answersLogoWhite

0

📱

Engineering

Engineering is an art and profession devoted to designing, constructing, and operating the structures, machines, and other devices of industry and everyday life.

500 Questions

What equipment do engineers use?

User Avatar

Asked by Wiki User

electric vibrator!

What does earth symbolize?

User Avatar

Asked by Wiki User

Earth symbolizes physical sensation. It is also shown in comparison with fire, Earth's steady movement vs. fire's constant motion.

What is the Scope of internet next ten years?

User Avatar

Asked by Thelover

An Analysis of Canadians' Scope of Internet Usage

Catherine Middleton and Jordan Leith

Ted Rogers School of Information Technology Management

Ryerson University

catherine.middleton@ryerson.ca

jleith@ryerson.ca

www.broadbandresearch.ca

Paper presented to the 2008 Statistics Canada Socio-Economic Conference, Ottawa, May 2008

1

An Analysis of Canadians' Scope of Internet Usage

Catherine Middleton & Jordan Leith

Ted Rogers School of Information Technology Management

Ryerson University

Paper presented to the 2008 Statistics Canada Socio-Economic Conference, Ottawa, May 2008

Introduction

This study builds on previous analyses of the 2005 Canadian Internet Use Survey (CIUS), to

provide additional insights into how Canadians are using the Internet in their daily lives. The

focus of this study is on the scope of Internet usage, as measured by the number and type of

online activities reported by users. Scope has been used as a proxy measure for users' comfort

level with the Internet (e.g. Underhill & Ladds, 2007), and may also provide an indication of the

perceived usefulness of the Internet among specific types of users. The analysis provided here

could be of use to policymakers in understanding differences among high- and low-scope

Internet users, with a view to developing strategies to help increase low-scope users' level of

comfort with online activities and to encourage them to take greater advantage of the Internet.

Such outcomes are important in developing a population of Internet users that have the skills

needed to make the most of the Internet, and to receive the economic and social benefits

attributed to participation in the Information Economy1.

Scope can be measured by simply counting the number of online activities in which each

Internet user participates. There are twenty-one activities in the 2005 CIUS, and the mean

1 This paper does not provide a review of literature discussing the global efforts to encourage

participation in the Information Society, and to develop capacity among individual citizens to

enable their use of Information and Communication Technologies. These issues are covered

extensively elsewhere (e.g. Information Highway Advisory Council, 1997; International

Telecommunication Union, 2006, 2007; Menou & Taylor, 2006; Organisation for Economic

Co-operation and Development, 2000; Statistics Canada, 2003; UNCTAD Secretariat, 2006;

World Summit on the Information Society, 2003).

2

number of online activities Canadians reported undertaking in the previous year was 9.42. There

is a core of basic activities, including email, web browsing, banking, and information search, that

are widely adopted. Bivariate analysis yields the conclusion that scope of Internet usage declines

with age, and is generally lower among women, rural residents and those with lower educational

attainment. With the exception of sex, these findings mirror adoption patterns (McKeown, Noce,

& Czerny, 2007), and are not surprising. Indeed, it is well-understood that age, geographic

location, and education also have a strong influence on frequency of Internet usage and intensity

of usage (hours spent online) (Middleton & Leith, 2007), but methods of mitigating or

harnessing these demographic factors to encourage increased Internet adoption and more

engaged levels of use (as indicated by increased scope of use) are less clear.

This paper explores the dimensions of scope of usage, with the aim of identifying factors that

differentiate between high and low scope users, and developing a better understanding of what

types of activities specific groups of users find valuable. Broader categories of activities are

identified with a view to understanding differences among categories (for instance, utilitarian

activities like searching or communication versus ones that are more focused on entertainment).

The impact of user characteristics (e.g. longevity of Internet usage, attitudes toward privacy and

security, broadband connectivity) and user demographics (age, sex, income and education) on

scope are considered. The paper concludes with discussion of how to encourage increased scope

of usage among various categories of Internet users.

2 All data reported in this paper come from the 2005 Canadian Internet Use Survey Public Use

Microdata File (Statistics Canada, 2007a). Estimates produced from this data set may vary

from those based on the Master Data File. This figure is based on counts of online activities

for all Canadians who reported using the Internet in the twelve months prior to responding to

the survey.

3

It is acknowledged that the data used in this analysis are now somewhat out of date.

