0

📱

# What is the syllabus of 8th sem computer eng in rtmnu?

SYLLABUS OF III SEMISTER B.E. COMPUTER SCIENCE (SEMISRER PATTERN)

33CSI: Applied Mathematics Unit 1 : Integral TransformsFourier integral theorem, Fourier and Laplace transforms and their simple properties, Simple properties of Laplace transforms to-solve ordinary differential equation including Application to one dimensional partial differential equations. The z-transform definition and properties, inversion, with Laplace transform, Application of z-transform to solve difference with constant coefficient.

Unit 2: Complex VariableAnalytic function, Cauchy-Riemen condition, conjugate, function, singularities, Cauchy's integral theorem and integral formula (statement only) Taylor's and Laurent theorem (statement only) Residue theorem, contour integration

. Unit 3 : Calculus of VariationsMaxima and Minima of functional, variation and its properties Euler's-equation, functional dependent on first and second order derivatives, simple applications.

Unit 4 : Fourier SeriesPeriodic function and their Fourier expansion. Even and odd function, change of interval half range expansion. Partial Differential Equation: Partial-Differential Equation of first order first degree,i.e, Langrange's form, Linear Homogeneous P.D.E. of North order with constant coeffient method of separation of variables.

Unit 5 : MatricesInverse of matrix by partitioning method, Inverse of a matrix by adjoint method and its use solving- simultaneous equation, Rank of matrix, Consistency of a system of Equation, Linear dependence, linear and orthogonal transformation.

Unit 6 : MatricesCharacteristic equation, Eigenvalues, eigenvectors, Reduction of a diagonal form, Statement and verification of Cayley-Hamilton theorem; Sylvester's theorem, Association of matrices with linear differential equation of second order with a constant coefficient, Determination of largest eigenvalue by iteration method.

Test Books:

Â· Higher Engineering Mathematics, B.S. Grewal

Reference Book :

Â· Mathematics of Engineer, Chandrika Prasad

Â· Applied Mathematics for Engineer, L.A. Pipes & Harville

Â· A Text Book of Applied Mathematics, P.N. Wartikar & J.N. Wartikar 33CS2 : Programming Fundamentals In "C"

Unit - I:

Introduction to programming , programming languages, algorithms, flowchart. C: Data types, Identifiers, Storage class, Constant, Operators, expression, Statement, console I/O statement, Selection statement: if-else, switch, Iteration Statement: for, while, do-while, jump statement: return, go, back, continue, comment.

Unit IIFunction, Call by value, Call by reference, calling function with arrays, argument to main(), return statement, recursion, function prototypes, inline keyword, preprocessor directives. Pointers: pointer variables, pointer operator, pointer expression, array of pointers, multiple indirection, pointers to function, dynamic allocation function, Unit IIIArrays - single dimensional arrays, two dimensional arrays, variables length array. Strings, array of strings. Unit IVStructures : array of structures, passing structure to function, structure pointer, structure within structure. Union, bit-fields, enumerations, size, type def. Unit VFile I/O : Streams and files, file system basics, fread, fwrite, fseek, random access I/O, fprint(), fscan(), standard streams. Unit VIAdvanced Concept in C: Different types of pointers, ROM-BOIS function, Elementary TSRs.

Text Book :

Â· The Complete Reference C (4 th Edition): Herbert Scheldt [TMH]

Â· C how to program, 4th Edition by H.M.Deitel & P.J. Deitel, Pearson Education.

Â· Writing TSRs through C: Yashwant Kanetkar [BPB]

Reference Book:

Â· The C programming Language: Dennis Ritchie & Dietel, Pearson Kernighan [Pearson]

Â· Programming with C: K.R. Venugopal & S.R. Prasad [TMH]

Â· Let us C: Yashwant Kanetkar [BPB]

Motivation for digital system - Logic and Boolean algebra, Number system: Binary, Hexadecimal, Octal, Gray. Gates & truth tables, propositions, Demogran's law minimization of combinational circuits using Karnaugh maps.

Unit II :

Multiplexers, Demultiplexer, Enconds, Decoders, Code, Converters, Address, Subtract(Half, full), BCD Adder/ Subtractor, ripple and carry look-ahead addition. Unit IIIStorage elements, flip-flops and latches: D,T,J/K, s/R flop-flops. Master Slave Conversion of one of type of F/F to another. Unit -IVCounters, asynchronous and synchronous-design using state and excitation tables. Unit -VIntroduction of 8085, Addressing modes, Instruction Set of up 8085 Unit -VIInterrupts of 8085, Programming of up 8085.

Text Book :

• Digital Design 3rd Edition by M. Morris Mano, Pearson Education.
• Digital logic and Computer Design by M. Morris Mano, Pearson Education.
• Digital Circuits & Design - R.P. Jain
• Digital Circuits & design - A.P. Godse
• Fundamentals of Digital Electronic - A.Anand Kumar
• 8 bit microprocessor & controller - V.J. Vibhute
• 8 bit microprocessor - Gaonkar

Unit I :

Combinatory : Basic counting techniques, pigeon-hole principle, recurrence relations, generating function. Examples using ordinary power series and exponential generating functions, general properties of such functions. Dirichleet Series as generating function.

A general family of problems described in terms of 'cards, deck and hand' with solution methods using generating function. Unit IIGenerating function proofs of the sieve formula and of various combinatorial indenties. Certifying combinatorial indenties.

Some analytical methods and asymptotic result.

Polya's counting theorem.

Basics of graphs theory.

Introduction to probabilistic method in combinatory. Unit IIINumber Theory

Examples of continued fractions.

The study of the continued fraction.

Alpha has infinite continued fraction if alpha is irrational.

Formal logic: Prepositional logic: proof system, semantics, completeness, compactness.

Length of proofs, polynomial size proofs, efficiency of proof system. Unit IVAlpha has periodic continued fraction if alpha is quadratic irrational.

Application to approximation of irrational by rational. Hurwitz's Theorem.

First order logic: models, proof system, compactness, Examples of formal proofs in say, number theory or group theory. Some advanced topics.

Unit V:

Application to solution of Pell's equation. Proof that means cos{(p x pi)/q}, for natural number p and q are irrational (apart from obvious exceptions).

Example : CS application of logic, introduction to modal and temporal logics, Or formal theory including incompleteness theorem.

Unit VI :

Lowville's Theorem on algebraic numbers. Construction of transcendental numbers.

Elements of proof theory including cut elimination, Or zero-one law for first order logic.

Text Book :

• Niven, Zuckerman and Montgomery, An Introduction to the theory of Numbers, (5th edition), 1991, Wiley.

33CS5 : Principle Of Management Unit I:Nature and function of Management, Management yesterday and today, Planning and Decision making. Unit II:Management Information System: Introduction, Conceptual Foundation, Information System Requirement Unit III:Marketing Management : Marketing concept, Indian Marketing Environment, Market segmentation, Market Planning, International Marketing.

Unit IV:

Financial Management

Unit V:

Human Resource Management : Human Resource Planning, Recruitment, Selection, Training and development, Security , safety and Health.

Unit VI:

Organization Behavior : Organization Structure and design. Designing Effective Organization, Managing Job Stress, Organization Development

Text Book:

• Principle of management, PC Tripathi and PN Reddy
• Management Information System, Gordon Davis and H. Olison McGraw Hill.
• Human Recourses and Personal Management, William Werther and Keith Davis.
• Marketing Management V S Ramaswamy and S Namakumari
• Organization Behavior, High Arnold and Daniel Feldman McGraw Hill
• Financial Management, Khanna

33CS6 : Computer Workshop

Practical to be based on following topics:

• Study of PC Hardware
• Basic computer Organization
• PC construction
• Study of BOIS and CMOS
• Working under DOS and Windows operating system
• Internal and External DOS commands
• Basics required for working under windows operating system
• Study of control panel

3. Working under UNIX / LINUX Operating System:

• Structure : Unix Architecture
• Features of UNIX operating system
• Layered model of UNIX operating system (study of kernel and shell)
• File structure and Directory structure

Introduction to Networking Accessories:

• Study of user connection
• Study of communication channel
• Study network architecture (topologies)
• Study of network Types

Books:

• Computer Fundamentals - Pradeep K. Sinha
• Introduction to Computer Science by ITL ESL, Pearson Education
• Introduction to UNIX and shell programming by M.G. Venkateshmurthy, Pearson Education
• Unix shell programming - Yeshwant Kanetkar.

SYLLABUS OF IV SEMISTER B.E. COMPUTER SCIENCE (SEMISRER PATTERN)

44CSI: Discrete Mathematics and Graph Theory Unit 1: Set TheoryOperation of sets - relation and functions, partial order, equivalence relation peano and inductions

Unit 2: Mathematical Logic

Proposition, predicate logic, formal mathematical system, algebra, Homomorphism, Automorphism

Unit 3: Groups

Element of theory of some Algebras, semi group, monoid group.

Unit 4: Rings

Rings, fields, lattices, Boolean Algebra.

Unit 5: Graph Theory

Graphs, Hyper Graph, Transitive Closure, Spanning Tress.

Unit 6: Combinators

Generating Function, recurrences, counting theorem and application

Text Books:

• discrete Mathematical Structure for computer science, Kolman / Rahman Pearson education.
• Combinational Mathematics, C.L. Liu (McGraw Hill)
• (common to CS/CT/CE/IT)44 CS2 : Data Structure and Programme Design in 'C'

Unit 1

General concept and linear data structure : Abstract data structure as an organization of data with specified properties and operations, Time and space analysis of algorithms, Big oh and theta notations and omega notations. Average, best and worst case analysis, Representation of Arrays - single and Multi dimensional - Address calculation using column and row major ordering. Representation of stacks and queues using arrays- Circular queues, Dequeue, Application of stacks, Conversion from infix to post fix and pre-fix expression, Evaluation of postfix expression using stacks, Multiple stacks.

Unit II

Unit III

Trees: General and binary trees, Representations and traversals, General tress as binary trees, Binary search trees, Application, the concept of balancing and its advantages, B-trees, B+ Trees, AVL Trees, Threaded Binary Trees.

Unit IV

Hashing : Hash functions, Collision resolution, Expected behavior, Application

Unit V

Graphs and digraphs : Representations, Breadth and depth first searches, Connectivity algorithms, shortest path, Minimal spanning tree, the union find problem, Hamilton path

Unit VI

Sorting : Elementary sorts : selection , insertion, bubble sort, Radix sort, Quick sort, merge sort, heap sort, Bucket sorting, External sorting, Worst case and average behavior, Lower bound for sorting using comparisons

Text Books:

• Data structure using C and C++ by Y. Langsam, Pearson Education
• Data structure using C by Tenebaum, Pearson Education
• Data structure using C by S.K. Bandyopadhaya, Pearson Education
• S. Sahani, Data Structure in C
• D. Samantha, Classic Data Structure, PHI Publication
• Data structure - Robert Kruse

Unit I:

Structural Organization of COLBOL: Character set, Words, Sentences, Identification Division, Environment Division, Data Division, Data types- numerical, Alphabetic & alphanumeric, Input-output sections, Working storage sections, PROCEDURE division features : ACCPET, DISPLAY, MOVE, Arithmetic & COMPUTE verbs, levels, Errors Handling, Sample programs, PERFORM & GOTO verbs, sample programs using PERFORM, Miscellaneous COBOL statement.

