# What is formula for calculation of line loss?

Line loss equations are complicated by transmission environment and temperature? Transmission env. - Include wire type, bus impedance in switching fields, etc. Temperature - T…emperature can change the wire resistance and thus line loss. Electric energy is transported across the countryside with high-voltage lines because the line losses are much smaller than with low-voltage lines. All wires currently used have some resistance (the development of high-temperature superconductors will probably change this some day). Let's call the total resistance of the transmission line leading from a power station to your local substation R. Let's also say the local community demands a power P=IV from that substation. This means the current drawn by the substation is I=P/V and the higher the transmission line voltage, the smaller the current. The line loss is given by Ploss=IÂ˛R, or, substituting for I, Ploss = PÂ˛R/VÂ˛ Since P is fixed by community demand, and R is as small as you can make it (using big fat copper cable, for example), line loss decreases strongly with increasing voltage. The reason is simply that you want the smallest amount of current that you can use to deliver the power P. Another important note: the loss fraction Ploss/P = PR/VÂ˛ increases with increasing load P: power transmission is less efficient at times of higher demand. Again, this is because power is proportional to current but line loss is proportional to current squared. Line loss can be quite large over long distances, up to 30% or so. By the way, line loss power goes into heating the transmission line cable which, per meter length, isn't very much heat.

# Please guide me about fire fighting piping loop and piping loop can have one feed line and one exit line. And Please tell me philosophy of piping loop.?

If you are referring to a "gridded" or "looped" automatic sprinkler systems, here is the reasons. A gridded sprinkler system has a "feed" main which is connected to the water… supply. On the opposite side of the building, it has a "floater" main which is not connected to the water supply directly; the sprinkler branch lines are connected to it. when a fire occurs, the branches in effect become mini feed mains and help with hydraulic waterflow and pressure to the sprinkler(s) flowing.A "looped" system is similar, but the mains are arranged in a "loop" all the way around the branch lines.

# Formula for Heat loss in a pipe?

pips are generally cylindrical in structure of amount of heat loss through pipe is given by the formula Q= 2 pi k L(T1-T2)/ln(r2/r1) where k=conductivity of mat…erial of which pipe is made T1= temperature of inside layer pipe T2=temperature outside layer of pipe L= length of pipe r1= inner radius r2=outer radius ln=natural logrithem pi=22/7 the above condition applies for steady state flow,single layer over cylinder and neglecting conductivity convection to take conductivity convection into account term Q* must be added Q*=2 pi L{ r1 hi(Ti-T1)+r2 ho(T2-To)} hi=convective coefficient for inside layer ho=convective coefficient for outside layer Ti= temperature of inside space of pipe To=temperature of outside space of pipe for unsteady condition there is another formulaa

# What is the Formula for Power loss in transmission lines?

Ploss = (I2)*R

# What is the formula for finding pressure?

I suppose you mean the formula for the variation in pressure. The simplest expression of this is, at a fixed temperature,and for a given mass of gas, pressure x volume =… constant. This is known as Boyle's Law. If the temperature is changing, then we get two relations: 1. If the pressure is fixed, volume = constant x temperature (absolute) 2. If the volume is fixed, pressure = constant x temperature (absolute) These can be combined into the ideal gas equation Pressure x Volume = constant x Temperature (absolute), or PV = RT where R = the molar gas constant. (Absolute temperature means degrees kelvin, where zero is -273 celsius)

# What is the formula to find the slope of a line?

y2 - y1 / x2 - x1

# What is the formula to find pressure?

P=F/A Pressure=Force over area To get this you use P= N/M2

# What is the formula for finding the volume of a pipe?

pi*r^2*h The volume of the pipe is the product of its Area and Height.

# Formula for finding the length of a line?

It is the square root of: (x1-x2)2+(y1-y2)2

# Pressure flow formula water in pipe?

To calculate the pressure loss due to friction for pipe flow (I think this is what you're asking) use theDarcy-Weisbach equation. The friction factor for this equation c…an be calculated using the Swamee-Jain equation. Alternatively, the simpler Hazen--Williams equation can be used. It is less accurate, but has the advantage of being easier to use. The equation can also be used to calculate flow in terms of head loss. Wikipedia has detailed explanations for each of the above equations.

# What is the formula of finding the circumference of the pipe?

diameter times 3.14159

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# What is heat loss formulae of water flow through PPR-C pipe line?

you have first to know the thermal conductivity of PPR that you are dealing with. normally, this is in range between 0.1 to 0.24 W/MK .then you apply this formula Q(IN WATTS) …=Thermal Conductivity/MK)*A( surface area for the pipe M2 )temperature difference between fluid inside pipe and temprture of pipe surface K)/(thickness of the pipe M)

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# How do find how much pressure is coming from a pipe?

The only way you can find accurate pressure in a pipe is by mechanical means. If you want to know the pressure in your home just go to a hardware and by a pressure gauge with …a hose adapter and screw it to your outside faucet and that will give you the pressure of your water at that elevation of your out side faucet. The higher the elevation of the water line = the less pressure.

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# What is the formula used to determine working pressure of pipe?

Equation: P = (2*S*T)/((O.D.-2*T)*SF) / / Where: | P = Fluid Pressure (psi) / | T = Pipe Wall Thickness (in) / O.D. = Pipe Outside Diameter (in) / SF = Safety factor (Gener…al Calculations 1.5 - 10, Use 1 For Bursting Pressure) / S = Material Strength (psi) / Ultimate Tensile strength or Yield strength can be used. Ultimate should be used to determine the bursting pressure. Yield can be used for estimating pressures at which permanent deformation begins. 1Mpa=144.55psi

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# What is formula for pressure at known water flow and pipe diameter?

There isn't one. Pressure in a piping system will be determined by the pump, or head of water if it is a gravity feed system.

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# How do you find the nominal pressure rating of pipe?

It is usually printed right on the pipe.