However, these data provide a very useful baseline for further research, enabling assessment of

Canada's progress toward becoming a society in which all citizens are capable of engaging with

the Internet. The analysis presented here can easily be replicated with the 2007 CIUS data once it

is available, to determine whether the dimensions of scope of usage have changed in the past two

years, and to consider whether further efforts are needed to encourage increased scope of usage

among specific populations. It is also noted that conclusions based on analysis of the Canadian

Internet Use Survey data cannot provide any qualitative insights into broader attitudes about

Internet usage, or about motivations for conducting certain activities online, limiting the

possibilities of developing detailed courses of action to address the needs of specific user groups.

Supplementary qualitative analysis of motivations for Internet usage is desirable to fully

understand the challenges of engaging all interested citizens in an information society3.

The data in this paper come from the 2005 Canadian Internet Use Survey Public Use Master

File4. Data used to analyze usage patterns are drawn from the subset of Canadians who used the

Internet at home in the 12 months prior to the survey, and reported conducting at least one

activity online5.

The Internet is no longer a new technology for Canadians. At the time of the 2005 Canadian

Internet Use Survey, more than 11.1 million Canadians (63% of those who had ever used the

3 This sort of analysis is conducted by community informatics researchers. The Canadian

Research Alliance for Community Innovation and Networking has produced much valuable

research in this area. (See

http://www3.fis.utoronto.ca/research/iprp/cracin/publications/index.htm).

4 (Statistics Canada, 2007a)

5 With survey weights in place, this represents 14,985,473 Canadians.

4

Internet) had been using the Internet for five or more years6. While Internet use continues to

grow, new users now make up only a small proportion of total Internet users in Canada. In 2005,

fewer than one million Canadians (5.4% of Internet users) indicated they had used the Internet

for less than a year. Table 1 shows the percentage of users participating in each of the 21

recorded online activities, highlighting the differences in scope of usage among newer and more

experienced Internet users.

TABLE 1: PERCENTAGE OF INTERNET USERS PARTICIPATING IN ONLINE ACTIVITIES BY LONGEVITY

OF INTERNET USE

Number of Years User Has Been Online

<1 year 1-2 years 2-5 years >5 years

All

Users

Mean # of

Activities 5.5 6.2 8.1 10.7 9.6

Email 67.0% 79.0% 87.5% 95.7% 91.7%

General Browsing 68.7 69.5 79.7 88.3 84.3

Weather/Road

Conditions 44.7 46.0 58.1 73.1 66.8

Travel 28.4 41.6 54.0 70.7 63.4

News or Sports 48.9 44.9 51.6 67.9 61.9

Medical/Health

Info 39.0 41.7 52.4 62.8 58.1

Banking 16.7 30.9 47.9 66.4 58.0

Pay Bills 12.5E 29.7 44.7 63.7 55.2

Government

Information 24.0 27.7 42.5 59.5 52.2

Order Online 10.2 16.2 32.4 52.5 44.0

Education 16.0 26.0 35.2 48.9 43.0

Community Events 24.3 26.7 33.8 48.1 42.5

Games 35.8 34.2 36.0 40.4 38.8

Chat 24.4 25.9 34.4 41.2 38.0

Download Music 27.2 23.0 31.6 40.3 36.7

Download Software 16.9 16.2 22.3 37.6 32.0

Research

Investments 6.4 9.5 17.7 32.0 26.3

Radio 18.5 15.8 19.6 30.0 26.2

6 Table 1 and data that follow report on Canadians who used the Internet from home in the past

12 months, a subset of those who have ever used the Internet.

5

Number of Years User Has Been Online

<1 year 1-2 years 2-5 years

>5

years All Users

Communicate

with Gov't 9.1 11.3 18.0 26.2 22.7

Download TV 6.7 4.4 4.5 10.4 8.5

Download Movies 6.9 4.0 5.4 9.8 8.3

Weighted

Number of Users 557,169 971,761 3,432,542

10,0

15,628 14,977,100

E Italicized numbers indicate estimates that should be used with caution. See the Microdata

User Guide(Statistics Canada, 2007b) for details on this point.

Differences between new users and experienced users are identified by comparing the

percentage of users in each category with the 'all users' category in the far right column. The 'all

users' column shows the estimated average participation rates in online activities for all

Canadians who used the Internet from home in the past 12 months. There are some instances

where new users have higher usage of specific activities than slightly more experienced ones

(e.g. downloading music and software, or listening to the radio), but in general we see that those

who have been online for longer have higher scope of usage, with marked increases in some

activities (e.g. financial transactions after a couple of years of Internet usage).

