Computer Science

Computer Science is the systematic study of algorithmic processes that describe and transform information. It includes the theoretical foundations of information and computation and the practical techniques of applying those foundations to computer systems. Among the many subfields of Computer Science are computer graphics, computer programming, computational complexity theory, and human-computer interaction. Questions about Computer Science, terms such as algorithms and proofs, and methodologies are encouraged in this category.

4,314 Questions
Computer Terminology
C Programming
Computer Science

What are differences between linker and loader in C?

Neither linker or loader is part of the C language, they are platform-dependent utility programs.

Linker (or binder) creates an executable from object modules and libraries; loader loads these executables into memory, resolves their shared-library-dependencies, and initiates their execution.

Software and Applications (non-game)
Computer Programming
Java Programming
Computer Science

What are the names of any four procedural programming languages?

  1. ABC
  2. Ada
  3. Algol 60
  4. Algol 68
  5. APL
  6. Arc
  7. Assembly
  8. Awk
  9. BASIC
  10. Batch
  11. BCPL
  12. Befunge
  13. BETA
  14. C
  15. C++
  16. C--
  17. C# (pronounced C-sharp)
  18. CHILL
  19. Clipper
  20. Cobol
  21. CobolScript
  22. Component Pascal
  23. Cyclone
  24. D
  26. Euphoria
  27. Forth
  28. Fortran
  29. Free Pascal
  30. GNU Pascal
  31. Icon
  32. IDL
  33. Jal
  34. JavaScript
  35. Jovial
  36. Lagoona
  37. Leda
  38. Limbo
  39. Lua
  40. m4
  41. Maple
  42. Mathematica
  43. MATLAB
  44. Modula-2
  45. Modula-3
  46. Mumps
  47. Oberon
  48. Objective Caml (OCaml)
  49. Occam
  50. Oz-Mozart
  51. Pascal
  52. Perl
  53. PHP
  54. PL
  55. PL/1
  56. Pliant
  57. PL/SQL
  58. PostScript
  59. PowerBuilder
  60. Proteus
  61. REBOL
  62. Rexx
  63. S-Lang
  64. Small C
  65. Snobol
  66. Tcl-Tk
  67. T3X
  68. VBA
  69. Visual Basic
  70. Visual DialogScript
  71. Yorick

Note: Some of these languages, such as PHP, Perl, Caml/OCaml, and IDL also support object oriented programming. Others on the list (C++, JavaScript, C# ) are primarily object-oriented languages which can also (though less commonly) be used to program procedurally.

Some are macro or scripting languages (Rexx, Awk, m4) which, while they do support some procedural concepts, aren't really procedural languages, but rather interpreted streams.

Also note that Assembly is NOT a high-level language, and generally is not considered a procedural language, as it doesn't have enough abstraction.

Finally, traditional COBOL is NOT a procedural language (in fact, one of the long-standing criticism of it is that it lacks any structured programming characteristics). Current-day COBOL has some ability to use procedural programming concepts, but, overall, should not be considered a real procedural language. SNOBOL is similar, in that the original version were certainly not procedural in nature, but modern versions are much more structured programming friendly (and can be considered a procedural language).

Computer Science

What is a cs file?

It's a C# file.

C Sharp File

Computer Programming
Computer Science

What is a degenerate binary search tree?

A degenerate binary tree is one where most or all of the nodes contain only one sub node. It is unbalanced and, in the worst case, performance degrades to that of a linked list. If your add node function does not handle rebalancing, then you can easily construct a degenerate tree by feeding it data that is already sorted.

Computer Science
Artificial Intelligence

What is the importance of artificial intelligence?

The importance of artificial intelligence is the ability to create a never-ending thought process and collective that could solve our problems. Accomplishing this by thinking of every possible solution. We are limited now by the number of people who can do this. With artificial intelligence, we could build computers, upon thousands of computers, that could all work in unison to solve our great and most dire problems. One example is global warming. Whether you believe we are the cause or not, the fact is that global temperatures are on the rise. We need a way out or around or an idea to slow the process down. We need something.... Artificial intelligence could, and should solve this faster than we are or could....

Computer Science

How many spaces add up to a tab?

It depends. The space is a intercharacter gap which does not have the same amount of space as the equivalent characters, particularly in a proportionally sized font. The tab, on the other hand, is a variable sized gap that aligns with the "next tab stop", said stops being chosen by the typist as a function of what is being written. Typically, tabs are 0.5 inches apart, but they can be set and cleared at will.

A common error, particularly in older word processing software such as WordPerfect, which displayed spaces in a mono-spaced font, but printed them proportionally, is to use spaces when tabs should be used.

