Which branch of medicine studies how to improve vaccination rates through vaccination campaigns?
Public Health covers those fields, among other areas
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Vaccinations are methods of introducing antigens into your body to get your body's immune system to react to them by producing antibodies to kill them or inactivate them, whic…h will give you immunity to the antigen. In other words, vaccinations can be shots (or other types of injections under the skin), liquids taken by mouth, or intranasal sprays that give you a small dose of something that can't make you sick itself, but is just like or similar enough to something that would make you sick if you got it in its normal form. They are given to you made with the right antigens to make you immune to the disease or infection from which you want protection. See the related questions for more information.
A vaccine is used in medicine to enhance or induce immunity to aparticular disease. It usually contains an agent that resembles thedisease-causing microorganism, and is often …made from weakened orkilled forms of the microbe or its toxins. The body's immune systemrecognizes the vaccine as foreign, and destroys it. It alsopreserves a memory of it so that, if it encounters it again, it caneasily recognize and destroy it in later encounters. Vaccines have been used to eradicate smallpox completely, havegreatly diminished the occurrence of many other diseases, and havereduced the death and disfigurement they used to cause. Polio (andthe paralysis that it causes ) is now almost a thing of the past,and congenital deformities due to rubella (German measles) is nowquite rare. Some vaccines are given after exposure to disease; rabies vaccineis an example of this. Rabies infection was once 100% lethal; itstill is if the vaccine is not given in time. There are several types of vaccines, and they are generally madefrom dead or inactivated organisms (bacteria or viruses), or fromtheir chemical constituents. KILLED: Some vaccines contain microorganisms that have beendestroyed with chemicals or heat. Examples include Hepatitis A,influenza, cholera, bubonic plague, polio (Salk injectable vaccine)and rabies. ATTENUATED: Other vaccines contain microorganisms that have beenweakened and are no longer virulent, or use very similar butnon-disease causing organisms. Most of these are viruses. Thesevaccines generally produce the strongest and longest-lastingimmunity, and are preferred in healthy adults. Examples includeyellow fever, measles, rubella, mumps, influenza, tuberculosis(BCG), typhoid and polio (Sabin oral). TOXOID: Some vaccines target the toxic compounds (toxoids) producedby microorganisms which cause illness rather than themicro-organism itself. Examples include tetanus and diphtheria. SUBUNIT: Other vaccines use a fragment of a micro-organism toinduce an immune response rather than using the entiremicro-organism. These are usually proteins from the capsule of avirus. Examples include hepatitis B, HPV (human papilloma viruswhich causes cervical cancer) and influenza vaccines are alsoavailable in this form of vaccine. CONJUGATE: A newer type of vaccine in which the immune system istaught to recognize the polysaccharide outer coats of somebacteria. An example is Haemophilus influenzae type B(Hib). This organism is a bacterium, not a virus, despite its name. ADJUVANTED: Adjuvanted vaccines for some microbes are available inthe US. The US has, however chosen not to use adjuvants in fluvaccinations. But adjuvanted flu vaccines have been safely andsuccessfully used in some European countries for years. These havean additive that enhances the effectiveness of the vaccine, allowsfor smaller doses since less is needed per dose to get the sameimmune response, and that saves money per dose as well as allowsfaster production of enough to go around. In times of a need forrapid development of a vaccine, this helps reduce the dose of eachvaccination making a little go a long way. The adjuvant substanceis often squalene, made from shark liver oil. There is no provenadverse effect of use of adjuvants, although it is a concern(appropriate or not) of many people. OTHER: Some vaccines have a trace amount of a preservative calledthimerosal. This is necessary for multi-dose vials to preventgrowth of unwanted organisms. Single dose vials and syringesusually don't need this preservative (in flu vaccines). People haveconcern about thimerosal because they have heard it containsmercury. There is a trace amount of mercury in the thimerosal,although this has been used without adverse effects. The amount ofmercury in a dose of vaccines with thimerosal preservative isequivalent to a meal of fish. The risk of having a problem withthimerosal is much lower than the risk of using a vaccine without apreservative. See also links to related questions about vaccines.
Vaccination protects hundreds of millions of animals worldwide from diseases and possibly death. Vaccination can be by a wide variety of routes: through water, baits, air spra…y, eye inoculation, intrinsically, orally or using the more classical injection. A vaccine is made from dead or weakened microbes, or parts (e.g. surface proteins of a virus) thereof. Once it enters the body, the immune system develops antibodies to it. In the case of exposure to the microbe in the future, antibodies will then fight off/destroy that microbe to prevent disease.