Unit II:

Conditional statements & Handling Relation condition, Nested condition, Class conditions, Condition name condition Justified clause, Structured programming forms of program structure, Structural floe charts, subscripting, OCCOURS CLAUSE, multidimensional tables, Tables handling with PERFORM verb.

Unit III:

Business Files : Structured flow charts, Operation on files, Master files, Transaction file, Report file, Batch processing, on-line processing, case studies.

Sequential Access Files: Principle of magnetic storage and accessing, Blocking, Inter record gap, label records, COBOL language instruction for sequential files.

Unit IV:

Direct Access File : Characteristic of disk storage and timing index sequential files, COBOL instruction for indexed sequential files, relative file organization, Division - Remainder method, digital analysis method, COBOL instruction for handling relative files.

Unit V:

Sorting, Searching and merging : Linear search sort, Merge sort, Chained record sort, Linear search, Binary search, File sorting and Merging using sequential files.

Report Generation : Output layout design, Heading, Date & Detailed summaries.

Control break, Language specification for COBOL report writing.

Unit VI:

Advanced Tool manipulators like STRING, UNSTIRNG, INSPECT & COPY verb, COBOL subprogram and main program.

Text Books:

Â· COBOL Programming with business application - N.L. Sarda

Â· Information System through COBOL -Philippakis & Kazmier

Â· Structured COBOL Programming - Stern & Stern

Â· COBOL Programming by M.K. Roy, D. Ghosh Dastidar.

44CS4: Theoretical Foundations Of Computer Science

Unit 1

Mathematical preliminaries - Sets, operation, relation strings, transitive closure, accountability and diagonaalisation, induction and proof methods- pigeon-hole principle and simple application - concept of language - grammar and production rules- Chomsky hierarchy.

Unit II

Finite state machine, regular language, deterministic finite automata, conversion deterministic automata , E- closures- regular expression finite automata, minimization of automata, Moore and Mealy machine and their equivalence.

Unit III

Pumping lemma for regular sets-closure properties of regular sets-decision properties for regular sets, equivalence between regular language and regular grammar. Context - free language -parse trees and ambiguity, reduction of CFGS, chomsky and Griebach normal forms

Unit IV

Push -down Automata (PDA)-non Determinism-acceptance by two methods and their equivalence, conversion of PDA to CFG CFLs and PDAs-closure and decision properties of CFLs.

Unit V

Turing machines-various-recursively enumerable (r.e.)set-recursive sets

TM as computer of function- decidability and solvability- reductions- post correspondence problem (PCP) and unsolvability of ambiguity problem of CFGs, Church's hypothesis.

Unit VI

Introduction to recursive function theory- primitive recursive and partial recursive functions, Parsing top down and bottom up approach, derivation and reduction

Text Books

• Introduction to formal languages and automata - Peter Linz Norasa, 200
• Theory of Computer - Mishra and Chandrashekharan, PHI

Reference Books

• Introduction Of Automata Theory, Languages and computation J.E Hopcroft, J. D Ulman, Pearson education.

44CS5: Computer Architecture & Organization

UNIT 1

BASIC STRUCTURE OF COMPUTERS :

Functional units , Basic operational concepts, Bus structure Addressing modes , subroutine : parameter passing , instruction formats, expanding opcodes method.

BASIC PROCESSING UNITS: bus architecture, execution of a complete instruction, sequencing of a control signals, hardwires control, micro programmed control, microinstruction format, bit slice concepts.

UNIT II:

ARITHAMETIC : Numbers representation and their operations , design of fast Adders, Singed multiplications, Booth's Algorithm's bit pair recording, Integer Division, Floating point numbers and operations , guard bit and rounding.

UNIT III:

THE MEMORY SYSTEM : various technologies used in memory design , higher order memory design, multimode memories and interleaving , Associative Memory , Cache Memory, Virtual Memory.

UNIT IV:

INPUT / OUTPUT ORGANISATION: I/O mapped I/O and memory mapped I/O , interrupts and interrupts handling mechanism , vectored interrupts , synchronous vs.

Asynchronous data transfer , Direct memory Access COMPUTERS PERIPHERALS : I/O devices such as magnetic disc, magnetic tape. CDROM system.

UNIT V:

RISC philosophy , pipelining , basic, delayed branch, branch prediction, data dependency, influence of pipe lining on instruction set design ,, multiple execution units, performance considerations,

UNIT VI:

Basic Concepts in parallel processing & classifications of parallel architecture. Vector processing , Array processors.

BOOKS:

Â· V.C Hamachare , Z.G.Vranesis and S.G Zaky, Computer organizations.

McGraw Hills 5th Edition, 2002.

Â· Computer Architecture & Organizations III rd Edition J.P Hayes.

Â· A.S. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organizations" 4th Edition , Person

Educations.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

Â· M. Mano, " Computer System & Architecture" Pearson Education.

Â· W. Stalling " Computer System & Architecture" , Pearson Educations.

44CS6: Internet Technologies

Practical to be conducted based on following topics:

1) HTML: standard use for www documents on internet , GML, SGML, HTML tags, special characters, Fonts, Lists, Images, Tables, Forms and Frames.

2) DHTML:Introduction to CSS, Fonts in CSS, Text in CSS, Boxes in CSS, CSS positioning, Tables in CSS, Generated content and lists in CSS.

3) XML: XML basics, understanding markup languages, structures and syntax, valid Vr well formed XML, DTD (document type definition) classes, Scripting XML, XML processor, parent child relationship, XML as a data, data type in XML, XML namespaces, linking with XML simple link, the HTML way, XSL with style: style sheet basics, XSL basics, XSL style sheets.

4) FRONTPAGE:

5) SECURITY:

6) Scripting Language: Perl Scripts, Java Scripts:

7) PHP

TEXT BOOKS:

Â· XML in action web technology by William J. Pardi (PHI) Pub.

Â· Web Technology by Ramesh Bangia (Firewall Media).

. Â· Programming the web using XML by Ellen Pearlman (Tata McGraw - Hill).

SYLLABUSS OF V SEMESTER B.E. COMPUTER SCIENCE (SEMESTER PATTERN)

55CS1: Data Communication

UNIT 1:

SIGNALS:

ANALOG AND DIGITAL : Analog and digital data, Analog and digital signals; PERIODIC AND APERIODIC SINGNSLES, ANALOG SINGALE: simple analog signals; TIME AND FREQUENCY DOMAINS; COMPOSITE SINGLES: Frequency spectrum and Bandwidth; DIGITAL SIGNALS : Decomposition of digital signal; TRANSMISSION MODES: Serial and Parallel transmission, Asynchronous and Synchronous Transmission, simplex, Half- Duplex communication.

UNIT 2:

ENCODING AND MODULATING:

DIGITAL -TO - DIGITAL CONVERSION : Unipolar , Polar, Bipolar;ANALOG- TO DIGITAL COVERSION:Pluse Amplitude Modulation(PAM),Pules Code7 Modulation(PCM),Sampaling Rate,How many Bits per Sample? Bit rate;

DIGITAL -TO- ANALOG CONVERSION: Aspects of Digital -to -Analog conversion, Amplitude Shift Keying(ASK),Frequency Shift Keying(FSK) ,Phase shift keying( PSK), Quadrature Amplitude modulation (QAM), Bit / Baud comparison ; ANALOG-TO- ANALOG CONVERSION: amplitude modulation (AM), Frequency Modulation (FM) , Phase modulation(pm);

UNIT 3:

INTERFACES AND MODEMS: DIGITAL DATA TRANSMISSION: Parallel transmission , Serial Transmission ; DTE- DCE INTERFACE: Data terminal Equipment (DTE), Data Circuit - Terminating Equipment (DEC), Standards, EIA-232 Interface; OTHER INTERFACE STANDARDS: EIA-530, X21; MOODEMS; Transmission rate, Modem standards; 56k MODAMS:Traditional Modams,56Modems;

UNIT 4:

COMMUNICATION MIDIA: GUIDED MEDIA: Twisted pair cable, Coaxial cable, Optical Fiber cable; UNGUIDED MEDIA: Radio frequency allocation, Propagation of Radio waves, Terrestrial microwave, Satellite communication, Cellular Telephony; TRANSMISSION IMPAIRMENTS : Attenuation , Distortion, Noise ;PERFORMANCE: Throughput, Propagation Speed, Propagation time;

UNIT 5:

MULTIPLEXING: FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLEXING (FDM). TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING (TDM); Inverse Multiplexing, WAVE- DIVISION MULTIPLEXING, MULTIPLEXING APPICATION : THE TELEPHONE SYSTEM: Common carrier services and hierarchies, Analog services, Digital Services; DIGITAL SUBCRIBER LINE(DSL):ADSL, RADSL, HSDL, SDSL, VDSL; FTTC:FTTC in the Telephone Network, FTTC in the Cable TV Network.

UNIT 6:

DATA COMPRESSION: Huffman code, Run -Length Encoding, Relative Encoding, Lempel-Ziv Encoding, Image Compression, JPEG, MPEG

Text Books:

Data Communication and Networking by Behrouz A.Forouzan, 4th Edition, Tata McGraw Hill Understanding Data Communication and Networks by William A. Shay, 2ND Edition , Vikas Publishing House.

Reference Book:

Electronic communication Systems by Kenney.

Communication Systems by Singh and Sapre

Data communication by Fred Halsall, Pearson Education.

55CS2: Numerical Computing

Polynomial Equation : Newton -Raphson method, Regula Falsi Method, Bairstow method, Multipoint iteration method, Convergence/ Rate of Convergence of iterative method, Evaluation of Multiple & complex roots. Simultaneous equations.

Linear System and Matrices Gauss elimination with pivoting, Gauss- Seidal iteration,Triangularization/ Cholesky methos, Iterative determination of Eigen values. Interpolation & Approximation: Lagrange's divaricates interpolation , Least squares approximation, Uniform approximation , Rational Approximation, Hermite Iterpolation. Differentiation / Integration: Doubleintegrals by Trapezoidal & Simpson rule, Methods of undermined coefficients for numerical integration, GaussOLegendre, Gauss- Hermite formula, Romberg Integration, Approximation of derivates, Richardson's Extrapolation. Differential Equations: Initial value problems by Euler's method, Picard's, Taylor series, Runge- Kutta methods, Predictor- Corrector methods, Boundary value problems (Second order)by finite difference methods.