This list captures many important activities, but does not reflect a complete list of activities

that can be conducted online. For instance, reading and writing blogs, sharing photographs or

other "user-generated" content (OECD Directorate for Science Technology and Industry, 2007),

contributing to knowledge-sharing sites like Wikipedia, and participating in social networking

sites (e.g. Friendster, Myspace, LinkedIn) were not included in the 2005 survey. These activities

were becoming important elements of how people used the Internet in 2005 (Boyd & Ellison,

2007; Rainie & Horrigan, 2005; Zamaria, Caron, & Fletcher, 2005). As such, it is important to

recognize that potential scope of usage is broader than that which is captured in these data.

Nevertheless, the data demonstrate that even among experienced Internet users, scope of usage

6

was fairly narrow in 2005 (only 10 of 21 activities were undertaken by more than 50% of

experienced users), suggesting there is much opportunity for more extensive usage of the Internet

in future.

To explore scope of usage further, we begin by collapsing the list of individual activities into

broader groups of related activities, providing a more manageable list of activities that can be

assessed in terms of demographic and usage variables. A logistic regression model is being

developed to present at the conference, to identify the influences of individual demographic and

usage variables on scope of usage. It is anticipated that the bivariate findings presented here

would look different if they controlled for age, which is possible with logistic regression

analysis.

Previous analyses of the 2005 CIUS data, including those presented at the 2007 Statistics

Canada Socioeconomic Conference, show that a user's age, income level, education level and

sex influence Internet adoption (Noce & McKeown, 2007), intensity of use (Middleton & Leith,

2007), and uptake of government online services (Underhill & Ladds, 2007). Other factors that

are important are urban/rural status, language (determined using the language of interview as a

proxy) and marital status (McKeown et al., 2007; Underhill & Ladds, 2007). Rurality and

language are not considered in this analysis due to the limitations of data availability in the

Public Use Microdata File. In the context of understanding how users' scope of activities might

be better suited to their interests, marital status is not considered an important variable, as this is

not likely an issue that policy initiatives could feasibly be directed toward.

Previous work has also sought to understand relationships between access to broadband

Internet connections and intensity and scope of usage (see Middleton & Ellison, 2006, for an

analysis of this issue using Household Internet Use Survey data), and to explore the social

7

impacts of Internet usage by examining time spent online (Veenhof, 2006). Underhill and Ladds

(2007) considered users' online experience (as measured by number of years online), and their

frequency and intensity of use when exploring characteristics associated with use of government

online services. This paper considers how access to broadband connectivity, online experience,

frequency and intensity of use are associated with scope of usage.

With the assistance of factor analysis techniques, we propose that the number of online

activities be reduced from 21 individual activities to 5 groups of activities. These groups are

shown in Table 2. Internet usage for education and for games do not appear to fit well into any of

these categories. Educational usage is correlated with age, with the highest percentage of

educational users being those who are likely to be students, in the 18-24 age group. As will be

shown below, games are one of the few types of activities where usage is less predictable.

TABLE 2: GROUPED ONLINE ACTIVITIES

Search Transactions Downloads Communication Government

• General

Browsing

• Weather/Road

Conditions

• Travel

• News or Sports

• Medical/Health

Info

• Community

Events

• Investments

• Banking

• Pay Bills

• Order

Online

• Music

• Software

• Radio

• TV

• Movies

• Email

• Chat Groups/

Messenger

• Government Info

Search

• Communication

with Government

As is shown in Table 3, there are big differences in the popularity of various types of online

activities7. The percentage of users partaking in search activities is influenced by the large

number of activities in this category, but it shows that almost all users engage in one or more

7 Unless otherwise indicated, all data comparisons presented are significant at the 0.05 level.

8

search activities when using the Internet. Communication activities are almost as popular, but the

uptake of other activities is much less universal.

TABLE 3: DESCRIPTION OF GROUPED ONLINE ACTIVITIES

Descriptive Statistics

% of Users Doing

at Least One

Activity in the

Group Minimum

Maximum # of

Activities in the

Category Mean

Std.

