Note: Both Mac OS X and Windows have come out with newer versions as of the writing of this answer. Some details may be different from what is written below, and the answer should be updated accordingly.
The best desktop operating system to use depends on what its intended use will be and who will be using it. There is no specific operating system which can be called "the best" overall, and since most current operating systems share most common and advanced features there is much debate on the topic. A few of the most popular operating system, their pros and cons, and some of their best uses are described below.
Mac OS X:
Linux and other UNIX-based:
Though there is no one clear best operating system, each does have its advantages and disadvantages, and different people will be best using different ones. Microsoft Windows is the most common operating system and is a reasonable choice for most people. Mac OS X is second-most popular (and gaining market share) and is an excellent operating system for those who can purchase a Mac. Linux is a very good advanced operating system available for free and is recommended for experienced users.
Mobile Operating Systems:
Aside from the main question of which OS to use in your home or work computer, lightweight mobile operating systems are also used (and almost always pre-installed or even hard-wired) in mobile devices such as cell phones, smartphones, PDAs, and Internet Notebooks/Superportables (which are similar to downsized laptops with low specifications). There is not a great deal of choice among these, and features differences are based more on the mobile device itself, and less on the operating system. Windows Mobile is usually used in Pocket PCs and Smartphones; iPhone OS (based on Mac OS X) is used in the Apple iPhone and iPod Touch; Symbian is used in Nokia, Sony-Ericsson, and other cell phones; and Linux-based mobile OSes are common both on cell phones and small Internet Notebooks.
First off: Freedom. You can do whatever you want as an end user on Linux, including reverse engineering, modifying, and even making copies and selling it to firends. These are things Windows never allows for its users to do.
Second off: Lots of choice. Linux has plenty of ways to allow for a user to make use of it. There's several desktop environments, several command line shells, and dozens of window managers, and chances are one *will* find their preferred "desktop" on Linux. On Windows, you're stuck with explorer, even with so-called "shell replacements" which don't replace explorer so much as try to paint over it, and often poorly.
Third: Linux is so much more efficient than Windows in many ways: It and its applications take WAY less space than Windows (Linux and applications are perfectly comfortable in 5-20 GiB of hard disk space, you'll generally need at LEAST 120 GiB just for a "light" Windows user.), WAY less RAM (Linux can still work comfortably within less than a GiB of RAM, Windows these days is nigh-unusable unless you have at least 2 GiB), and run WAY faster (Performance benchmarks speak for themselves.).
Fourth: Unless you're a gamer, most applications on Linux are a higher quality (And are also available on Windows, such as GIMP, Firefox, and VLC.) than their proprietary Windows counterparts.
Fifth: Linux is very stable, provided you use a stable Linux distribution (Debian is legendary for this.)
Before having multiple OS be sure to partition your HDD first and put your OS to each partition. Start with the later one. For example if WNDOWS is installed and then Lnux came. Remove Linux first then WINDOWS.
Used the bootable option aslo check if you have partitioned and then installed the OS or not. Then follow the previous mentioned option.
Recommended Tool: GParted
Use GParted to modify to partitions on your hard drive.
Google GParted and use one of the methods so you can boot off of it.
Is a matrix that shows the protection level accross several domains.
Security is a difficult and sometimes controversial thing to analyze. The only truly "secure" operating systems are those that have no contact with the outside world. The firmware in your DVD player is a good example.
Among all modern general purpose operating systems (Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, Solaris, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD) the most secure by defualt is by far OpenBSD. OpenBSD has an extremely stringent security auditing policy; only two remote attack vulnerabilities have been found in the last ten years. This is because OpenBSD doesn't create a large attack surface by running a large number of networked apps.
Of course, the sad fact is that any networked operating system can be made insecure through careful misconfiguration. Window's problems with security stem mainly from the fact that it runs with a large number of network services on by default, and that it (XP and prior) let the user run with full privileges by default. Windows Vista attempted to fix this issue, but people rejected it as "too confusing" and complained that their old apps did not work correctly under limited accounts.
Mac OS X is better about user permissions, but still has had a (in)decent number of remote exploits. Apple's slow response to patch many of these issues will be even more worrying if it gains significant market share.
Most Linux distributions have an excellent policy of quickly patching known security vulnerabilities. Unfortunately, two of the top ten distros deliberately use outdated code (Damn Small Linux) or make it too easy to run as a privileged user by mistake (Damn Small Linux, Puppy Linux). Were these distros to gain significant popularity, their users would be exposed to a larger number of vulnerabilites than if they encouraged proper security policies.
Microsoft windows office
Nadia aims to be a multi-platform universal modular programming IDE similar to Eclipse, but written in C++ using the Qt Framework.
A reentrant kernel enables processes to give away the CPU while in kernel mode ,not hindering other processes from also entering kernel mode.