Related topics: Simplex method for linear programming programming problems,Errors & Method of errors analysis.

Text Books:

• Numerical methods for Scientific and Engg. Computations by M.K. Jain, SRK Iyengar, R.K.Jain , Wiley Eastern Ltd.
• Numerical methods for Science & Engg. By Stanton R.G. PHI
• Introductory Methods of Numerical Analysis by Sastry S.S.PHI.

55CS3: Object Oriented Methodologies

UNIT 1:

What is Object Orientation ?, What is Object Oriented Development ?, The Object Oriented Themes ;The Object modeling Technique (OMT).

Object Modeling

Objects and Classes; Links and Association ; Advanced Links and Associations Concepts; Generalization and Inheritance; Grouping Constructs; A Sample Object Model. Advanced Object Modeling Aggregation; Abstract and Concrete Classes;

Generalization as Extension and Restriction ;Multiple Inheritance; Metadata; Candidate Keys.

UNIT 2:

Dynamic Modeling

Events and States; Operations; Nested State Diagrams; Concurrency of State; Advanced Dynamic Modeling Concepts; A Sample Dynamic Model; Relation of Dynamic Model to Object Model .Functional Modeling The Functional Model; The Data Flow Diagrams (DFD) ; Properties of DFD; Construction of DFD; Specifying Operations; Constraints; A Sample Functional Model; Relationship between the Object, Dynamic and the Functional Models.

UNIT 3:

Pre- Analysis the need for Pre-Analysis ; Pre -Analysis Steps: Interviews, Questionnaire, Observation, Documentation and Notations; the Bus Stop Problem Domain Example. Analysis: The Analysis Overview ; the Problem Statement; the ATM example; Object Modeling in ATM; Dynamic Modeling in ATM; Functional Modeling in ATM; Adding Operations; Iterating Analysis ; Recording Analysis.

UNIT 4:

Design

How does Design differ from Analysis ? The Logical and Physical Design ; Qualities and Objectives of Analysis and Design; Measurable Objectives in Design; Planning for Design. System Design Overview of System Design; Breaking System into Subsystems; Identifying Software Control Implementation; Handling Boundary Conditions; Setting Trade-Off Priorities; Common Architectural Frame Works; the Architecture of ATM System.

UNIT 5:

Overview of Object Design; Class Specifications; Interfaces; Criteria for Good Design; Designing Algorithms; Design Optimization ; Implementation of Control ; Adjustment of Inheritance; Design of Associations; Integrity Constraints; Object Representations ; physical Packaging; Documenting Design Decision.

UNIT 6:

The Human Computer Interaction

What is Human Computer Interaction ? Qualities of Good User Interface; Approaches to User Interface Design; the Standards and Legal requirements. The Programming Style the subject-Oriented Style; Extensibility and Robustness; Programming -in-the-Large; Last Binding and Early Binding. Reusable Components What is meant by Reuse ?, Why Reuse ? , Planning Strategy for Reuse; the Reusability approaches.

Software Development Methodologies The Method and the Methodology; Why use Methodology ? the Unified Software Development Process; Participative Design Approaches ; Issues in Choosing Methodology; Hard Vs Soft Methodologies.

(Practical Implementation in "c++")

Text Books:

• Object Oriented Modeling and Design; James Rumbaugh, Michael Blaha, Pearson Education.

REFERENCES:

• Object Oriented System Analysis and Design using UML; Second Edition ; Simon Bennett, Steve McRobb, Ray Farmmer ; Tata McGraw Hill ; 2004.
• Object Oriented Analysis and Design with Application ;Second Edition ; Grady Booch ;

Pearson Education.

• Object Oriented Analysis and Design; Andrew Haigh; Tata McGraw Hill;2001

55CS4: Concept in Programming Language

UNIT I

Definition of Programming Language , Implementation of high -level languages, Data elements , binding time , binding identifiers to names, binding of attributes, Binding time. Concept of r-value and I- value and their implementation . Effect of Environment on a language, Language paradigms. Language translation issues.

UNIT II

Data type, Type checking and type conversion, elements of specification and implementation of data type . . Implementation of elementary data types; integer, real, character, Boolean Pointer, enumerated type Implementation of structured data types. Vectors & arrays, sets, Files.

UNIT III

Abstract data type, encapsulation . Implementation of new data types, Subprogram definition and activation, their Implementation, parameter passing methods, generic subprograms, Scope rules.

Unit IV

Type equivalence, type definitions with parameters , Implementation of Inheritance. Storage management issues like static and dynamic allocation, stack based allocation and management, Heap based allocation and management.

UNIT V

Sequence control, Implicit and explicit sequence control, Sequencing with arithmetic expression, Sequence control between statements, prime programs, implementation of case statement.

UNIT VI

Subprogram sequence control, recursive and non recursive subprogram. Data control , referring environment, dynamic and static scope, static chain implementation and display implementation.

BOOKS:

Â§ Programming Languages, 1st edition by T.W. Pratt and M.V.Zelkowitz &T.V. Gopal by Pearson Education, 2006

Â§ Programming Languages, Ravi Sethi, Addison Wesley.

55CS5: System Programming

UNIT I:

IBM 360/370 & Assembler- Introduction to System Programming & its components. M/C Architecture, Data Formats & Register Formats, Concept of assembler, design of single pass and two pass assembler.

UNIT II:

Microprocessor -concept of macro , macro call within macro, macro definition within macro, recursive macro calls, design of macro processor.

UNIT III:

UNIT IV:

Common Object file format & System Utilities - Structure of object file and executable file, section or segment headers, symbol table , concept of storage class, string various, data type line insert, character, arrays structures . Source code control system, make , link editor, symbolic debugger.

UNIT V:

Unix Device Drivers- Definition, Anatomy and Types, Device programming, Installation, Incorporation of driver routines, Basic device driver operation, Implementation with Line Printer & Disk , Comparative study between device drivers for UNIX & Windows.

UNIT VI :

Compiler- Phases of Compilers, Overview of Databases and Algorithms required for all phases. Role of lexical analyzer, recognition of tokens, Study of LEX &YACC.

BOOKS:

• System Programming-J.J.Donovan.
• System Programming and Operating system - D.M. Dhamdhere.
• Unix system Utilities manual.
• Unix Programming Environment- Keringham and Pike, Pearson Education.
• Unix Device Drivers - George Pajari , Pearson Education.

SYLLABUS OF VI SEMESTER B.E. COMPUTER SCIENCE (SEMESTER PATTERN)

66CS1: DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF ALGORITHMS

UNIT I:

Mathematical foundations, summation of arithmetic and geometric series, n, n2, bounding summation using integration, recurrence relations, solution of recurrence relations using technique of characteristic equation and generating functions, Complexity calculation of various standard function s, principles of designing algorithms.

UNIT II:

Asymptotic notations of analysis of algorithms, analyzing control structures, worst case and average case analysis , amortised analysis, application of amoterized analysis, Sorting networks, comparison networks, biotonic sorting network, advanced data structures link Fibonacci heap , disjoint set reprentation, red and black trees and their applications.

UNIT III:

Divide and conquer basic strategy, binary search, quick sort, merge sort, matrix operations, Greedy method- basic strategy, application to job sequencing with deadlines problem, minimum cost spanning trees, single source shortest path etc.

UNIT VI:

Dynamic Programming basic strategy, multistage graphs, all pairs shortest path, single source shortest paths, optimal binary search trees, traveling salesman problem, graph colouring , Hamiltonian cycles etc, Approximation algorithm and concepts based on approximation algorithms.

UNIT VI:

NP-hard and NP- complete problems, basic concepts, non-deterministic algorithms, NP- hard and NP- complete, decision and optimization problems, graph based problems on NP Principle, Computational Geometry, Approximation algorithm.

Text Books

Â· Thomas H. Cormen et al "Introduction to Algorithms" , Prentice Hall of India.

Â· Design & Analysis of Computer Algorithms by Aho, Pearson education. Horowitz, Sahani , Rajsekharam

Â· "Computer Algorithms", Galgotia Publications Pvt. Ltd. Brassard , Bratley, "Fundamentals of Algorithms" ,Prentice Hall.

Reference Books:

Â· Computer Algorithems: Introduction to Desing and analysis, 3rd Edition , By Sara Baase & A.V. Gelder Pearson Education.

66CS2: Database Management Systems

UNIT I:

Database system concepts and Architecture- concept of relational database, Relational algebra, SQL- the relational database standard, introduction to PL/SQL.

UNIT II:

Database design theory- Functional dependencies and normalization, relational database design algorithms, practical database design and demoralization, Relational constants, programmatic ways for implementing constraints, tiggers.

UNIT III:

Physical database design- concept of physical and logical hierarchy, storage structures link cluster, index organized table, partitions, various table storage parameters, concept of index , B-trees, hash index, function index ,bitmap index.

UNIT IV:

Process and memory management in database: Various type of tasks in database, database buffer management, log buffer management code reuse, concept of two tier and N-tier architecture, data dictionary and catalog information database recovery technique. Aries Algorithm for recovery.

UNIT V:

Query optimization and performance tuning - Various techniques for query optimization strong and weak equivalence, cost base optimization, Use of different storage structures in query optimization.

UNIT VI:

Transaction Processing- Transaction and system concepts, Desirable properties of transaction, Schedules and recoverability, serializability of schedules, concurrency control, lockbase protocols and time stamp based protocols , red consistency.

BOOKS:

Â· Fundamentals of Database System- Elmasiri, Navathe & Gupta, Pearson Education.

Â· Database System by S.K.Singh, Pearson Education.

Â· Principles of Database System- Ullman, Golgotia Publications 1998.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

• Database System Concepts by Henry Korth and Others.
• Database Systems by Connolly, 3rd edition, Pearson Education.

66CS3: computer networks

UNIT I:

Uses of Computer Networks, Network Hardware:- LAN, WAN, MAN ,Network Software- protocol hierarchies, design issues for layers, connection oriented and connection oriented and connection less service primitives, Services to protocol relationship . reference models-OSI and TCP/IP . Performance : Bandwidth and Latency, Delay X Bandwidth Product, High Speed Networks, Application Performance Needs.

UNIT II:

Switching and MAC Layer: Packet Switching: Multiplexing: TDM FDM.

Multiple Access: Random Access, Controlled Access, Channelization, LAN: Token Ring, FDDI, Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, Wireless LANs: IEEE 80.211.

UNIT III:

Data Link Layer : Error Detection and Correction, Flow Control protocols, Error control protocols, HDLC, PPP.