Deviation

Search 96.4 0 7 4.0 1.9

Communication 92.3 0 3 1.6 1.2

Transactions 70.6 0 3 1.6 1.2

Downloads 57.0 0 5 1.1 1.3

Government 54.8 0 2 .8 . 8

Education 43.0 0 1 .4 . 5

Games 38.8 0 1 .4 .5

Data Analysis

This section presents a series of tables and charts describing scope of usage according to

demographic and user characteristics. Detailed data used to prepare the graphics is provided in

Table 13. As has been noted previously, much of these data are predictable, showing the clearly

established patterns that characterize the digital divide, i.e. older people are lower scope users

than younger people and men do more online activities than women. As such, the discussion in

this section focuses on patterns that are not expected, or on differences within demographic or

usage characteristics that are particularly wide.

Table 4 shows the scope of activities by age. The differences in education usage are largely

explained by age. Younger people are more likely to be formally involved in education. But the

table does highlight the fact that there is much room for increased uptake of online educational

activities by those over the age of 25. In a society where continuous learning is valued, much

more use could be made of the Internet to deliver educational materials to a broader segment of

the population.

9

TABLE 4: ONLINE ACTIVITIES BY AGE

Another point of interest in the age breakdown is the participation in online games. Seniors

are likely to have more time to play games than their counterparts in the 25-64 age groups, but

the fact that seniors are playing games in large numbers indicates an interest in the Internet for

purposes beyond basic communication and search activities.

It is also of note that the youngest age group has fewer people conducting online transactions

than does the 25-44 group. Table 5 provides data to suggest that this is not due to lack of

confidence in online transactions, as fewer than 35% of the 18-24 year old group indicates that

they are 'very concerned' about conducting online banking or using credit cards. Instead, it likely

suggests that the youngest age group simply makes less use of banking and credit card systems

that their older counterparts.

10

TABLE 5: CONCERN ABOUT ONLINE BANKING AND USE OF CREDIT CARDS BY AGE

18-24 25-44 45-64 65+

Not at all concerned 14.5 11.9 7.6 8.5E

Somewhat concerned 50.6 48.4 44.4 37.4

Very concerned 34.9 39.7 48.0 54.1

Total 10.7 46.8 42.6 1.0

EItalicized numbers indicate estimates that should be used with caution.

When considering the sex of Internet users, differences in scope are statistically significant

but generally quite small.

TABLE 6: ONLINE ACTIVITIES BY SEX

One point of note, shown in Table 6, is that fewer women than men are using the Internet for

downloading purposes. Although the downloading activities captured in the CIUS are primarily

entertainment-based, the ability to download files is a useful skill for all Internet users. These

data cannot be used to explain whether women are doing less downloading because they are not

interested in the available content, or whether they are less likely to know how to use the Internet

11

in this way. It is anticipated that downloading usage will be higher in the 2007 data, and there is

no clear reason as to why women should engage in fewer downloading activities than men. If the

differences persist, it is suggested that efforts could be made to increase women's comfort levels

with the use of the Internet for downloading content of all types.

When considering level of education, users are categorized into those that have undertaken

some tertiary education (including those who have completed university degrees) and those

whose education does not include any tertiary education. Looking at the level of education of

Internet users reveals differences in participation in online transactions and in games. A higher

proportion of people with only a high school education participate in online games than of those

with more education, but the opposite is true of online transactions. There are minimal

differences between the two groups with respect to downloading. As online education activities

are often at a tertiary level, it is not surprising that fewer people with no postsecondary education

are engaged in educational activities. But these data do show that there is an opportunity for

more people without postsecondary education to update their educational qualifications through

online channels. This group of people does not appear to be averse to using the Internet for other

purposes, thus appear to have the necessary skill to participate in online learning.

12

TABLE 7: ONLINE ACTIVITIES BY EDUCATION LEVEL

Income and education levels are correlated, and the online activity patterns are similar within

both categories. Education levels are shown in Table 7, and income in Table 8.

TABLE 8: ONLINE ACTIVITIES BY INCOME

13

Looking at the characteristics of Internet users and their Internet connections provides

additional perspectives on scope of usage. Table 9 shows the differences in scope of use between

individuals with broadband connections and those without. As might be expected, a higher

proportion of users with high speed connections are engaged in downloading content from the

Internet. Speed of connection doesn't appear to make a big difference in communication and

search participation rates. These are activities that work quite well with low speed connections -

those with low speed connections have almost equal participation rates as their counterparts with

broadband connectivity.

TABLE 9: ONLINE ACTIVITIES BY BROADBAND CONNECTION

Frequency of usage is correlated with the hours a user spends online each week. Those who

go online frequently also tend to spend more hours online than infrequent users. Both of these

measures of online activity are related to scope in similar ways, with those spending more time

on line (see Table 10), and more frequent users (see Table 11), participating at higher levels in

all activity categories as compared to those who are online less frequently and for less time.