This situation is made even worse in modern text editors and IDEs used for programming. Both tend to display code in a fixed-space font, but as there is no definitive translation between spaces and tabs, hitting "Tab" will usually insert a number of spaces equal to whatever style template the text editor/IDE is set up to use. 2, 4, and 8 spaces are all commonly substituted (or displayed as equivalent) to a tab. This gets even worse, as many text editors/IDEs actually store the tab character in the file (rather than the indicated number of spaces), so, if viewed in another text editor/IDE with a different style, they are substituted for a different number of spaces, which causes all sorts of misalignments.

Computer Programming
Software Engineering
Computer Science

What do you know about effective modular design?

Effective modular design is the art of breaking down a software algorithm into small pieces such that each can be well designed and tested. Often, this means that the modules might only do a few things, but when you look at the big picture, you can get a very complex algorithm running with a minimum of effort.

There are several "rules of thumb", and it is really up to the experience and capabilities of the programmer on where to draw the line.

One recommendation that I saw many, many years ago was the concept that a modules should not extend beyond one page of printed output; that if it got larger than that, it was a candidate for further modularization. One of the driving forces for that recommendation was the fact that an addressable segment on the IBM MainFrame was only 4kb, and that making it larger required more base registers. This is not so much an issue anymore, but the concept is still quite valid. (I still remember working on 60 or 70 page assembler programs that required 4 or 5 base registers, 3 or 4 linking registers, TRT registers, and entry/exit registers, leaving only a few registers to hunt around for when you had to do something as simple as add one instruction. And, of course, the person you wanted to scream at had left the company 20 years ago. :-)>)

Computer Terminology
Computer Science

What does docking mean in computer terminology?

Docking is the act of plugging a mobile computational device into a base station designed to receive it so that it can be recharged, used as a desktop device and updated with any files it needs or have its data downloaded. Docking stations frequently have spare keyboards and monitors to make this process easier.

Math and Arithmetic
Computer Terminology
Computer Science

What is function of NTP?

NTP is Network Time Protocol. NTP allows you to synchronize clocks between computers.

Computer Terminology
Computer Science

Why choose 8 bit is equal to 1 byte?

Historically, a byte was the number of bits used to encode a single character of text in a computer. The size of the byte has historically been hardware dependent and no definitive standards exist that mandate the size.

In 1963, ASCII, a 7-bit code, was adopted as a Federal Information Processing Standard, making 6-bit bytes commercially obsolete.

In the early 1960s, AT&T introduced digital telephony first on long-distance trunk lines. These used the 8-bit µ-law encoding. IBM at that time extended its 6-bit code "BCD" to an 8-bit character code. 8-bit data "octets" were then adopted as the basic data unit of the early Internet.

Since then 1byte = 8-bits is used as a standard.

Job Training and Career Qualifications
Bachelors Degrees
Computer Science

What jobs can you get with a bachelor's degree in communications?

Jobs with a Degree in CommunicationsHere are some suggestions:
  • I am going for a degree in Communications with my major being Advertising. I know their are many jobs for that degree, like media, journalism (spelling?) Advertising, creating and presenting speeches. Any job that communicates through Ads, voice, pictures, or writings. I think it's a great degree.
  • I graduated in July, 2004 with a BA in Communications from the University of Colorado. Just 3 weeks later, I obtained a Management Trainee position with a reputable retail store. The pay is great and the work is both fun and challenging. As soon as I complete the program, which is designed to last 6 months to a year, I will be able to move to another store location and become that store manager. The benefits are unbelievable and there is a lot of earning potential.
  • If you have a communications degree with a major in advertising, you sound well suited to a public relations position. You will have interaction with clients on a regular basis, you will have frequent opportunities to use your writing ability and other communications skills, and you will get many great perks and freebies associated with being the client's voice in the media. There is often travel involved, too. Advertising is a great field. I'm a copywriter, and I love it.
  • It depends on what you mean by "communication". I have a masters degree in Communication but my focus is Interpersonal Communication which is very different from journalism and advertising. With that degree (even just my B.A.) I was eligible to do training (going into organizations and helping them figure out how their communication is and is NOT working for them and helping tweak it), with a teaching certification I could teach at a high school (they are now requiring a communication course), there are research positions, image consultations, etc. I'm not as sure what you can do with a Bachelors as I am with a Master's. I think it just really depends on which part of Comm you find interesting.
Software and Applications (non-game)
Computer Science

What is the purpose of a utility program?

Tune up utilities program helps you find the problems in your computer and fix them for you and help increasing your computer's performance

Utility programs are individual programming sections in an operating system used to interact with hardware directly. It is a type of system software that tuneup over all performance of the computer system such utility programs are defragmenter and scandisk as well as backups data on secondary storage devices through backup utility software.