A typical use is IO wait. The processes wants to read a file..It calls a kernel function for this. Inside the kernel function,the disk controller is asked for the data . Getting the data will take some time & the function is blocked during that time. With an reentrant kernel,the scheduler will assign CPU to another process until an interrupt from disk controller indicates that the data is available and our thread can be resumed . This process can still access IO,like user input
A system software is any computer software which manages and controls computer hardware so that application software can perform a task. Operating systems, such as Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X or Linux, are prominent examples of system software. System software contrasts with application software, which are programs that enable the end-user to perform specific, productive tasks, such as word processing or image manipulation.
System software performs tasks like transferring data from memory to disk, or rendering text onto a display device. Specific kinds of system software include loading programs, operating systems, device drivers, programming tools, compilers, assemblers, linkers, and utility software.
Software libraries that perform generic functions also tend to be regarded as system software, although the dividing line is fuzzy; while a C runtime library is generally agreed to be part of the system, an OpenGL or database library is less obviously so.
If system software is stored on non-volatile memory such as integrated circuits, it is usually termed firmware while an application software is a subclass of computer software that employs the capabilities of a computer directly and thoroughly to a task that the user wishes to perform. This should be contrasted with system software which is involved in integrating a computer's various capabilities, but typically does not directly apply them in the performance of tasks that benefit the user. In this context the term application refers to both the application software and its implementation.
A simple, if imperfect analogy in the world of hardware would be the relationship of an electric light bulb (an application) to an electric power generation plant (a system). The power plant merely generates electricity, not itself of any real use until harnessed to an application like the electric light that performs a service that benefits the user.
Typical examples of software applications are word processors, spreadsheets, and media players.
Multiple applications bundled together as a package are sometimes referred to as an application suite. Microsoft Office and OpenOffice.org, which bundle together a word processor, a spreadsheet, and several other discrete applications, are typical examples. The separate applications in a suite usually have a user interface that has some commonality making it easier for the user to learn and use each application. And often they may have some capability to interact with each other in ways beneficial to the user. For example, a spreadsheet might be able to be embedded in a word processor document even though it had been created in the separate spreadsheet application.
User-written software tailors systems to meet the user's specific needs. User-written software include spreadsheet templates, word processor macros, scientific simulations, graphics and animation scripts. Even email filters are a kind of user software. Users create this software themselves and often overlook how important it is.
In some types of embedded systems, the application software and the operating system software may be indistinguishable to the user, as in the case of software used to control a VCR, DVD player or Microwave Oven.
System software is computer software designed to operate the computer hardware and to provide a platform for running application software.
Application software, also known as an application or an "app", is computer software designed to help the user to perform singular or multiple related specific tasks.
System software is the code that define what the computer is and how it controls and uses the hardware connected to it. The computer that controls your VCR needs software to tell it how to use the display screen and what to do when the buttons are pressed etc.. The software that handles this is known as system software.
Application software, is written to perform a specific task (or a group of related tasks). "Microsoft Word" for example is Application software. The application being a word processor.
System software is an essential part of computer operations. The function of the systems software is to manage the resources of the computer, automate its operation and facilitate program development. It is generally provided by the computer manufacturer or a specialized programming firm (for example: Microsoft is a company that specializes in system software). While, the Application software are designed to perform specific data processing or computational tasks for the user. These programs are specifically designed to meet end-user requirements. (e.g: spreadsheets, word processors, media players and database applications).
Your operating system opens and closes programs, do file managements, manages all the hardwares, and run softwares. It's basically the head of your computer, controls everything.
Essentially, all computer operating systems (OS) are command driven. A command is digital "to do" list issued to the OS brain (kernel) that commands it to utilize the computer hardware and/or software to accomplish something.
In today's operating systems, like Windows 7 or Snow Leopard, you can use your mouse or keyboard to kick off a command in the background. For instance, clicking on "New Folder" in Windows Explorer is a command to create a new folder.
Most often though, when people refer to a "Command-Driven" OS, they mean something like DOS or Unix, where you must type in an actual keyword command into the interface. Each OS has a set of commands that it recognizes, like the command "del" is a command to "delete" in DOS.
With the invention of visual user interfaces (sometimes referred to as GUIs) the need for entering OS specific text commands has become obsolete, now we mostly use application menus and mouse clicks.
They are of two types:
In addition, there are several type of booting divided by the source (i.e. location) of the boot code:
Finally, there are two different methods by which a boot can be initiated:
A "Hard Boot" (also known as a "Cold Boot") consists of power cycling the entire system; that is, terminating power to every component, the powering up again from scratch. This is most commonly associated with a manyal step, typically by pushing a power cycle button (often just call the Power Button, and typically a large red button). Hard booting forces all components to completely de-power and clears all the state of the entire system. In more advanced machines, a Hard Boot can take up to several hours, as it usually involves significant self-diagnosis tests run by each component.
