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Vaccinations

A vaccine is the preparation of dead microorganisms, living weakened microorganisms or inactivated toxins. Its administration induces the development of immunity and protection against a pathogen or toxin and is called a vaccination.

4,805 Questions
Cold and Flu
Drug Interactions
Vaccinations

Can you get the flu shot while taking Flagyl?

There is no drug interaction problem between the flu vaccine and Flagyl. But whether you get the vaccination while still taking the antibiotic may depend on why you are taking antibiotics. If you have a current infection, it is usually better to wait until that is cleared up before taking vaccines. But, each situation can be different, and this is a question that the doctor who prescribed the antibiotics should be asked to know what is right in your case.

Unless there is a specific reason your doctor wants you to wait, usually the only reason not to get a flu shot while taking antibiotics would be if you have an active infection with a high fever over 101 F. Get your flu shot unless you have a high fever, or the doctor recommends delaying the immunization due to your specific condition.

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Vaccinations
History of Science

Who discovered vaccines and how?

There is a history of smallpox inoculation that goes back as far as 1000 AD in China, Africa, and Turkey. However, the person credited with creating the first vaccine is Edward Jenner, an English scientist who pioneered one for smallpox in 1796. His breakthrough came from taking pus from a blister of someone infected with cowpox and using it to inoculate another person, thus preventing smallpox in that person. He developed this treatment after hypothesizing that dairy workers were rarely, if ever, infected with the deadly smallpox virus because most of them were already infected with cowpox, which has a very mild effect on humans.

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Vaccinations
Lactation and Breastfeeding
Swine Flu (H1N1/09)

Is the H1N1 vaccine safe for breastfeeding mothers?

Yes, flu vaccines, including the vaccine for the 2009 pandemic swine flu that is included in the seasonal flu vaccinations again for the 2012-2013 flu season, are considered safe and effective for breastfeeding mothers. The antibodies that are produced in response to the flu vaccines in the mother will also help protect the baby through the mother's milk. Also since infants under six months old can not be vaccinated yet due to their immature immune systems, it is recommended that anyone caring for these babies should be vaccinated, so they can not give the virus to the infant. This would include breastfeeding mothers.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention gives the following related information (note that this information comes from the time of the initial H1N1/09 vaccine development for the 2009-2010 flu season. Since that time this vaccine is no longer needed to be given in a separate vaccination and has been included in the annual flu vaccine for the several years since then. No second vaccination is needed any longer. It is included in the 2012-2013 flu vaccine):

Both seasonal flu and 2009 H1N1 monovalent influenza vaccines should be given to breastfeeding mothers. Breastfeeding is fully compatible with flu vaccination, and preventing maternal infection provides secondary protection to the infant.

Maternal vaccination is especially important for infants less than 6 months old, who are ineligible for vaccination. In addition, transfer of vaccination-related antibodies by breastfeeding further reduces the infant's chances of getting sick

with the flu.

While pregnant women should just receive the inactivated injectable form of influenza vaccine, nursing mothers can receive either the injectable or nasal spray form.

Pregnant women should not receive nasal spray vaccine for either seasonal flu or 2009 H1N1 flu. After delivery, women can receive the nasal spray vaccine, even if they are breastfeeding.

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Medication and Drugs
Vaccinations
The Difference Between

Difference between vaccination and medication?

They are both pharmaceuticals. It's just how they are used that's difference. One is for prevention and one is for treatment once you're already has the disease. In term of bang for the buck, vaccines generally have been the most effective pharmaceuticals in changing the prevalent of a disease in a population.

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Cold and Flu
Vaccinations

Are you protected if expired flu vaccine was used?

Probably not. Each year the ingredients in the flu vaccine are different, because each year different strains of the influenza virus are going around. They have to make up a new vaccine each year, to be sure it contains all the right strains that will provide immunity for the kinds of flu that are circulating at that time. Since the vaccine for the seasonal flu for this year in the Northern Hemisphere has just been manufactured and released very recently, it would not seem possible for it to be already expired. If you use a vaccine from a prior year (the more likely scenario if the expiration date on the bottle has already passed), then you will not be fully protected against the strains of virus that will be causing flu this year and may be taking something that could be harmful in addition to providing no protection.

You should talk to those at the source of the vaccine to find out why the vaccine would be expired.

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Vaccinations

How long does a dpt vaccination last?

ten years

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Cold and Flu
Vaccinations
Swine Flu (H1N1/09)

What is attenuated flu vaccine?

Attenuated simply means "weakened". An attenuated flu vaccine refers to vaccines made with live viruses (so you get a good immune response), but they have been weakened chemically so that they are unable to give you the flu.

There are two types of flu vaccines available in the US. What is called inactivated, inactive or "dead" vaccine and what is called "live", weakened/attenuated vaccine. The injectable vaccines (intradermal and intramuscular) are made with "dead" viruses and the nasal spray is made with "live" attenuated viruses.

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Conditions and Diseases
Vaccinations
Swine Flu (H1N1/09)
Immune System

Does the H1N1 vaccine provide lifetime immunity?

There are studies that suggest that over time the flu vaccines can lose some effectiveness. This is partially due to the original vaccine being less effective on mutated forms of the same virus. But for the same exact strain of H1N1 that is in the vaccine, and others that are very similar to it, many people do retain lifetime protection.