Computer Programming
C Programming
Computer Science

How do you install C programming language in Windos Xp?

If you want a free compiler and integrated development environment (IDE) you could google for


There are 2 versions of Code::Blocks. For a complete compiler and IDE download and run


and this will install c programming language in Windows.

To program in C on Windows XP, you will need three things:

  1. a C compiler (something that translates C code into machine code)
  2. Windows SDK (Software Development Kit), which contains the supporting libraries which have the functions required to interact with the Windows XP Operating System
  3. Some form of text editor or Integrated Development Environments (IDE)

To find each component, use your favorite search engine to look up the above terms.

Typical C compilers are Microsoft's Visual C++ (which also compiles C), the GNU C compiler, and Borland.

The Windows SDK is available directly from Microsoft for free. Make sure to get the version specifically for Windows XP, and there are differences between each windows version.

There are a myriad of Text Editors and IDEs available. A selection of free-to-use ones would include: Notepad++, GNU Emacs, Netbeans, and Eclipse.

Computer Science

What are the advantages and disadvantages of the computer?

Advantages ofcomputers:

-They can help you automate various tasks that you cannot do manually.

-They can help you organize your data and information.

-They have much more computing and calculating power then an ordinary human.

-They may help your work to be a lot easier.

-They can help you communicate with friends, coworkers and other contacts.

-They have many search engines to help you find information quickly.

- It saves your time.

Disadvantages of computers:

-They can have negative effects on your social life and interactions with other people if you do not maintain the balance between time online and offline.

-They may distract students from their studies.

-Too much time in front of monitor may adversely affect your eyesight.

-Sitting in front of a computer for too long without exercise can cause a weight gain and other health issues.

Computer Terminology
Image and Graphic Editing
Computer Science
MATLAB (Matrix Laboratory)

What is Clutter in image processing?

Scalable Image Processing Methods for Target Acquisition and Tracking also can be noise at digital images.

See related link, maybe can help you.

Computer Hardware
Computer Terminology
Computer Science

What are the components of a computer?

  1. control unit
  2. arithmetic logic unit
  3. memory unit
  4. input devices
  5. output devices
  6. power supply and distribution unit

Although there are too many parts to name and describe, ill try and cover as many as the main parts as possible.

CPU: The Central Processing Unit tells all the different parts of the computer what to do, when to do it, and processes all the information being transferred in the computer.

Hard Drive: The Hard Drive stores permanent information in the computer. Things such as the operating system, files, and programs you download.

RAM: RAM stores information waiting to be used. When the CPU requests a file to be opened, information is sent from the Hard Drive to the RAM to wait until the CPU accesses it.

DVD Drive: The DVD Drive reads disks and transfers data to the Hard Drive or RAM, depending on whether the data is permanent or temporarily.

Power Supply: The Power Supply supplies the different computer parts with the electricity they require.

Motherboard: The Motherboard holds things like the CPU, RAM, Video Card, and other interchangeable parts.

Software and Applications (non-game)
Computer Science

What are the parameters of MIS characteristics?

Computer Hardware
Computer Terminology
Computer Science

What is porting a legacy interface?

Generally porting a legacy interface refers to making something compatible with a new architecture without changing the way it's used.

C Programming
Computer Programming
Computer Science

What is time complexity of an algorithm?

Time complexity is a function which value depend on the input and algorithm of a program and give us idea about how long it would take to execute the program

Computer Science

What does a compute intensive problem run on?

A compute intensive problem runs on an available processor, until such time that it reaches a blocking state.

Computer Terminology
Computer History
Computer Science

What is called the eye of the computer?


Database Programming
Java Programming
Computer Science

The advantages of circular queue over linear queue?

In CQ we utilize memory efficiently. because in queue when we delete any

element only front increment by 1, but that position is not used later. so when

we perform more add and delete operation, memory wastage increase. But in CQ

memory is utilized, if we delete any element that position is used later,

because it is circular.

Computer Terminology
Computer Programming
Computer Science

What is the difference between sample size and sampling rate?

Rate refers to frequency, while size refers to the amount.

Thus, Sampling Rate is measured in Hertz (number of times per second a sample is taken), and Sampling Size is measured in Bits (number of binary digits of information taken at a single time).

Thus, if you Sample at 10 Hz/8 bits, that means you take 8 bits of information, 10 times per second.

Web Programming
Visual Basic Programming
Computer Science

What is meant by BASIC in visual basic?

BASIC stands for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code.

Computer Science

What is oops code in computer science?

oop is just object oriented programming...


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