14

TABLE 10: ONLINE ACTIVITIES BY WEEKLY HOURS OF USE

The data presented here cannot address causality in the relationship between scope and hours

or frequency of use, but it is not surprising that people who spend less time on the Internet do

fewer things online. Increasing scope of use would likely lead to more time spent online. But as

low scope users may also be 'specialist' users, who spend a lot of time online but focus on just a

few activities, encouraged increased time spent online would not necessary result in increased

scope of use.

15

TABLE 11: ONLINE ACTIVITIES BY FREQUENCY OF USE

The final relationship explored here is that between scope and experience, shown in Table

12. Experience is measured in years online. The majority of Canadian Internet users have been

online for more than 5 years, and these users participate in all of the activities listed here at much

higher rates than novice Internet users. Close to 100% of experienced users engage in search and

communication activities, close to 70% are downloading some kind of content, and almost 80%

are doing online financial transactions.

16

TABLE 12: ONLINE ACTIVITIES BY EXPERIENCE

Table 13 provides a summary of the participation rates in each of the scope categories,

broken down into the demographic and user characteristics discussed above. This table is of use

in understanding the overall differences in scope among all types of users. The biggest difference

in scope of use is in the Education category, with the youngest age group having the highest

participant rate, and the oldest age group the lowest. There is also a large difference between the

group that does the most downloading (also the 18-24 age group, with 81.5% engaging in this

group of activities) and the group that does the least (infrequent users, with only 23.3% doing

any downloading). The group that conducts the fewest online transactions is the novice users,

those online for less than a year. The group with the highest participation in online transactions is

the users who are online for the longest each week. These patterns also hold true for government

online activities.

17

TABLE 13: SUMMARY OF ONLINE ACTIVITIES, BY DEMOGRAPHIC AND USER CHARACTERISTICS

The lowest number in each column is highlighted in italics, the highest in bold.

Communications Search Government Games Transactions Downloads Education # %

Age 18-24 96.0 97.2 47.2 61.1 68.6 81.5 79.1 2,443,168 16.3

Age 25-44 92.3 97.1 59.6 38.2 77.6 59.9 43.8 6,873,550 45.9

Age 45-64 90.4 95.8 53.8 27.9 66.2 45.0 29.4 4,789,119 32.0

Age 65+ 92.7 92.5 44.3 41.3 46.3 31.5 10.9 879,635 5.9

Sex - Male 91.4 97.3 58.8 42.0 72.3 65.3 43.5 7,432,004 49.6

Sex - Female 93.2 95.5 50.9 35.7 69.0 48.9 42.5 7,553,469 50.4

Education -

High school or

less 87.3 94.3 41.0 47.9 59.6 54.3 33.9 4,056,199 27.1

Education -

Some

Postsecondary 94.2 97.2 60.0 35.4 74.7 58.0 46.4 10,929,275 72.9

Income

<$60,000 91.9 95.1 51.6 43.8 62.7 58.9 41.1 6,072,386 40.5

Income

$60,000 -

$85,999 90.7 96.0 52.0 39.3 72.2 53.7 41.9 3,874,213 25.9

Income

$86,000+ 94.1 98.3 60.9 32.4 79.0 57.2 46.2 5,038,875 33.6

Broadband -

No 89.9 94.5 48.1 28.1 57.5 38.3 32.1 2,705,668 18.8

Broadband -

Yes 93.9 97.3 57.4 41.6 74.7 62.3 46.4 11,693,271 81.2

Hours per week

<5 88.5 95.0 46.6 28.7 63.9 42.7 33.5 7,737,952 53.2

Hours per week

>=5 97.9 98.8 64.9 50.6 79.1 74.2 54.8 6,811,101 46.8

18

Communications Search Government Games Transactions Downloads Education # %

Frequency -

Daily 97.6 98.1 63.0 45.6 78.6 67.7 51.1 9,575,708 65.7

Frequency -

Weekly 89.2 95.2 44.3 29.1 60.9 41.8 31.5 3,880,396 26.6

Frequency -

Less than

weekly 64.2 89.9 26.1 15.7 40.7 23.3 18.7 1,112,283 7.6

Years online <1 68.9 88.9 25.7 35.8 22.8 38.7 16.0 557,169 3.7

Years online

1-5 86.9 94.2 41.8 35.6 57.6 45.6 33.2 4,404,303 29.4

Years online 5+ 96.1 97.9 62.2 40.4 79.0 68.1 48.9 10,015,628 66.9

Total 92.3 96.4 54.8 38.8 70.6 57.0 43.0

Lowest 64.2 88.9 25.7 15.7 22.8 23.3 10.9

Highest 97.9 98.8 64.9 61.1 79.1 81.5 79.1

19

The uptake of online games is interesting because it is one activity where the usual patterns