Vaccines are medicines containing a preparation of weakened or deadmicrobes of the kind that cause a particular disease which areadministered to stimulate the immune system to… produce antibodiesagainst that specific disease. Once your body has been exposed tothe pathogen and antibodies have been produced, you may be immuneto the disease for life. Other vaccines may require boosters orsecond doses over time. In the example of the swine flu, thevaccines are given each flu season for the type of flu virusesexpected to be circulating in that season. Additional note: The first vaccine was produced from the blood serum harvested fromthe pustules on the hands of women who milked cows. Edward Jennernoticed that those women seemed to be immune to smallpox. Hereasoned that the women who milked cows got this immunity from asimilar, but milder disease called cowpox. When inoculated with theweaker cowpox virus, the body creates antibodies that recognize thesame antigen, common to both viruses and gives the person immunity.The name "vaccine" was derived from the Latin word for cow (vacca)for that reason. A vaccine is an inactive strain of a bacteria that causes disease. In your body you have antigens as an example we'll call them shapes, so say you were ill because some bacteria had entered your body, and bacteria travels by basically piggybacking off blood cells this bacteria was in the shape of a semicircle so your body would keep producing Antigens until one fits (this is a rough explanation) when it fits you body remembers that shape so that if you are introduced to that strain of bacteria again your body can deal with it straight away with out you feeling ill. A vaccine improves your body's immune system by giving you a tiny amount of weakened microbes, which stimulates your body to recognize it and begin making anti-bodies against it. This will help you in the future when you actually come across the real, stronger microbe, your body will already have knowledge and experience against it. A vaccination is an injection of a dead bacterium. Your body then recognizes this bacterium and your immune system fights it off. See the related links for more information. A vaccine is a biological preparation that establishes or improves immunity to a particular disease. Vaccines can prevent or ameliorate the effects of infection by a pathogen. They typically contain one or more adjuvants which are used to boost the immune system. Some vaccines may also contain preservatives which are used to prevent contamination with bacteria and fungi. The general idea behind a vaccine is to purposely inoculate yourself to produce an immunuity to a particular disease. A few different types of vaccines are:1. Inactivated vaccine- consists of virus particles grown in culture and then killed which means they can't replicate. This vaccine requires booster shots periodically.2. Attenuated vaccine- live virus particles with very low virulence are administered and they will reproduce but very slowly. Since they reproduce and continue to present antigen beyond the initial vaccination, booster shots are needed less often.3. Subunit vaccine-presents an antigen to the immune system without introducing viral particles. A weakness of this technique is that isolated proteins can be denatured and will then bind to different antibodies then the proteins in the virus. A vaccine is a biological preparation that establishes or improves immunity to a particular disease. Vaccines can prevent or ameliorate the effects of infection by a pathogen. They typically contain one or more adjuvants which are used to boost the immune system. Some vaccines may also contain preservatives which are used to prevent contamination with bacteria and fungi. The general idea behind a vaccine is to purposely inoculate yourself to produce an immunuity to a particular disease. A few different types of vaccines are:1. Inactivated vaccine- consists of virus particles grown in culture and then killed which means they can't replicate. This vaccine requires booster shots periodically.2. Attenuated vaccine- live virus particles with very low virulence are administered and they will reproduce but very slowly. Since they reproduce and continue to present antigen beyond the initial vaccination, booster shots are needed less often.3. Subunit vaccine-presents an antigen to the immune system without introducing viral particles. A weakness of this technique is that isolated proteins can be denatured and will then bind to different antibodies then the proteins in the virus.
Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (the vaccine) to produce immunity to a disease. Vaccines can prevent or lessen the effects of infection by many differ…ent viruses and bacteria. The material administered can either be live but weakened forms of pathogens (bacteriaor viruses), killed or inactivated forms of these pathogens, or purified material such as proteins.
vaccination is a vaccine that stimulate your immune system to develop adaptive immunity to disease.
Vaccination introduce small amount of a disease to your body so that your natural immune systems builds anti-bodies and such to fight the disease. This makes your immune syste…m stronger so that it can more effectively fight the disease or completely resist the disease when you get exposed to the real thing.. How is that?
The currently recommended vaccine schedule in the US starts at birth and follows a regular series every few months through the first 18 months of life. After that the recommen…dations are: Flu shot every year from 6 mos to 18 years, age 50 on, and in people with certain medical problems and healthy 19-49 year olds who wish to avoid getting the flu. tetanus, polio, measles/mumps/ rubella and chicken pox (varicella) after age 4. Tdap (tetanus) booster at age 11-12. Menactra (meningitis) at age 11-12. Garadsil (HPV) series of three shots (primarily for girls) at age 11-12. Tetanus every 10 years. Pneumovax at age 65 and with certain medical conditions. There is a new version of one of the infant vaccines out - Prevnar-13. A booster with this new one is recommended for kids under 5 years old who go the full series with the old version. There are also a lot of special circumstances such as travel, exposures, and some medical conditions that would make other vaccines recommended.
Vaccines didn't change medicines, they just enhanced it.
In short, a vaccination prevents you from catching a particular sickness. Vaccinations allow the immune system to become better prepared for a certain antigen (foreign invade…r) by giving it a "target" (usually a weaker or deaden strain of the antigen) to practice on. During the immune response to the vaccination, the body's supply of antibodies (and the B cells that produce it) is drastically increased. Should the vaccinated person encounter the antigen after vaccination, his/her immune system will be well prepared to put up a good fight. This is true for any effective vaccination against any antigen.
There are various places to have a vaccination a hospital, sometimes Wal Mart will let you purchase them that is a couple of places you can get them.
In America, it depends on your age. I know that the younger you are, the more frequently you have to get vaccines. Yearly, in the teen years, boys usually have to get about 1 …more than girls. Every year (pre teen and teen) you have to get about 4 or 5. 5 or 6 for guys. It also depends when you had your last dose of that vaccine. Some vaccines you only have to get every 10 years (like tetanus)!
Vaccine is a minidisease of which you want your body to be immune against. When you take the vaccine, your body destroys the virus and "remembers" it. You will then be able to… get rid of the disease instantly.
Artificially acquired active immunity
You could be vaccinated with medicines that help your body to goagainst chickenpox, polio or other diseases that could infect yourbody.
to avoid getting the disease ourselves . to minimize the severity and duration if we do get thedisease . to create "herd immunity" in the population, slowing the spreadof th…e disease and reducing the chance of epidemics . for a very few very serious diseases highly specific to humanstotal eradication of the disease in the wild (e.g. this wassuccessfully done for smallpox, was nearly done for polio and couldbe done in the future, and perhaps another half dozen similardiseases at some point in the distant future)