UNIT IV:

Network Layer: Routing Algorithms - Shortest path Algorithm, Flooding, Flow based routing , Distance vector routing , Link state routing , Hierarchical routing.

Congestion Control Algorithms: Leaky bucket algorithm, Token bucket algorithm . Congestion prevention Policies, Traffic shaping , Choke packets, Load shedding, Jitter Control.

UNIT V:

Transport Layer: The transport Service : Service Provided to upper layers, Transport Service primitives, Berkeley sockets, Elements of Transport protocols: Addressing, Connection establishment, Connection release, Flow control and buffering, Multiplexing, Crash recovery, Introduction to Internet Transport protocols: Introduction to UDP, Remote procedure call, Introduction to TCP, Performance issues: Performance problems in Computer Network, Network performance measurement, System design for better performance, Fast TPDU processing, Protocols for Gigabit Networks.

UNIT VI:

Wide Area Network : Packet switching principals, X.25, ATM and frame relay: ATM protocol Architecture, cells, cell format, Segmentation and reassembly in ATM, ATM adaptation Layer 5:

Introduction to Frame relay and frame relay protocol architecture.

TEXT BOOK:

Â· Computer Networks: 4th ed by Andrew .S. Tanenbaum, Pearson Education.

Â· Data Communications and Networks: 4th ed by Behrouz. A. Forouzan. Tata McGraw Hill Publication.

Â· Computer Networks: A system approach by Larry L. Peterson and Bruce S. Davie, 3rd Edition, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.

Â· Data & Computer Communications: William Stallings, Sixth Edition, Pearson Edition Asia.

REFERENCE BOOK:

Â· Communication Networks: By Alberto Leon -Garcia & Indara Widjaja, 2nd Edition, McGraw Hill.

Â·

66CS4: MICROPROCESSOR & INTERFACING

UNIT I:

8085 based Microprocessor organization , 8085 Instruction set , Assembly language programming.

UNIT II:

Memory & I/O organization, Address decoding, interrupts of 8085, Basic timing of 8085.

UNIT III:

8085 Interfacing with 8255, Sample keyboard matrix interfacing with 8085,Interfacing of 7 segments LED with 8085,Introduction to DAM using HOLD/HLDA Signals.

UNIT IV:

8279 Keyboard/ display controller, Interfacing of Stepper motor with 8085.

UNIT V:

8051 architecture, code/ data memory interfacing, I/O interfacing, Address decoding logic , Interrupts.

UNIT VI:

Serial data communication, UART operation, 8051 Instruction set, assembly language programming.

TEST BOOKS:

Â§ Microprocessor Architecture, Programming and Applications with 8085/8080 A by R.S. Gaonkar, Wiley Eastern Ltd.

Â§ The 8051 Microcontroller & Embedded Systems. By Mazidi , Pearson Education.

Â§ The 8051 Microcontroller, Architecture, programming & applications, second edition by K.J. Ayala, Penram International.

Â§ Microcontrollers: Architecture, Programming , Interfacing & System design by Rajkamal, Pearson Education.

Â§ The 8 bit microprocessor & Microcontroller by V.J. Vibhute.

Â·

Â·

66CS5: SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND PROJECT MANAGEME

COURSE MODULES:

MODULE

LEARNING OBJECTIVE

INDICATIVE HOURS

Software Engineering an Introduction

Introduction to Software Engineering, Software Myths, Software Engineering- A Layered Technology, Software Process Framework, Software Process Models. The waterfall Model, Incremental Process Models, Evolutionary Process Models, Specialized Process Models, The Unified Process Model, Agile Process Models.

8

Software Engineering Practice

An Overview, Communication Practices, Planning Practices, Modeling Practices, Construction Practice & Deployment, System Engineering Hierarchy, Business Process Engineering, Product Engineering, System Modeling, Requirements Engineering.

7

Software Engineering Analysis & Design

An overview, Requirements analysis, analysis Modeling Approaches, Data Modeling, Object- Oriented Analysis, Scenario- Based Modeling, Flow- Oriented Modeling, Class- based Modeling, Behavioral Model.

Design Engineering Concepts, Design Model, Pattern- Based Software Design.

8

Testing Strategies and Tactics

An overview, Unit Testing, Integration Testing, Validation Testing, System Testing Debugging.

Software Testing Fundamentals, Black- Box Testing, White- Box Testing .

5

Product Metrics

An overview, Software Quality, A Framework for Product Metrics, Metrics for Analysis & Design Models, Metrics for Testing & Maintenance.

7

Software Project Management

An overview, Software Measurements, Metrics for Software Quality, Software Project Estimation Techniques, Project Scheduling, Risk Management, Quality Management, Change Management, Software Reengineering.

9

Total

44

Â§ Text Books:

Â§ Software Engineering - A Practitioner's Approach (Sixth Edition )-Roger Pressman(TMH)

Â§ Reference Books:

Â§ Software Engineering (Seventh Edition)- Ian Summerville, Pearson Education.

Â§ The 8 bit microprocessor & Microcontroller by V.J. Vibhute.

Â§ tice by Pfleeger, Pearson Education

Â§ Software Engineering - Schaum's Series (TMH)

Object - Oriented Analysis and Design using UML in Rational Rose 2003 Enterprise Edition (Case Studies)

Soft6ware Engineering Theory and

SYLLABUS OF VII SEMESTER B.E. COMPUTER SCIENCE (SEMESTER PATTERN) 77CS1: TCP/ IP & Internet

UNIT I:

Introduction and Overview. Comparison of OSI Model and TCP/IP model. Networking Technologies: LANS, WANS, Connecting Devices. Internetworking concept and Architectural model. Internet Backbones, NAP, ISP's, RFC's, internet Standards.

UNIT II:

Internet Addresses: IP address classes, subnet mask, CIDR, ARP, RARP, Internet Protocol, Routing IP Datagrams, ICMP and IGMP.

UNIT III:

UDP, TCP, Sockets and socket Programming Routing in Internet, Routing protocols- RIP, OSPF and BGP Introduction to Multicasting and Multicast routing.

UNIT IV:

Host Configuration :BOOTP, DHCP; Services; Domain Name System ,FTP, TFTP and Electronic Mail: SMTP, MIME, IMAP, POP.

UNIT V:

Network Management: SNMP, WWW: HTTP, Mobile IP Multimedia: RTP, RTCP.

UNIT VI:

Middiewares: RPC, RMI, Introduction to IPv6and ICMPv6, Internet Security: IPSec, PGP, Firewalls, SSL.

BOOKS:

• Internetworking and TCP/IP: Principles, Protocols and Architectures, Douglas Comer, Pearson Education.
• TCP/IP Protocol suite, Behrouz A. Forouzan, Third Edition TMH.
• Computer Networking- Atop- Down Approach Featuring the Internet, James F. Kurose, Keith W. Ross, Pearson Education, Asia.
• Computer Network: A system approach by LARRY L. Peterson and Bruce S. Davie, 3rd Edition , Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.

Reference Book:

• Stevens W.R. TCP/IP IIIustrated, volume1,2,3, Pearson education.
• Book for Practical:
• "Hands- On Networking with Internet Technologies" by Douglas E. Comer, Pearson Education, Asia, 2002.

Â·

Â·

77CS2: Language Processors

UNIT I:

Introduction to Compilers : Compilers and translators, Phases of compiler design , cross compiler, Bootstrapping, Design of Lexical analyzer, LEX.

UNIT II:

Syntax Analysis: Specification of syntax of programming languages using CFG, Top - down parser, design of LL (1)Parser, bottom up parsing technique, LR Parsing algorithm, Design of SLR, LALR, CLR parses.

UNIT III:

Syntax directed translation : Study of syntax directed definitions & syntax directed translation schemes, implementation of SDTS, intermediate notation : postfix, syntax tree, TAC, translation of expression, controls structures, declarations, procedure calls, Array reference.

UNIT IV:

Storage allocation & Error Handling: Run time storage administration, stack allocation, symbol table management, Error detection and recovery : lexical, syntactic, semantic.

UNIT V:

Code optimization : Important code optimization techniques, loop optimization, control flow analysis, data flow analysis Loop invariant computation, Induction variable removal, Elimination of Common sub expression.

UNIT VI:

Code generation - Problems code generation , Simple code generator, Register allocation and assignment, Code generation from DAG, Peephole optimization.

TEXT BOOKS:

Â§ Compilers: Principles Techniques and Tools 1st edition by A.V. Aho, Sethi, Ullman, Pearson education.

Â§ Principal of Compiler Design - Alfred V. Aho & Jeffery D. Ullman, Narosa Pub. House.

77CS3: Elective I:- Digital Signal Processing:

UNIT I:

Basic elements of a Digital Signal Processing system, Classification of signals, Concept of frequency in Continous-time and discrete - time singles, Sampling theorem, Quantization of continous-amplitude signals, quantization of sinusoidal signals. Discrete- time signals, Discrete-time systems, Analysis of discrete-time LTI systems, Correlation of discrete-time signals.

UNIT II:

The Z-transform, Properties, Rational Z-transforms, The inverse Z-transform by Contour Integration , Power series expansion, Partial- faction expansion, Decomposition of rational Z-transforms, One sided Z- transform, Properties, Solution of difference equations.

UNIT III:

Frequency analysis of Continous- time signals, Frequency analysis of discrete- time signals, Fourier series for discrete- time periodic signals, Power density spectrum of periodic signals, Fourier transform of Discrete- time aperiodic signals, Energy density spectrum of aperiodic signals, Concept of bandwidth, Symmetry properties of the Fourier transform theorems and properties.

UNIT IV:

The Discrete Fourier Transform : Its properties and application , Frequency domain sampling: The DFT, Properties of the DFT, Linear filtering methods based on the DFT, Use of THE DFT in linear filtering ,Filtering of long data sequences, Frequency analysis of signals using the DFT.

UNIT V:

Introduction to FFT algorithms: Decimation in time - FFT algorithm, Decimation in frequency- FFT algorithm, Quantization effect in the computation of the DFT, Quantization errors in the direct computation of the DFT, Quantization errors in FFT algorithms, DCT.

UNIT VI:

Design of digital filters: Design of FIR filters based on windows, Design of IIR filters from analog filters, IIR filter design by approximation of derivatives, Impulse invariance, Bilinear transformation, Examples of digital filter designs based on the bilinear transformation

Text Books:

Â§ Digital Signal Processing : Alan V. Oppenheim .W. Schaffer, Pearson Education.

Â§ Digital Signal Processing: John G. Proakies and D. Monalkies & D. Sharma, Pearson Education.

Reference Books:

Â§ Digital Signal Processing , 2nd Edition by E. Pearson Education.