of declining use with increasing age do not hold. More people over the age of 65 report playing

games on the Internet than do people between the ages of 45-64. This may be related to

availability of time for gaming, and shows that there are online activities beyond search and

communication that are appealing to seniors. Adoption of online games does not also increase

much as users become more experienced.

96.4% of all Internet users engage in at least one online search activity. Even among the

novice users, almost 90% use the Internet to conduct searches. If there is a 'killer application' (a

single activity that drives usage) for the Internet, it is searching. Use of the Internet for

communication is also very popular, with 92.3% either emailing or chatting online. However,

those who are online only infrequently do not appear to value communication so highly, with

only 64% using the Internet for this purpose.

Closing Comments

This study provides numerous insights into what different types of users are doing online. It

reveals how patterns of use change over time, showing that scope of usage increases as people

become more experienced Internet users. The shortcoming in the study at present is that it

assesses the data using bivariate techniques only, making it difficult to understand the combined

effects of characteristics like age, online experience and frequency of use on scope. Further work

is being done in order to identify clusters of users based on their scope of use. This would allow

more targeted, custom approaches for encouraging increased scope. For instance, older women

who are new users might benefit from training to download audio and video content of interest,

whereas low income novice users might benefit from assistance in accessing government

services online. The present analysis does not allow for this level of granularity.

20

This investigation into scope of usage suggests that efforts to promote broader understanding

of the value of the Internet as a communication and search tool could help to encourage nonusers

to become users. But it also highlights the fact that other categories of activities have not

been so universally adopted, suggesting that there is still much room for the Internet to take a

more central role in people's daily activities. As has been mentioned, it is likely that Canadians'

scope of Internet usage has increased in the years since these data were collected, and the 2007

CIUS data may reveal new patterns of usage. However, given the adoption rates presented here,

it is evident that the Internet has yet to become essential for facilitating e-learning, or to become

the primary channel for communication and information sharing between governments and

citizens. These are key elements of an Information Society. If the Internet does not gain wider

use for these purposes in the next few years, steps could be taken to help individuals better

understand the benefits of online activities, and to remove barriers for those who do want to

engage in online activities but do lack the necessary skills or resources.

This analysis also suggests that there is a learning curve, or a period of familiarization and

confidence building, experienced by new users. This is particularly evident in looking at online

transactions, with new users taking several years to reach the participation rates demonstrated by

experienced users. Given concerns about the security and privacy of online transactions, this

hesitance among novices is understandable. Steps could be taken to educate new users about the

risks of online transactions, with a view to increasing their comfort level for these activities early

on.

One of the striking observations from the data presented here is that the users with the

highest participation rates in many of the online activities are those who spend the most time

online. This is understandable, because in spending extended periods of time online, users are

21

likely to explore new activities and gain a higher confidence level in using the Internet. But of

course, users are not likely to spend time online unless they find activities that they value. So an

important question for those trying to encourage broader scope of use is how to encourage a

culture of use. This is an issue that the Ontario government is investigating at present (Ontario

Ministry of Government Services, 2007).

The digital divide among users is narrowing, but there are still clear differences in scope of

usage observed with respect to user demographics. Any efforts to encourage uptake and usage of

the Internet should continue to address the questions as to why older, less well educated, lower

income Canadians use the Internet less than younger, more highly educated, higher income

Canadians. Governments are certainly aware of the persistence of this issue, but could do more

to address it directly8.

References

Boyd, D. M., & Ellison, N. B. (2007). Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and

Scholarship. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13(1), 11.

Information Highway Advisory Council. (1997). Preparing Canada for a Digital World: Final

Report of the Information Highway Advisory Council. Ottawa: Industry Canada.

International Telecommunication Union. (2006). World Information Society Report. Geneva:

International Telecommunication Union.

International Telecommunication Union. (2007). Measuring the Information Society: ICT

Opportunity Index and World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators. Geneva.