A "Soft Boot" (also known as "Warm Boot") consists of exiting the currently running OS, and returning control to the hardware supervisor (on a PC, the BIOS), which then re-initiates the OS boot, without forcing hardware components to clear state or de-power. By skipping all the hardware self-diagnosis and state clearing, significant time can be saved. Soft Boots are usually initiated by the Operating System itself - for example, on many modern PCs with Windows 7, the "reboot" option presented in the Windows Menu is really a "Soft Reboot". Certain hardware (for instance, Macs and many UNIX workstations) will have the physical red Power Button initiated a OS Soft Reboot, rather than a Hardware Hard Boot, if they are pressed. These systems will initiate a Hard Boot if the Power Button is held down for several seconds.
Also, note that "booting" is not a single event. It really is called "bootstrapping", and refers to a long series of events, where a chain of programs load sequentially. The boot process begins with a very, very, very simple program that resides in the BIOS (or equivalent) code on the mainboard, which is justsmart enough to load itself, then hand execution to another program in some specific location. A similar chain of events happens in the next program and the next, until something finally is smart enough to start the operating system kernel itself.
The above answers and references to the kernel are from Linux/UNIX users (I am one myself), but there is also "Safe Mode" in the MS Windows Operating System which loads without many of the drivers assuming that the failure of your last boot is due to a driver issue.
Actually, nothing in the first two answers is specific to ANY operating system. ALL operating systems have a kernel, and the process of booting is the same on all modern hardware, from microprocessor-run OSes ones like Windows, Linux and UNIX, to minicomputer-based VMS, to mainframe z/OS, to even hypervisors like VMWare, Xen, or z/VM.
"Booting" is simply the process for bringing a computing system "alive" - that is, from a non-running state (usually, powered off) to the point where an Operating System now has control.
I have both BSCS and MSCS, with 24 years in industry, and I have heard the use of these terms vary depending upon who is using them, but this is my view based on my experience.
Multiprogramming is an old and arcane term, that was originally used to describe the earlier timesharing type of system where multiple jobs/Programs could be submitted to a computer system, and it should share its various resources between all of the jobs that were running. The jobs/programs were not decomposed beyond the job level, and this was the granularity of the CPU and resource sharing that occurred. It is true to say that multiprogramming is still supported today on modern computers because it is true that multiple jobs/programs are running at once. However, this is true of all computers now, and is not even a relevant consideration. What is relevant though is the level of sharing that has changed dramatically over the years.
Now, the terms multitasking, multiprocessing and multithreading, mean the exact same thing in the general sense, and none has any dependency on the number of CPUs in a system. The first thing to understand here is that the words are basically synonymous in the general sense in that, a task is a process is a job is a thread is a program. Its all based on your POV. Where these terms start to take on specific meaning is when viewed in the context of a specific execution environment where a program is designed, compiled, loaded and executed on a specific piece of computer hardware. This context might assign a hierarchical meaning such as a program is the highest level of organization that decomposes into multiple tasks that run separately, that each can be decomposed into one or more processes, that can be further decomposed into some number of threads. Just an example.
You can take that same decomposition and apply it in the compiler used to build software for a true multiprocessor system, and it will look for these, and also other patterns of execution that allow load balancing between the processors. Such tools will also usually allow for high level partitioning, but will also usually have automatic load balancing mechanisms in place that try to maximize CPU utilization. In the end, the multiprocessor system is executing the software in the same way on each processor, but can get real parallelism not found in a single processor system.
The use of such terms is also influenced by how a program is designed because it can be designed to execute as single monolithic beast with a single execution path through it, or it can be specifically designed as a set of independent units that all get started by the program, and do all the work. Such units are called tasks, processes, functions, and even threads. One can enter into debates that a thread is really a light weight process, as opposed to a heavy weight process, but then one starts to get into the boring minutia of how processes are represented by the OS,etc, and this is always context specific, and not worth the time.
All computers and operating systems in use today support very fine grained sharing of the CPU between multiple jobs, tasks, threads, processes, and some even analyze the code instructions at runtime to determine which blocks of instructions can be run out of order.in simple words multitasking/ multiprogramming conveys single processor and multiprocessing connotes to 2 processors being used to accomplish a task/job.
A minor difference between multitasking and multiprogramming can be understood by help of threads in JAVA where each (more than 1 program) program being run attributes to multiprogramming and each thread within a program connotes to multitasking as they share time with and r run concurrently......For all the terminologies Multiprogramming is the core. Multiprogramming is the process of loading more than one program into the memory so that processor can be kept busy by switching between any of the loaded programs. Multitasking is derivation of multiprogramming where the operating system treats the programs loaded in the memory as task. But multiprocessing mainly deals with the hardware. Here more than one processing unit (CPU) comes into the picture. Multiprocessing leads to parallel computing.