Â§ Theory and application of signal processing -Rabiner & Gold (PHI) .

Â§ Digital filter design and analysis- Andreas Antonius.

77CS3: Elective I:- Computer Graphics

UNIT I:

Basic fundamentals of random scan, raster- scan devices and LAD displays. Video Basics , Interactive Devices. Line, Circle, Ellipse drawing techniques and Algorithms.

UNIT II:

Polygon filling method : Scan Conversion Algorithms: Simple Ordered edge Fill, Fence fill and Edge Fill, Fence fill and Edge Flag Algorithm, Seed fill Algorithms: Simple and Scan Line Seed Fill Algorithm, Antialiasing and Halftoning techniques.

UNIT III:

2D Clipping algorithms for regular and irregular windows: Sutherland Cohen Subdivision, Mid - Point subdivision , Cyrus Beck and Sutherland Hodgman polygon clipping Algorithm. Clipping about Concave regions. 2D Transformations, Normalized Device Coordinates and Viewing Transformation.

UNIT IV:

3D System Basics and 3D Transformations, Prarallel and Perspective projections, Hidden line/ surface Removal Algorithms. Rendering- Shading, Ray tracing techniques and Color Systems.

UNIT V:

Curve generation- Interpolation Technique, B-spline and Bezier curves, Graphics Software Packages- Rules for designing Graphics Package, Segmentation and Display file Compilation.

UNIT VI:

Graphics Systems- Display Processors, Device Independent Graphics Systems, User Interface Design. Graphics Standard -Basic principles of X-windows, X-terminal.

Test Books :

Â§ Computer Graphics, Hearn and Baker, Pearson Education

Â§ Procedural Elements of Computer Graphics III Edition, Rogers, McGraw Hill.

Â§ Principles of Interactive Computer Graphics, Newman and Sproull, McGraw Hill.

Reference Books:

Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice in "C" by J.D. Foley Pearson Education.

77CS3: Elective- I:- Real Time Operating Systems

UNIT I :

Introduction : Car & driver example, Issues in real time systems, Structure of a Real time systems ,Structure of a Real time system. Hard versus soft real time systems: Jobs & processors, release times, deadlines, timing , constraints, Hard & Soft timing constrains, Hard real time systems, soft real time systems. A Reference model of Real-time systems: processors and resources, temporal parameters of real-time workload, periodic Task model, precedence constraints & data dependencies other types of dependencies, functional parameters, resource parameters of Jobs & parameters of resources, scheduling Hierarchy.

UNIT II:

Effective release times and deadlines, Optimality and non optimality of EDF & LST, Challenges in validating timing constraints in priority- driven systems, off-line versus on-line scheduling. Clock- driven scheduling, Priority driven scheduling of periodic tasks.

UNIT III:

Scheduling aperiodic & sporadic jobs in priority-driven systems: Deferrable servers, Sporadic servers , Constant utilization, total bandwidth and weighted fair-queuing servers, scheduling of sporadic jobs. Resource and resource access control : assumption on resources and their usage, effects of resource contention & resources access control, non preemptive critical sections, basic priority- inheritance protocol, basic priority - ceiling protocol, stack- based priority-ceiling protocol, use of priority-ceiling protocol in dynamic-priority systems, preemption- ceiling protocol, controlling accesses to multiple- unit resources.

UNIT IV:

Model of multiprocessor & distributed systems, Task assignment, Multiprocessor priority- ceiling protocol, Elements of scheduling algorithms for end-to end periodic tasks, Scheduability of fixed priority end-to-end periodic tasks, end-to- end tasks in heterogeneous systems.

Programming Languages and Tools: Desired language characteristics, Data typing , control structures, Facilitating hierarchjical decomposition, packages, Run time error handling , Overloading and generics, Multitasking , Lowlevel programming, Task scheduling, Timming specifications, Programming environments, Run time support.

UNIT V:

Real Time Database: Introduction, Basic Definations, real time vs. general purpose databases, main memory databases, Transaction priorities, Transaction aborts, concurrency control issues, disk schedulinh algorithms, maintaining serialization consistency, database for hard real time systems

Real Time Communication : Introduction, Network Topologies, Contention based protocol, token based protocol, Stop and go protocol, Polled bus protocol, Hierarchical round pro5tocol, Deadline based protocols, Fault tolerant routing.

UNIT VI:

Fault Tolerance Techniques: Causes of failures, Fault types, Fault detection, Fault and error containment, Redundancy, Data diversity, Reversal checks, Integrated failure handling.

TEXT BOOK:

Â§ Real- Time Systems: Jane W.S. Liu, Pearson Education.

Â§ Real Time System: C.M. Krishna & Kang G. Shin (TMH)

77CS3: Elective- I: Fundamentals of Multimedia

UNIT I:

Multimedia Authoring and Data Representations;

Introduction to Multimedia, Multimedia Authoring and Tools, Graphics and Image Data Representations.

UNIT II:

Color in Image and Video, Fundamental Concepts in Video, Basis of Digital Audio.

UNIT III:

Multimedia Data Compression: Lossless Compression Algorithms, Run-Length Coding, Variable- Length Coding (VLC), Huffman Coding, Adaptive Huffman Coding, Lossy Compression Algorithms, Quantization, Transform Coding, Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), Image Compression Standards.

UNIT IV:

Basic Video Compression Techniques, MPEG Video Coding I-MPEG- I and 2, MPEG Video Coding II- MPEG Video Coding II-MPEG-4,7 and Beyond, MPEG Audio Compression .

UNIT V:

Multimedia Communication : Computer and Multimedia Networks, Multimedia Network Communications and Applications, Interactive TV (ITV) and Set-Top Box (STB),, Broadcast Schemes for Video-on -Demand, Buffer Management, Further Exploration, Wireless Networks, Multimedia over Wireless Networks, Trends in Wireless Interactive Multimedia.

UNIT VI :

Multimedia Retrieval: Content - Based Retrieval in Digital Libraries, Minimum three Case studies.

Text book :

Â§ Fundamentals of Multimedia 1st Edition by Mark S. Drew & Ze- Nian Li, Pearson Education.

Refverence Books:

Â§ Multimedia Fundamentals, Volume 1: Media Coding and Content and Content processing, 2nd Edition by Ralf Steinmetz, Klara Nahrstedt, Pearson Education .

Â§ Multimedia Marking Work (TMH Pub.) by Tay Vaughan.

Â§ Advanced Multimedia Programming (McGraw Hill Pub)- Steve Rimmer

Â§ Digital Image Processing- Gonzalez and Woods, Pearson Education.

UNIT I:

Models of parallel computer, multiprocessors and multicomputers, multivector and SIMP computers, PRAM and VLSI models conditions of parallelism, data and resource dependencies, grain size and latency, grain packing and scheduling , program flow mechanisms, system interconnect architectures.

UNIT II:

Principles of scalable performance, performance metrics and measures, speedup performance laws, advanced processor technology, superscalar and vector processors, verified memory organizations, shared memory organizations.

UNIT III:

Pipeline and superscalar techniques, liner pipeline processors, reservation and latency analysis, collision free scheduling, pipeline schedule optimization, instruction pipeline design, arithmetic pipeline design , arithmetic pipeline design, superscalar and superscalar and superpipeline design.

UNIT IV:

Multiprocessors and multicomputers, multiprocessor system interconnects, cache coherence and synchronization mechanisms, messing passing schemes.

UNIT V:

Multivector and SIMD computers vector processing principles, compound vector processing, SIMD computer organizations scalable multithread and dataflow architectures.

UNIT VI :

Introduction to parallel Programming Models, Parallel Language Constructs ,

Elementary theory about dependence analysis, Code optimizations and Scheduling.

Books:

Kai Hiwang, "Advanced Computer Architecture" McGraw Hill Richard Y.Kausi, "Advanced Computer Architecture" Prentice Hall of India.

Advanced Computer Architecture by D. Sima, Fountain & Kacsuk, 1st Edition, Pearson Education.

77CS4: Elective-II:-Artificial Intelligence

UNIT I:

Introduction: Scope of AI, AI problems, AI technique, Production system Characteristics, Basics of problem solving :problem representation paradigms Defining problem as a state space representation.

UNIT II:

Search Techniques: Problem size, complexity , approximation and search; depth, breadth and best search; Heuristic Based Search; Heuristic search, Hill climbing, best - first search, branch and bound.

UNIT III:

Knowledge representation: First order logic, Unification , Resolution in Predicate Logic.

Structured Knowledge Representation: Semantic Nets, Frames and Scripts.

Learning : Block architecture of learning system, Types of learning, performance Measures.

UNIT IV:

Uncertainty Treatment: Formal and empirical approaches including Bayesian theory, belief functions, certainty factors and fuzzy sets.

UNIT V:

Expert Systems: Fundamental blocks, knowledge Engineering, knowledge Acquisition , Need and justification for expert systems, Detailed Discussion form Example Domains- (form)Industry, Language, Medicine, Verification, Vision, Knowledge Based Systems; concept of shells.

UNIT VI:

Language Machine: Introduction to Natural Language understanding Level of knowledge in NLU, Approaches to NLU, Problems in NLU, Basic parsing techniques.

Text Books:

• E. Rich and Knight, Artificial Intelligence, Tata McGraw Hill, 1990.
• Introduction to Artifitial Intelligence by E. Charniack and D. Mcdemott, Pearson Education.
• Artifitial Intelligence structures and strategies for complex problem solving, 4th edition, Pearson education.
• Stuart Russell and Peter Norving, Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, 2nd edition, Pearson Education.
• Introduction to Artificial Intelligence & Expert system (PHI Pub)- D.W.Patterson.

Reference Books:

• N.J.Nilsson, " Principles of AI,"Narosa Publ. House, 1990.
• P.H.Winston, "Artificial Intelligence", Pearson Education, 3rd Edition, 2002.
• M.N.Hoda, "Foundation Course in Artificial Intelligence", Vikas Pub, 2004.

77CS4: Elective:-II:- Enterprise Resource Planning

Course Modules:

Module

Learning Objective

Indicative Hours

ERP- Curtain Raiser

An overview, Accommodating variety, Integrated Management Information, Seamless Integration, Supply Chain Management, Resource Management, Integrated data model, scope, Technology, Benefits of ERP, Evolution, ERP revised, ERP & Modern Enterprise, problems.

6

ERP& Related Technologies

An overview, Business Process Reengineering(BPR), Management Information System(MIS), Decision Support Systems (DSS), Executive Information System (EIS), Data Warehousing, Data Mining, OLAP.

6

An overview, What is Business Engineering (B.E.)? Significance of BE, Principles of BE, BPR, ERP & IT, BE with IT, ERP and Management concerns, problems.