McKeown, L., Noce, A., & Czerny, P. (2007). Factors Associated with Internet Use: Does

Rurality Matter? Rural and Small Town Canada Analysis Bulletin, 7(3).

Menou, M. J., & Taylor, R. D. (2006). A "Grand Challenge": Measuring Information Societies.

The Information Society, 22(5), 261-267.

Middleton, C. A., & Ellison, J. (2006). All Broadband Households Are Not the Same: Why

Scope and Intensity of Use Matter, Statistics Canada Socio-economic Conference.

Ottawa.

Middleton, C. A., & Leith, J. (2007). Intensity of Internet Use in Canada: Exploring Canadians'

Engagement with the Internet, Statistics Canada Socio-economic Conference. Ottawa.

8 The province of Ontario is commissioning research that will address this issue (Ontario

Ministry of Government Services, 2008).

22

Noce, A. A., & McKeown, L. (2007). A New Benchmark for Internet Use: A Logistic Modeling

of Factors Influencing Internet Use in Canada, 2005. Government Information Quarterly,

doi:10.1016/j.giq.2007.04.006

OECD Directorate for Science Technology and Industry. (2007). Participative Web: User-

Created Content. Paris: OECD.

Ontario Ministry of Government Services. (2007). Request for Proposals for Broadband

Strategic Research and Impact Analysis: Program Evaluation Services for Rural

Connections…The Ontario Municipal Rural Broadband Partnership Program. Toronto.

Ontario Ministry of Government Services. (2008). Toward a Broadband Research Agenda for

Ontario: Second Call for Research Papers.

Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development. (2000). A New Economy? The

Changing Role of Innovation and Information Technology in Growth. Paris: OECD.

Rainie, L., & Horrigan, J. (2005). A Decade of Adoption: How the Internet Has Woven Itself into

American Life. Washington, DC: Pew Internet & American Life Project.

Statistics Canada. (2003). Canada's Journey to an Information Society. Ottawa: Ministry of

Industry.

Statistics Canada. (2007a). Canadian Internet Use Survey 2005 - Public Use Master File.

Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

Statistics Canada. (2007b). Microdata User Guide Canadian Internet Use Survey 2005. Ottawa:

Statistics Canada.

UNCTAD Secretariat. (2006). Information Economy Report 2006 - The Development

Perspective. New York and Geneva: United Nations Conference on Trade and

Development.

Underhill, C., & Ladds, C. (2007). Connecting with Canadians: Assessing the Use of

Government on-Line. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

Veenhof, B. (2006). The Internet: Is It Changing the Way Canadians Spend Their Time? Ottawa:

Statistics Canada.

World Summit on the Information Society. (2003). Declaration of Principles - Building the

Information Society: A Global Challenge in the New Millennium. Geneva: United

Nations and International Telecommunication Union.

Zamaria, C., Caron, A. H., & Fletcher, F. (2005). Canada Online! A Comparative Analysis of

Internet Users and Non-Users in Canada and the World: Behaviour, Attitudes and

Trends 2004. Toronto: Canadian Internet Project.

What is the purpose of feedback?

User Avatar

Asked by Wiki User

To improve anaerobic endurance

What are the lenses in your eyes?

User Avatar

Asked by Wiki User

LensCrafters offer prescription spectacles for men, women and children. Both designer and generic frames are available. LensCrafters also supply a wide selection of lenses, including photochromatic and polarized sun lenses.

What does -6 AN inlet size mean?

User Avatar

Asked by Wiki User

http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_does_-6_AN_inlet_size_mean"

What is the Tacoma Narrows Bridge?

User Avatar

Asked by Wiki User

The Tacoma Narrows Bridge is the bridge that spans the Tacoma Narrows strait between Tacoma and the Kitsap Peninsula in Washington State. The original bridge was opened in 1940, and collapsed later that year. Replacement structures have since gone up. A link can be found below.

What engineer career starts with the letter U?

User Avatar

Asked by Wiki User

· Ultrasound Technologist

· Umbrella Maker

· Umpire

· Under Secretary

· Undercoater

· Undercover Agent

· Underground Mine Safety Engineer

· Underliner

· Undertaker

· Underwater Trapper

· Underwear Maker

· Underwriter

· Uniform Maker

· Union Organizer

· Unloader

· Upholsterer

· U.P.S. Clerk

· Upstairs Maid

· Urban Planner

· Urologist

· U. S. Marshal

· U.S. Representative

· U.S. Senator

· Used Car Salesman

· Usherette

· Ushers

· Utility Meter Reader

· Utility operator

When was artillery from ww1 first used?

