.e. can sort a list as it receives it. Disadvantages of insertion sort; It is less efficient on list containing more number of elements. As the number of elements increases the performance of the program would be slow. Insertion sort needs a large number of element shifts
merge sort is the most efficient way of sorting the list of array.
This algorithm has several advantages. It is simple to write, easy to understand and it only takes a few lines of code. The data is sorted in place so there is little memory o…verhead and, once sorted, the data is in memory, ready for processing. The major disadvantage is the amount of time it takes to sort. The average time increases almost exponentially as the number of table elements increase. Ten times the number of items takes almost one hundred times as long to sort.
advantages Counting-sort is very efficient for sorting an array of integers when the length, n, of the array is not much smaller than the maximum value, k 1, that appear…s in the array. The radix-sort algorithm, which we now describe, uses several passes of counting-sort to allow for a much greater range of maximum values.
A bubble sort is a sort where adjacent items in the array or list are scanned repeatedly, swapping as necessary, until one full scan performs no swaps. Advantage is simplicity…. Disadvantage is that it can take N scans, where N is the size of the array or list, because an out of position item is only moved one position per scan. This can be mitigated somewhat by starting with a swap gap of greater than one (typically N/2), scanning until no swaps occur, then halving the gap and repeating until the gap is one. This, of course, is no longer a bubble sort - it is a merge exchange sort.
The advantages to merge sort is it is always fast. Even in its worst case its runtime is O(nlogn). It is also stable. Disadvantages of Merge sort are that it is not in pla…ce so merge sort uses a lot of memory. It uses extra space proportional to n. This can slow it down when attempting to sort very large data.
Adv: BucketSort is an example of a sorting algorithm that runs in O(n). This is possible only because BucketSort does not rely primarily on comparisons in order to perform sor…ting. Dis: BucketSort is not useful when scanning the buckets for large arrays which is too costly.
Selective tendering has a low cost for production of tender documents since there is a small list of selected firms to tender. Price will be the main determinant for selection…, since all other considerations would have been done already making the analysis process simple and faster.
Interchange sort is better known as selection sort. The disadvantages are that it is not a stable sort (equal values may not be in the same order they were input) and that… it has a best, worst and average time complexity of O(n^2). Even a bubble sort has a best case of O(n) and is a stable sort, but bubble sort is a classic example of how not to write an algorithm! Any sorting algorithm that performs worse than bubble sort has no advantages other than as a purely academic exercise. It has no practical application whatsoever. To understand why selection sort is so abysmal, you need to examine the algorithm: Given a set of n elements, locate the smallest element and swap with the first element. That element is now the last element of the sorted set and the unsorted set is thus reduced by 1 element. Repeat for the remaining n-1 unsorted elements (for all n>1). The first iteration of the algorithm takes O(n) time because it requires n-1 comparisons to determine the smallest element in an unsorted set plus 1 swap operation to put it in place (we ignore the time difference between a comparison and a swap). The next iteration finds the next smallest element and that requires O(n-1) time. Even if the set were already sorted to begin with we've already performed nearly twice the number of comparisons required by a bubble sort. This is because a bubble sort traverses the set in pairs and only swaps pairs if they are in the wrong order. If no swaps occur during an iteration, then the unsorted set is already sorted, hence it has a best case of O(n).
Selection sort is ideally suited to sorting small sets and, since it does not require random access, can be adapted to sort both lists and arrays. However, insert sort gen…erally performs better when sorting arrays. To understand the disadvantage, you need to compare the algorithms. Selection sort starts by treating the entire set as the unsorted set. It then assumes the first element is the largest element and begins comparing all other elements to this element. When it finds a larger or equal element, the remaining elements are compared to this element. Once all elements have been compared, the largest element will have been located. This is then swapped with the last element. The last element then becomes the first element of the sorted set and the unsorted set is reduced by one element. The algorithm repeats until there is only one element in the unsorted set, at which point the entire set is sorted. That one element is always the smallest element because everything in the sorted set is either larger or equal to it, thus it is already in place. Thus for a set of n elements, there are n-1 iterations. Each iteration requires n-1 comparison operations (where n reduces by one at the end of each iteration) and 1 swap operation. With insert sort we build the sorted set at the beginning of the set rather than the end. A set of one can always be regarded as being sorted, thus we begin with a sorted set of 1 and an unsorted set of n-1 elements. We then copy the first element from the unsorted set, thus creating a gap between the sorted and unsorted sets. If the element to the left of that gap is larger than the copied element, we move that element into the gap, one position to the right, which subsequently moves the gap one position to the left. If the gap reaches the beginning of the sorted set or the element to its left is not larger than the copied element, then we place the copied element in the gap. We then repeat the process for the next unsorted element until there are no more unsorted elements. Thus there are n-1 iterations (same as for selection sort) and at least two copies per iteration (one to move the element out of the unsorted set, and another to move it back into the sorted set). On each iteration, a sorted set of k elements will require 1 to k comparison operations and a similar number of move operations. Since we stop comparing when we have found the insertion point, we will generally perform fewer comparisons overall than selection sort unless the unsorted set happens to be in reverse order. However, we will incur more move operations depending on where the insertion point lands on each iteration (bearing in mind that a swap is equivalent to 3 move operations). Thus for a set of 10 elements, selection sort will perform 9 iterations, with 9+8+7+6+5+4+3+2+1=45 comparisons and 2x9=18 swaps (equivalent to 54 move operations), thus we have 99 operations in total. Insert sort would also require 9 iterations, however the number of comparisons and moves will vary. In the best case, where the set is already sorted, there will be a minimum of 9 comparisons and 18 moves (27 operations in total) and in the worst case, where the set is in reverse order, there will be 45 comparisons and 3+4+5+6+7+8+9+10+11=63 moves, thus we have 108 operations in total. While there will inevitably be some cases where selection sort outperforms an insert sort, in the vast majority of cases insert sort will be substantially quicker than selection sort, because selection sort will always take 99 operations to sort a set of 10 elements, whereas insert sort will take anything from 27 to 108 operations, with an average case of 68 operations. Selection sort can be improved slightly by testing the position of the largest element. If it is already the final element of the unsorted set, then we do not need to swap, however this adds an extra comparison to each iteration whether we swap or not. Thus the best case, where the set is already sorted, becomes 54 comparisons with no swaps, and the worst case becomes 54 comparisons with 18 swaps, giving a range of 54 to 108 operations with an average of 81 operations. While this will increase the number of cases where a selection sort outperforms insert sort, selection sort still comes off worst overall.
The advantage of sorting is that it is quicker and easier to findthings when those things are organised in some way. Thedisadvantage is that it takes time to sort those things…. Incomputing terms, the cost of searching a few unsorted items isminimal, but when searching a large number of items (millions orperhaps billions of items), every search will have an unacceptablecost which can only be minimised by initially sorting those items.The cost of that sorting process is far outweighed by the speedwith which we can subsequently locate items. Inserting new elementsinto a sorted set also incurs a cost, but no more than the cost ofsearching for an element, the only difference is we search for theinsertion point rather than a specific element.