6

ERP Implementation and the Competitive Advantage

An overview, Role of consultants, vendors & users, customization, precautions, ERP: Post- implementation options, ERP implementation Lifecycle, Guidelines for ERP implementation problems. ERP & competitive strategy, problems.

8

The ERP Market & Making of ERP

An overview, SAP AG , SAPR/3 Applications, Baan, Oracle, People Soft, JD Edwards, Examples of Indian ERP packages, problems.

An overview, Market Dynamics & Competitive Strategy, problems, Future Directions in ERP.

8

ERP Case Studies

Various ERP Case studies.

6

Total

40

Text Books:

• Enterprise Resource Planning- Concepts & Practice (Second Edition) By V.K. Garg & N.K. Venkitakishnan (PHI)
• Enterprise Resource Planning - Alexis Leon (TMH)
• Reference book:
• ERP Demystified- By Alexis Leon (TMH)

77CS4: Elective- II:- Operating System Design

UNIT I:

General overview of the Unix System, Kernel: Architecture of Unix OS, Kernel data structures, system administration. The buffer cache; advantages & disadvantages.

UNIT II :

Internal representation of files , inodes, structures, directories, super block, allocation of disk blocks, System Calls for the file system in Unix.

UNIT III:

Processes: States & transitions, Layout of system memory. Context Sleep. Process Control, Process Scheduling and Time.

UNIT IV:

Memory management policies in Unix. Swapping, demand paging hybrid system. I/O subsystem: drivers & streams.

UNIT V:

Interprocess Communication : process tracing, system V IPC Network communications, sockets.

UNIT VI:

Multiprocessor Systems: Problems & solutions with master slave processors. Distributed Unix System.

Text Books:

Â§ M.J.Bach: The Design of Unix Operating System, Pearson Education

Â§ A.S. Tanenbaum : Operating System Design & Implementation , 2nd edition, Pearson education D.Comer: Operating System Design (Prentice Hall)

SYLLABUS OF VIII SEMESTER B.E. COMPUTER SCIENCE (SEMESTER PATTERN)

88CS1: Distributed And Object Oriented Database Management

UNIT I:

Distributed databases

Distributed databases: What and Why? The Distributed Database Management Systems.

The Distributed Transparency-the Reference Architecture for Distributed Databases, Data Fragmentation, Distributed Transparency for Read- Only and Applications, Distributed Database Access Primitives, Integrity Constraints in Distributed Databases.

UNIT II:

Distributed Database Design

Framework for Distributed Database Design, the Database Fragmentation Design, Allocation of Fragments.

Translation of Global Queries to Fragments Queries.

The Equivalence Transformation for Queries, Transforming Global Queries, Distributed Grouping and Aggregate Function Evaluation, Parametric Queries.

UNIT III :

Optimization of Access Strategies

Framework for Query Optimization, Join Queries-use of Semi- Join Programs for Join Queries, the SDD-1 Algorithm, the AHY approach, Use of Join as Query Processing Tactic: General Queries-Effect of Commuting Joins and Unions, Methods for the Optimization of General Queries. The Management of Distributed Transaction; Concurrency Control for Distributed Transactions; Architectural Aspects of Distributed Transactions.

UNIT IV:

Concurrency Control Foundations of Distributed Concurrency Control; Distributed Deadlocks; Concurrency Control based on Timestamps; Optimistic Method for Concurrency Control Distributed Database Administration Catalog Management in Distributed Database, Authorization and Protection. The System R*The Architecture of System R *Compilation. Execution and Recompilation of Queries; Protocols for Data Definition and Authorization in R* Transaction and Terminal Management.

UNIT V:

The Object Oriented Database Object Oriented Database- What and Why? ; the Object Oriented Database Management Systems; Evolution of Object Oriented Concepts; Characteristics of an Object Oriented Database Data Model; Object Schema; Inter- object Relationships; Late and Early Binding; Similarities and differences between object Oriented Database Models and other Data models.

Object Oriented DBMS Architectures; Performance Issues in Object Oriented DBMS; Application Selection for Object Oriented DBMS; the Database Design for an Object Relational DBMS. The Structured Typed and ADTs; Extending the ER Model; Storage and Access Methods; Query Processing; Query Optimization; Design and Architecture of POSTGRES; Distributed Computing in CORBA and EJB.

(Practical Implementation in Oracle 8i or Oracle 9i covering both Distributed and Object Oriented Database Features)

Text books :

Â§ Distributed Database- Principles and Systems: Stefano Ceri, Guiseppe Pelagatti;Tata McGraw Hill; 1985.

Â§ Object Oriented Database Systems- Approaches and Architectures; C.S.R. Prabhu; Prentice Hall OF India.

Â§ Database Systems- Design, Implementation and Management; Peter Rob, Carlos Coronnel; Course Technology; 2000.

Reference:

Â§ Principles of Distributed database systems by M.T. Ozsu/ S. Sridhar, Pearson education

Â§ Database Managements Systems; Raghu Ramakrishnan, Johnaas Gehrke; Tata McGraw Hill; 2000

Â§ Fundamentals of Database Systems- Third Edition; Elmasri, Navathe; Addison- Weseley; 2002.

Â§ Database- Principles, Programming and Performance; Second Edition; Patrick O'Neil,

Â§ Elizabeth O'Neil; Morgan Kaufmann; 2002.

Â§ Oracle 8i- DBA Handbook; Loney, Koch; Tata McGraw Hill.5. Oracle9i- The Complete Reference; Tata McGraw Hill- Oracle Press; 2004.

88CS2: Computer System Security:

UNIT I:

Introduction to the concepts of security: need, principles, Type of Attacks, Services, Mechanisms, A model for network security, Encryption model Classical encryption techniques: substitution techniques, substitution techniques, transposition techniques, Rotor Machines, Steganography

Block ciphers: simplified DES, Block cipher principles, Data encryption standard, Strength of DES, Block cipher design principles, Block cipher mode of operation, Characteristics of advanced symmetric block ciphers.

UNIT II:

Confidentiality using symmetric Encryption: Placement of encryption function, Traffic confidentiality, Key distribution, Random number generation,

Public Key cryptography : Principles, RSA algorithm, Key management , Diffie-Hellman key exchange

UNIT III:

Message authrenticanoa &Hash functions: Authentication requirement, Functions, Codes, Hash functions, Security of hash function & MAC's .Hash algorithms: MD5 message digest algorithm, Secure hash algorithm (SHA-I), Digital signatures and authentication protocols: Digital signatures, Authentication protocols, Digital signature standard.

UNIT IV:

UNIT V:

IP security : Overview, Architecture, Authentication header, Encapsulating security payload, Combining security associations, Key management. Web security: Web security considerations, Secure Socket Layer and Transport Layer Security, Secure Electronic Transaction, SHTTP.

UNIT VI:

Security systems: Intruders , Intrusion detection, viruses and related threats, Firewalls design principles, Trusted systems, Virtual private networks.

Text books:

• Cryptography & Networks Security Principles & Practice (Pearson Education)-William Stallings.
• Networks Security Essentials Applications & Standards (Pearson Education)- William Stallings.
• Cryptography and Networks Security by Atul Kahate, Tata Mc. Graw Hill .

Reference Books:

• Introduction to Computer Security by Matt Bishop Pearson education.
• Security in outing by Pfleeger & Pfleeger Pearson education.

88CS3: Elective- III:- Natural Language Processing :

UNIT I:

Introduction and requirement of NLP, Words and their distribution, PERL, Corpus Processing.

UNIT II:

Language modeling and Smoothing, Part of speech tagging, Word sense disambiguation. Basic Search algorithms, Blind Graph Search algorithm, Search Space with FSM and CFG, Search space for Bi- grams and Uni- grams, Viterbi Beam Search.

UNIT III:

Classification and retrieval of information, Syntax parsing.

UNIT IV:

Clustering Techniques, Machine Translation and Sentence alignment, Document Structure detection , Text normalization: Domain specific tags, Number formats.

UNIT V:

Methodologies of discourse analysis, Context Sensitive Speech conversion, Text Summarization techniques.

UNIT VI:

Dialog and Question- Answering, Information Retrieval Vector Space Model- Latent semantic indexing, etc. Information Extraction.

Text Books:

• "Foundations of Statistical Natural Language Processing" by Manning & Schutze.
• Natural Language understanding by James Allen, Pearson Education.
• "Speech and Language Processing" by Jurafsky & Martin.

88CS3:Elective- III: Mobile Computing :

UNIT I:

Introduction to wireless communication, wireless transmission, frequencies for radio transmission , signal prorogation, multiplexing, modulation, speard spectrum, introduction to cellular system.

UNIT II:

Medium access control: Motivation for a specialized MAC, SDMA, FDMA,TDMA, CDMA, GSM: System architecture, protocols localization and calling, handover.

UNIT III:

Satellite systems, Wireless LAN: IEEE 802.11

UNIT IV:

Wireless LAN: HIPERLAN, Bluetooth

UNIT V:

Mobile Network Layer: Mobile IP, dynamic host, configuration protocol, adhoc networks, Mobile transport layer: Traditional TCP, Indirect TCP, Snoopy TCP, mobile TCP, Transaction oriented TCP.

UNIT VI:

Security Issues in Mobile Computing

Text Books:

Â§ Mobile Communication 2nd edition by Jochen Schiller, Pearson education

Â§ Mobile Computing by Asoke Talukder, Roopa Yavagal (Tata McGraw Hill)

88CS3: Elective- III:- Soft Computing:

UNIT I:

Learning and Soft Computing : Example of Applications in Diverse Fields, Basic Tools of Soft Computing , Basic Mathematics of Soft Computing Learning and Statistical Approaches to Regression and Classification.

UNIT II:

Single- Layer networks: The Perceptron, Adaline and Least Mean Square Algorithm. Multilayer Perceptrons: The Error Backpropogation Algorithm, The Generalized Delta Rule, Heuristics or Practical Aspects of the Error Backpropogation Algorithm.

UNIT III:

Radial Basis Networks: III Posed problems and the Regularization Technique, Stabizers and Basis Functions, Generalized Radial Basis Function Networks, Moving Centers Learning, Regularization with Nonaradial Basis Functions,Orthogonal Least Squares, Optimal Subset Selection by Linear Programming.

UNIT IV:

Fuzzy Logic Systems: Basics of Fuzzy Logic Theory, Crisp and Fuzzy Sets, Basic Set Operations, Fuzzy Relations, Composition of Fuzzy Relations, Fuzzy Inference, Zadeh's Compositional Rule of Inference , Defuzzification, Mathematical Similarities between Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic Models, Fuzzy Additive Models.

UNIT V:

Evolutionary Algorithms: Difficulties with Classical Optimization Algorithms, Genetic Algorithms, Evolution Strategies, Evolutionary Programming, Genetic Programming , Multi- Model Function Optimization, Crowding Model, Sharing Function Model.