User Avatar

Asked by Wiki User

Artillery in WW1 was used in Battery or even larger formations.

How did the Indians make adobe bricks?

User Avatar

Asked by Wiki User

They collected mud and molded it together with thin sticks in a fire. The fire was a ceremonial tradition where they would celebrate when new alligators sprung to life from the pond. (hence the reason for building houses) The specific tribe known for building adobe houses were the Algonquins. The were a tribe of strange tradition now past on to people in the Southeast region. They even came up with the well known tradition of using cornucopias for thanksgiving. They wore them as hats to single off bears.

Famous british inventors?

User Avatar

Asked by Wiki User

telephone

computers

cats eyes

Belicia beacons

steam trains

What were major engineering blunders due to faulty measurement?

User Avatar

Asked by Wiki User

  • The most famous one that I can remember is the Great Kersten Blunder(Kersten was the programer that made the error). The Vigor space probe was sent towards Venus, but because of the computer programing error installed on it had a converting program for millimeters to inches, but it divided by 24.5 instead of 25.4. This error caused it to miss Venus completely and was sent hurling into space. Over 2 billion dollars of technology was lost because of one simple error.
  • The Mars Climate Orbiter had a problem when trajectory programming teams from Europe and USA were working in two different measurement systems , imperial and metric. It missed the planet completely and was lost.

What are some examples of Bronze Age technology?

User Avatar

Asked by Wiki User

The Bronze Age was an era of many great inventions. Some included better tools and weapons, but not only that. Also the wheel and writing!

It's always good to brush up on the old knowledge! I know, you're welcome! xxx

Disadvantage of optical fiber communication?

User Avatar

Asked by Wiki User

Only economical when the bandwidth is fully utilised

High cost of installation

A lot of hardware at the moment is not compatible with fibre optic cables, they need to be adapted in order to make use of them

What is the Symbol for specific volume?

User Avatar

Asked by Wiki User

The symbol for specific volume is the Greek letter Nu.

What are the classes of Fire extingishers?

User Avatar

Asked by Wiki User

Class A fires (paper, wood plastic, etc) can be put out by water, dry chem, or carbon dioxide extinguishers. Class B (flammable liquids like oils and natural gases) can be put out with dry chem and carbon dioxide. Class C (electrical fires) can be put out only by dry chem. Dry chem is the only extinguisher that does all three of them however it is not recommended on Class A fires because it is not useful in putting out sparks.

How do you make a mousetrap ping-pong ball launcher?

User Avatar

Asked by Wiki User

like so?

http://beta.tulsaengineer.org/uploads/MouseTrap.bmp

What engineering words start with O?

User Avatar

Asked by Wiki User

octopus engineering

o-ring

orbital

orthogonal

ohms

odammit

overclocking

optocoupler

oxide

What is the difference between kevlar and nylon?

User Avatar

Asked by Wiki User

Nomex is not a brand name of Kevlar. Nomex and Kevlar are both trademarked names for different, although similar, composite fibers. They are both ring compounds based on benzene. The difference is that Kevlar has para-oriented aromatic rings, making it about five times stronger than Nomex. Nomex has meta-oriented rings with 120-degree bond angles, which helps it not melt at high temperatures. That's why Kevlar is used for bullet-proof vests and Nomex is used for firefighter uniforms.

http://www.stockcarscience.com/scienceTopics/scsDriverSafety_Firesuit.php

Why should we use vernier scale or micrometer instead of a meter stck?

User Avatar

Asked by Wiki User

list down the advantages and the disadvantages of the micrometer screw gauge over vernier caliper

What is the height of a 220 kv tower?

User Avatar

Asked by Wiki User

It depends on the country you're in (what codes apply), local utility standards, land being crossed (is it hilly?), type of structure/configuration of wires, and the distance between towers. At its' lowest point, the conductor could hang ~25 feet off the ground.

What is specific weight of diesel fuel?

User Avatar

Asked by Wiki User

The density of diesel fuel oil (20 to 60) at 15 degress Celsius is 820 to 950 kg/m3. In other words, it has from 82 to 95 percent the density of water, or specific gravity (relative to water) of 0.82 to 0.95.

Disadvantages of case tools?

User Avatar

Asked by Wiki User

May be difficult to customize

Initial investment cost is high

It takes long time to established the system

# it should comply with the available system