The difference of these three words/computer jargon is that: 1. Multitasking is the ability of a computer to handle a number of tasks or jobs simultaniously, while multiprogramming is the capacity to run or handle several programs at the same time. Lastly but not the least, multiprocessing is the ability or capacity of a computer to handle or rather solve a particular task in various ways. Hope you will make some sense out of this.
Mutitasking and mutiprogramming are basically one and the same thing, in which the computer handles many tasks or programs simultniously. but multiprocessing is the techniuqe of handling one or more jobs in different ways, like in mutiprocessor architecture.
Multi programing means executing more than one program ,but here when ever the processor is idle during execution of one process it go for execution of another program.Where as in Multitasking,this is a combination of both multi programing and time sharing.means in this it will execute more than one process simultaneously.
The term Multitasking is used when more than one applications/programs/tasks are being run on a single processor. On the other hand, Multi-Processing is the ability to use more than one processor (CPU), on a single machine.
The network managers are responsible for all the customers, including other networks that they buy and sell electricity to and from. Typically the distributed operating system mostly worries about the local electricity needs, however incompetent behavior is often penalized such as shut down without warning of the distributed system, non-sinusoidal waveform, poor power factor, poor phase matching, over loading interconnecting power lines and high or low voltage operation = the voltage needs to be matched plus or minus about one volt. Neil
Or alternatively, if you meant the two kinds of computer operating systems:
A network OS will share filesystems over several machines, and each computer system schedules their own processes individually. (Windows, OS X)
A distributed OS will also share the scheduling of processes as a collective group for the networked machines. A program running on one system may have subprocesses running on other systems in the network, all cooperating and running as if on the same computer. (maybe GNU Hurd)
It is a system software.
FCFS scheduling algorithm is a non preemptive sheduling algorithm
they had an exchange of labor
its quite easy actually...always install the earliest OS first...in your case, install 98 on whatever drive you wish and after it is complete...install xp on the other. during boot, you will be given the option to boot what ever OS you wish.
I tried your sugestion, loaded 98 first on the first drive, xp on the second drive...it does not work, only boots into 98
XP should be loaded with both of the drives connected. After loading 98, do not make any hardware changes. Just go and load XP onto the second drive. XP will create some files on the 98 drive that will bring up an OS menu at boot time allowing you to choose the OS of your choice. It will only show for about 30 seconds. Maybe you just weren't at the computer when it displayed.
The amount of time that the OS selection menu appears, and the OS that the system defaults to can be customized to boot into Win98 or WinXP if no action is taken by the user. You could configure a computer to allow it to boot into Win98, WinME, Win2000, and WinXP, if you wanted to. You could also have it boot to three different Win2000 installations if you wanted to.
A few tips to follow. Always install the older operating system first (i.e. Win98, then Win2000, and then WinXP.) Don't change drive letters after installing. Changing major hardware components will likely require reinstalling everything all over again. So, keep your motherboard the same. Changing a motherboard prevents the operating systems from booting because they don't have the drivers for the new hardware, and therefore, can't utilize them.
It depends on what you want to install, but these servers are pretty much the same as others; you put the CD or DVD in the drive, and boot the machine. Then, the installation software should load and you are off and running.
Select Control Panel > Power Management.
Select the Advanced tab.
You can choose of having Windows go in to Standby mode, or have Windows Shutdown your computer - when you press the power button.
Then windows with automatically shut down when you power off. (Assuming you have an ATX power supply)
For Win 98SE, Microsoft has released a Shutdown Supplement to combat Windows 98 Second Edition Shutdown problems.
Uplug the computer cord. Or you can hit the power button on the front of the computer.A Simpler WayThe Alt-F4 hotkey automatically closes whatever program windows is focused on. If there are no programs running, Alt-F4 shuts the system down. So pressing Al-F4 repeatedly will close all your programs out one by one & then shut the machine down.
Most modern computers can be shut down by simply pressing the power button. Doing so will trigger the shutdown routine just as if you had clicked start > shutdown. In your system settings, in the screensaver tab you can alter the behavior of this button, making it shutdown, hibernate, or suspend the machine, whatever your preference.
i have loss mo company password what are me doing
Yes it is called Prism. I have it and it works very well.
I'm using a free Mac total video converter called snowfox total video converter for Mac, but it's free to try for 15 days, i got the register code from their giveawayoftheday.
The allocator places a process in the smallest block of unallocated memory in which it will fit.
Solution:One way to avoid making little holes is to give the client a bigger block than it asked for. For example, we might round all requests up to the next larger multiple of 64 bytes. That doesn't make the fragmentation go away, it just hides it.
Often on user writes a program to be used by another user. In these cases misuses can occur and lead to unexpected behavior.
An operating system is just a base for all purposes. For example if you are a writer you need an operating system for a word processor (ms word, openoffice...) to work on.
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