UNIT VI:

Non-Elitist Multi- Objective Evolutionary Algorithms: Motivation for Finding Multiple Pareto- Optimal Solutions, Early Suggestions, Example Problems, Vector Evaluated Genetic Algorithm, Vector- Optimized Evolution Strategy, Weight- Based genetic Algorithm, Random Weighted Genetic Algorithm, Predator- Prey Evolution Strategy, Other Methods, Suggestions for Assignments: Implementation of algorithms in 'C/C++/MATLAB'

Text Books:

Â§ Learning and Soft Computing by Vojislav Kecman, Pearson education.

Â§ Multi - Objective Optimization using Evolutionary Algorithms by Kalyanmoy Deb, WSE Willey.

Reference Books:

• Artificial Neural Networks by Robert J. Schalkoff(McGraw Hill)

88CS3: Elective III:-Topics In Distributed Systems:

UNIT I:

Motivation and goals, broad overiew and advantages of distributed systems main characteristics: absence of global clock and state and possibility of large network delays. Issues in distributed systems such as transparency, sclability, security, resource management etc. theoretical foundation- Lamport's clocks Chandy- Lamport Global State algorithm- termination detection.

UNIT II:

Distributed mutual exclusion - Lamport, Ricart- Agrawal non- token based algorithm- token based algorithm- token based algorithms- comparative performance analysis.

UNIT III:

Distributed deadlock detection issues- central and distributed detection algorithm- agreement protocols - model of processor failures- Byzantine agreement and other problems- solutions and applications.

UNIT IV:

Distributed file systems- design issues - case studies with emphasis on NFS- distributed shared memory- coherence and coherence protocols- design issues and case studies.

UNIT V:

UNIT VI:

Recovery : Introduction and basic concepts- backward and forward error recovery, checkpointing: Synchronous and asynchronous- atomic actions and commit protocols- voting protocols-reliable communication- cryptography: private and pubic- implementation issues, RSA algorithm- algorithm- authentication in distributed systems- Kerberos case study.

Text Books:

• Advanced concepts in Operating Systems- Singhal and Shivratri; McGraw Hill
• Distributed Systems- George Colouris, Pearson Education

Reference Books:-

Â§ Modern Operating Systems - Tanenbaum, Pearson Education.

Â§ Distributed Systems: Principles and Paradigmsm, A.S. Tanenbaum, Paerson Education.

88CS4: ELECTIVE- IV: Data Warehousing and Mining:

UNIT I:

The Compelling Need for data warehousing: Escalating Need for strategic information, failures of Past decision- support systems, operational versus decision - support systems, data warehousing- the only viable solution, data warehouse define.

UNIT II:

Data warehouse- The building Blocks: Defining Features, data warehouses and data marts, overview of the components, metadata in the data warehouse Defining the business requirements: Dimensional analysis, information packages- a new concept , requirements gathering methods, requirements definition: scope and content.

UNIT III:

Principles of dimensional modeling: Objectives, From Requirements to data design , the STAR schema, STAR Schema Keys, Advantages of the STAR Schema Dimensional Modeling: Updates to the Dimension tables, miscellaneous dimensions, the snowflake schema, aggregate fact tables, fact tables, families of STARS.

UNIT IV:

OLAP in the Data Warehouse:

Demand for Online analytical processing, need for multimensional analysis, fact access and powerful calculations, limitations of other analysis methods, OLAP is the answer, OLAP definitions and rules.

UNIT V:

OLAP characteristics, major features and functions, general features, dimensional analysis, what are hypercubes? Drill- down and roll-up, slice-and-dice or rotation, OLAP models, overview of variations, the MOLAP model, the ROLAP model, ROLAP versus MOLAP, OLAP implementation considerations, Introduction to OLTP.

UNIT VI:

Data Mining Basics , What is Data Mining, Data Mining Defined, The knowledge discovery process, OLAP versus data mining, data mining and the data warehouse , Major Data Mining Techniques, Cluster detection, decision trees, memory - based reasoning link analysis, neural networks, genetic algorithms, moving into data mining, Data Mining Applications, Benefits of data mining, applications in industry, applications in industry, application in banking and finance.

Text Books:

Â§ Data Mining and Data Warehousing and OLAP-Alex Berson and Smith (McGraw Gill Pub)

References Books:

Â§ W.H.Immon ," Building the operational data store " , 2nd Ed, John Wiley, 1999.

Â§ Kamber and Han, " Data Mining Concepts and Techniques", Hartcourt India P.Ltd.2001 3. Paul Raj Poonia.

" Fundamentals of Dat Warehousing", John Wiley & Sons, 2004.

Â§ Sam Anthony ," Data Warehousing in the real world: A practical guide for building decision support systems", John Wiley, 2004.

88CS4: Elective- IV:-Grid Computing :

UNIT I:

Overview. Focuses on grid computing as new computing paradigm for solving complex collaborative problems that require massive resources and infinite CPU cycle. The topics included: Definition of Grid : Basic Building Blocks: Issues in Management of Grid Models: Evolution of Grid Models.

UNIT II:

Architecture. Deals with grid architecture providing an anatomical look into fundamental system components and their functionalities as well as interactions . Topics: Requirements concerning abstractions, behaviors, resources, connectivity and protocols; Open grid service architectures.

UNIT III:

Environment. Talks about grid computing environments. Topics; Overview of GCE; Programming models; Middleware for building grid computing environments; Language support (MPI- G, MPI-G2, etc) for grid computing; Meta models for grid programming; Security.

UNIT IV:

Applications. Delas with case studies, how the global computing infrastructure has become a reality for collaborative complex data intensive computing aid for federated database services, web services, bioinformatics. It will also include among others some selection of topics form Seti project, Sun grid engine Sky sever and some national grid projects.

UNIT V:

Monitoring and evaluation. It will include following: Monitoring; Scheduling; Performance tuning; Debugging and performance diagnostic issues:

UNIT VI:

Computational geometry, geometric preliminaries, models of computation.

Text Books:

Â§ Grid Computing: A research: momograph: D .Janakiram, Tata McGrawhill Publication.

Â§ The Grid: Blueprint for a New Computing Infrastructure (2nd edition) by Ian Foster (Editor), Carl Kesselman (Editor) Publisher : Morgan Kaufmann; 2nd edition (November 2003) ISBN: i-558-60933-4.

Â§ Grid Computing: Making the Global Infrastructure a Reality by Francine Berman (Editor), Geoffrey Fox (Editor),Tony Hey (Editor)Publisher: John Wiley & Sons; (April 8,2003) ISBN: 0-470-85319-0.

Â§ Grid Resource Management : State of the Art and Future Trends by Jarek Nabrzyski (Editor), Jennifer M.Schopf (Editor) , Jon Weglarz (Editor) Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers: (September 2003) ISBN: 1-402-07575-8.

88cs4: Elective- IV:-Digital Image Processing:

UNIT I:

Introduction: Introduction, Fundamental Steps in Image Processing, Elements of DIP systems, Element of visual perception.

Fundamentals of Image Processing: A Simple Image Models, Sampling and Quantization, Some Basic Relationships between Pixels, Image Geometry in 2D.

UNIT II:

Image Enhancement in the Spatial Domain: Introduction to Spatial and Frequency Methods, Basic Gray Level Transformations, Histogram Equalization, Histogram Processing, Local Enhancement, Image Subtraction, Image Averaging, Basic of Spatial Filtering, Smoothing Spatial Filters, Sharpening Spatial Filters.

UNIT III:

Transforms:- Introduction to Fourier Transformation, Discrete Fourier Transformation, Fast Fourier Transformation, Fourier Properties, 2D FT, Inverse Fourier Transform.

UNIT IV:

Image Enhancement in the Frequency Domain: Filtering in the Frequency Domain, Correspondence between Filtering in Spatial and Frequency Domain, Smoothing Frequency Domain Filters, Sharpening Frequency Domain Filters, Homomorphic Filtering, Implementation. Introduction to Color Image Processing: RGB and HIS color Models.

UNIT V:

Image Segmentation : Point Detection, Line Detection, Edge Detection, Gradient Operator, Edge Linking and Boundary Detection, Thresholding, Region- oriented Segmentation.

UNITVI:

Representation: Chain Codes, Polygonal Approximations, Signatures, Boundary Segments, Skeleton of a Region.

Description: Boundary Descriptors, Shape Numbers, Fourier Descriptors, Regional Descriptors, Simple Descriptors, Topological Descriptors.

Suggestions for Assignments: Implementation of Image Processing algorithms in 'C/C++/MATLAB'.

Text Books:

Â§ Rafal C.Gonzalez and Richard E.Woods,"Digital Image Prtocessing", 2nd Edition, Pearson Education.

Referenc Books:

Â§ K.Jain,"Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing", Pearson education.

Â§ W.K.Pratt,"Digital Image Processing", 3RD Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York.

88CS4: Elective -IV:-Embedded Systems:

UNIT I:

An Introduction to Embedded Systems

An Embedded system, Processor in the system. Other hardware units, Software embedded into a system. Exemplary embedded systems, embedded system-on-chip(SOC) and in VLSI circuit. Processor and memory organization- Structural Units in a Processor. Processor. Processor selection for an embedded system, memory devices. Memory selection for an embedded system, allocation of memory to program cache and memory management links. Segments and block and memory map of a system, DMA. interfacing processors, memories and Input Output Devices.

UNIT II:

Devices AND Buses For Device Networks

1/0 devices. Timer and colmting devices. Serial communication using the "12C" CAN. Profibus foundation field bus and advanced I/O buses between the network multiple devices. host systems or computer parallel communication between the networked 1/0 multiple devices using the ISA.PLC PCI-X and advanced buses.

UNIT III:

Device drivers and interrupts servicing mechanism devices, parallel port and serial port device drivers in a system, devices drivers for internal programmable timing devices, interrupt servicing mechanism.

UNIT IV:

Programming concepts and embedded

s

Total Total

Microprocessor Architecture, Programming and Application with 8085/8080 By R.S.Gaonkar, Wiley Eastern Ltd.

The 8051 Microcontroller & Embedded Systems. By Mazidi, Pearson Education.

The 8051 Microcontroller, Architecture, programming & applications, second edition by K.J.Ayala Penram International.

Microcontrollers; Architecture, Programming, Interfacing & System design by Rajkamal, Pearson Education.

The 8 bit microprocessor & Microcontroller by V.J.Vibhute.

Â· SSSSS

Â·

Â·

Â·

Â· Text books:

Â·

Â·

Â· TEXT BOOKS:

Â·

Â·

Â· TEXT BOOKS:

Â·

Â·

Â·

Â·

Â·

Â·

# Which person designs programs to perform tasks?

The person who designs programs to perform tasks is typically referred to as a "software developer" or "programmer." These professionals are responsible for writing the code that instructs a computer or software application on how to perform specific tasks or functions. Software developers use programming languages and development tools to create software programs that can range from simple utilities to complex applications and systems.

Software developers play a crucial role in the software development process, which includes tasks such as designing algorithms, writing code, debugging and testing software, and ensuring that it meets the intended functionality and performance requirements. They collaborate with other team members, such as software engineers, designers, and project managers, to develop software solutions that address specific needs or problems.

# What is the differrence of flip-flop and latch?

flip flop is level triggered

latch is edge triggered

# Cmm level 4 companies in Bangalore?

ne entla na sulli

# How does one decide how to choose a software development company?

Choosing a software development company is a crucial decision that can significantly impact the success of your project. Here are some steps and factors to consider when making this decision:

Clearly outline your project's objectives, requirements, and goals.

Determine your budget and timeline constraints.

Identify the technologies or platforms you want to use.

Research and Shortlist Companies:

Start by researching software development companies online.

Look for companies with experience in your industry or with similar projects.

Seek recommendations from colleagues, industry peers, or online communities.

Evaluate Their Portfolio:

Review the company's portfolio of past projects. Look for projects similar in scope and complexity to yours.

Check for case studies, client testimonials, and references.

Assess Expertise and Skills:

Determine if the company has the technical expertise and skills required for your project.

Assess the qualifications and experience of their development team.

Check Reputation and Reviews:

Read online reviews and ratings on platforms like Clutch, Upwork, or Google.

Look for any red flags or consistent issues mentioned by past clients.

Communication and Collaboration:

Evaluate the company's communication skills and responsiveness. Effective communication is critical for project success.

Assess their willingness and ability to collaborate with your team.

Quality Assurance and Testing:

Inquire about their quality assurance and testing processes. Ensure they prioritize software quality and bug-free delivery.

Scalability and Long-Term Support:

Consider whether the company can scale its team or services if your project grows.

Cost and Budget:

Request detailed project proposals and cost estimates from multiple companies.

Beware of unusually low-cost options, as quality may be compromised.

Legal and Contractual Matters:

Review the terms and conditions of the contract, including intellectual property rights and confidentiality clauses.

Ensure you have a clear understanding of payment terms and milestones.

Visit the Company or Arrange Meetings:

If feasible, visit the company's office or arrange virtual meetings to get a sense of their work environment and team culture.

Don't hesitate to ask questions about their development process, project management, and any concerns you may have.

Trust your gut feeling. Choose a company that you feel comfortable working with and who shares your vision for the project.

Legal and Contractual Matters:

Review the terms and conditions of the contract, including intellectual property rights and confidentiality clauses.

Ensure you have a clear understanding of payment terms and milestones.

Start Small if Unsure:

If you're unsure about a company, consider starting with a smaller project to assess their capabilities and compatibility.

Remember that choosing the right software development company is a significant decision, and it's worth investing time and effort in the selection process. Once you've carefully evaluated your options and made your choice, establish a clear and transparent working relationship to ensure the success of your project.

# What is depletion region in PN junction?

when the p type semi conductor is connected to n type the electrons in n type migrates towards p type to fill the vacancy i.e holes in p type. As a result accepter ions are developed in n type and donor ions in p type which restrict further movement of electrons and holes . this layer of donor and accepter ions at the pn-junction is called depletion region. and across this region a potential is developed which is called barrier potential.

# How do you make voicebanks in UTAU?

To make an UTAU you first need to download the UTAU program which you can do here:

http://utau2008.xrea.jp/index.HTML

Click on 'v0.2.76 インストーラ'

It helps to have the English Patch which can be downloaded here:

http://www.mediafire.com/?mttooatmn5y

Go to your computer disk C, program files, UTAU then extract it to a folder in your UTAU folder called "Res". If there is no "res" folder, create one.

Now onto making the actual UTAU. You need to get a voice recording program like Audacity which you can download here:

http://audacity.sourceforge.net/

Now go into the UTAU folder again and go into the folder labeled Voice. Make a new folder and name it after whatever you wish to name your UTAU.

Then you need to find a list of Japanese characters like so:

http://www.tata-tatao.to/knit/Japanese/50-on.gif

Now record yourself saying each of the characters individually and save them as WAV. Save them in your UTAU's folder you just made.

When you finish your UTAU's voice bank you can finally make it sing!! :D

http://vocalochu.blogspot.com/2009/12/vsq-list.HTML

Then change the default UTAU to your UTAU.

If the UST isn't already done for you in English letters then look up the lyrics to the song and write the characters of the song into the boxes.

Now save it as a WAV and go into windows movie maker to add the kareoke.

Have fun with your new UTAU~

TIPS:

-Always check your UTAU's voice. Remember UTAU is a program and programs do not always work correctly.

-Be creative with your UTAU's design. Your making a new member of the Vocoloid type programs family! They need to stand out above the rest. Not just be Kaito with pink hair.

-Have fun! It can get frustrating trying to get the program to work but just keep thinking about that end result!~

# Why Common Emitter Configuration is most commonly used in amplifier circuits?

the common emitter configuration is most widely used in amplifer circuits because of its high voltage,current & power gain.

the common emitter configuration is most widely used in amplifer circuits because of its high voltage,current & power gain.

yes

# How do you draw a data flow diagram for a library system?

An Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC) is e-Library website which is part of Integrated Library System(ILS), also known as a Library Management System (LMS), and managed by a library or group of libraries.

Patrons of the library can search library catalog online to locate various resources - books, periodicals, audio and visual materials, or other items under control of the library. Patrons may reserve or renew item, provide feedback, and manage their account.

See example of UML diagram in the link.

# What is Malware that essentially is a form of social engineering because it entices the user to install the supposedly benign software?

Spyware is malware that is essentially a form of social engineering.

# What is the meaning of validation in software testing?

Validation is done at the end of the development process and takes place after verification process is completed. According to CMM we can also define it as the process of evaluating software during or at the end of the development process to determine whether it satisfies specified requirements.

# What software are required for electrical engineers?

One software I know is Auto-cad, which is needed for electrical Drawing.

# What is the functional testing?

Functional testing typically defines what the system does. Functional testing verifies a program by checking it against design document. In a software testing company, functional testing is a quality assurance (QA) procedure and a type of testing that bases its test cases on the specifications of the software modules under test.

In functional testing mainly the testing of the functions of module or system is done, it refers to activities that verify a specific action or function of the code. Functions are tested by feeding them input and examining the output, and internal program structure is rarely considered.

Types of Functional testing:

Smoke Testing comprises of a non-exhaustive set of tests that aim at ensuring that the most important functions work. The results of this testing is used to decide if a build is stable enough to proceed with further testing.

Sanity testing is a kind of Software Testing performed after receiving a software build, with minor changes in code, or functionality, to ascertain that the bugs have been fixed and no further issues are introduced due to these changes. The goal is to determine that the proposed functionality works roughly as expected.

Regression testing is defined as a type of software testing to confirm that a recent program or code change has not adversely affected existing features. Regression testing is nothing but full or partial selection of already executed test cases which are re-executed to ensure existing functionality work fine.

Usability testing refers to evaluating a product or service by testing it with representative users. Typically, during a test, participants will try to complete typical tasks while observers watch, listen and takes notes. The goal is to identify any usability problems, collect qualitative and quantitative data and determine the participant's satisfaction with the product.

# What are the 4 features of GUI?

• Highly visual and dynamic GUI. Any number of windows can be shown at once, all of which are automatically updated (and the file re-run) whenever data changes
• Junction Diagram - shows the junction in graphical format and includes queue animation, signal states, phases, stages, and results such as delay for each stream. The junction diagram allows access to all data for traffic streams and phases etc, and enables a new junction to be built graphically
• Phase timings diagram - shows phase and stage timings graphically, along with phase delays and intergreens
• Graph Generator - Allows any result (effective green time, delay, etc) to be plotted against any input parameter (cycle time, sat flow, etc). This serves as a very flexible sensitivity analysis tool
• Report Generator - reports are generated in HTML, in a format that can easily be pasted into a word processor or spreadsheet. The main diagrams are inserted in vector format, meaning that print-outs are very high quality
• Undo/redo allowing stepping back through up to 100 changes
• Quick edit mode - allows main data to be edited in a spreadsheet format
• All data can be accessed via a 'tree view' system and is therefore accessible from anywhere in the program
• Export to TRANSYT
• Importing from other well-known products including OSCADY Classic

# Which is better software engineering or bscs?

Yes they are probably the same thing.After doing bscs, a person is called computer scientist but after doing SE, a person will be called an engineer. as far as subjects are concerned, they both are same :) hope that your satisfied.

# What is software interrupt with examples?

Interrupt generated by executing an instruction is called software interrupt. It's also called 'trap'. Software interrupts are generally used to make system calls i.e. to request operating system to perform an I/O operation or to run a new program.

Examples:

C++:

1. A cout or cin statement would generate a software interrupt because it would make a system call to print something.
2. A fork() statement in Linux would generate a software interrupt because it would make a system call to create a new process.

Assembly IA32:

1. The instruction int 21h would generate a software interrupt which would request something from operating system (depending on the register values).

# What are the similarities between science and engineering?

Engineering seeks to apply the concepts of science in concrete situations. While scientists are concerned with discovering the abstract laws that govern nature, engineers use preexisting discoveries to design and improve structures or technology that benefit society. Therefore science and engineering perform complementary functions to a degree.

# What is flexibility in software engineering?

Flexibility: The ease with which a system or component can be modified for use in applications or environments other than those for which it was specifically designed We find this surprising because hardly any artefact is ‘flexible’ in absolute terms. The RAM capacity of a desktop computer, for example, can be expanded only if the hardware and the operating system were specifically designed to accommodate for such changes.

Rapid technological developments pervade every aspect of daily life, having a direct effect on the software we use. Every element of the software’s operational environment is in a state of constant flux: Frequent changes in the hardware, operating system, cooperating software, and client’s expectations are motivated by performance improvements, bug-fixes, security breaches, and attempts to assemble synergistically ever more sophisticated software systems. Classic and contemporary literature in software design recognize the central role of flexibility in software design and implementation. Structured design, modular design, object-oriented design, software architecture, design patterns, and component-based software engineering, among others, seek to maximize flexibility.

# Process improvement model in software engineering?

Process models can be used to help understand real processes and to identify which aspects of these processes could be supported by CASE tools.

Database,

# What are the disadvantages of incremental hmm?

*Each phase of an iteration is rigid and do not overlap each other.

* Problems may arise pertaining to system architecture because not all requirements are gathered up front for the entire software life cycle.