One of the ways new viruses are created is through mutation of existing viruses. If the H1N1/09 Pandemic Swine Flu virus mutates to a strain that our immune systems do not detect as the same, then the body would have to either be vaccinated with a new vaccine that includes the new strain, or develop new immunity naturally by infection.

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Vaccinations

What are the advantages of being vaccinated?

When one is vaccinated, the risk of getting the disease they are being vaccinated against goes down greatly. They are also at less risk of being a carrier of the disease and passing it onto those who cannot fight the disease off, such as the elderly, the young, and those with compromised immune systems. Herd immunity is caused by most people getting the vaccine, and protecting those who are unable to get the vaccine.

Also, certain diseases that are more common in other countries can travel to countries where that disease is less common. Many people may no longer be vaccinated against the disease, and it may result in a deadly outbreak.

In the big picture, vaccination reduces both the incidence and impact a disease has in a large population. While the (very) rare individual may experience harmful side-effects of certain vaccines, the overall population will be much more resistant (and, possibly even immune) to infection by the disease inoculated against.

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Cold and Flu
Vaccinations

Why do flu vaccines not provide life long immunity?

There are different kinds of influenza. So a vaccine against one, usually won't be effective against another. Also, the flu virus mutates easily and rapidly. When it mutates, the old vaccine is may no longer be effective, depending on how different the mutation is to the original strain. It is also under study to determine if there is a gradual loss of immunity from flu over long time periods as some believe occurs in some people with use of some vaccines and with some types of flu.

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Health
Vaccinations
Hepatitis

Is there any vaccine for hepatitis b carrier?

There is no vaccine for someone who already has the virus. That being said, you should get the Hepatitis A vaccine to further protect yourself, and your liver, should you be exposed to it. As a carrier of Hep b you should know that you should never share toothbrushes or razors. Avoid alcohol to avoid further damaging your liver. Also, everyone in your household should be vaccinated against Hep b. Always use condoms with intercourse, because Hep b can be spread through bodily secretions, and make sure that your partner knows you are infected and that they get vaccinated to protect themselves.

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Infectious Diseases
Microbiology
Vaccinations

How have vaccines changed the world?

They have prevented millions of deaths and unnecessary suffering, and they have helped to eradicate a few diseases.

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Cold and Flu
Vaccinations

What is the difference between live vaccine and dead vaccine?

"Live" vaccines contain weakened samples of the pathogen to be immunized against which are chemically treated to make them unable to make you sick, but will still cause an immune response to create the desired immunity. These are called Live Attenuated Vaccines (attenuated just means weakened). "Dead" vaccines have partial particles or totally inactivated/"dead" samples of the pathogen. With virus vaccines, usually live vaccines are given by intra-nasal spray and dead vaccines are given by injection.

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Vaccinations

How was the first vaccine discovered?

The first vaccine was discovered by Edward Jenner and he did some tests on a healthy boy. He inserted the disease of cowpox.He waited a couple of weeks. The boy resulted with pimples all over his hand.

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Vaccinations
Medication and Drugs

How do you administer thiamine injections?

Thiamine is necessary for carbohydrate metabolism, and is widely accessible from many foods, including seeds, whole wheat flour, and some meats. Thiamine supplements are only necessary if you have a deficiency, which is determined only by a medical doctor. The supplement is injected into veins or muscles.

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Cold and Flu
Vaccinations
Swine Flu (H1N1/09)

Can a flu shot cause cellulitis?

Yes, there can be a local infection from a contaminated needle from a flu shot and that would be called cellulitis. However, many people can get a red, sore, slightly swollen area at the flu injection site from the desired immune response. This usually goes away in a few days. It gets better from exercising the muscle into which the shot was injected. If it is more than two days after the shot and the redness or inflammation is still increasing, then you should seek advice from your health care professional.

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Vaccinations

WHAT IS Vivotiv Berna Vaccine USED FOR?

To treat typhoid fever

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Vaccinations

How often do you get MMR vaccine?

1nce

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Cold and Flu
Vaccinations
Antibiotics

Should you get a flu vaccine when taking a zpack?

There are no drug interactions between the vaccine and other medications according to the manufacturers' information. However, you should contact the doctor who ordered the Zpack to be sure there would be no contraindications in your case. If you have a fever from a bacterial infection for which you are taking the antibiotics, then you should wait until the fever has been gone for 24 hours before getting a flu vaccination. A fever indicates that your body is actively fighting an infection and that is not a good time to load another pathogen (the one in the vaccine) onto your immune system.

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Cold and Flu
Vaccinations
Swine Flu (H1N1/09)

Can flu shots be given in the Gluteal area?

They can be, but usually aren't. This is mostly because many people get red and tender tissue at the site of the injection for a few days after the shot. It is much easier to deal with that soreness in a location like the arm that doesn't need to be sat upon.

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Vaccinations
Chickenpox

Who invented chickenpox vaccine?

Live Oka strain varicella vaccine was developed by Michiaki Takahashi et al. in the Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka Univ. in 1974.

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Vaccinations
Chickenpox

Can you get chickenpox if you had the vaccine?

Perhaps. It takes a few weeks for the immune system to build up a protection, so if you are exposed very soon after the vaccine, it is possible.

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Cold and Flu
Vaccinations
Swine Flu (H1N1/09)

How often should a child have a swine flu vaccination?

Only one vaccination (for each type of flu) is needed as long as the virus does not mutate. They will have lifetime immunity* to the exact same virus in the vaccine after one immunization. If the virus mutates into a new form, then they will need a new vaccination for the new virus.

However, if your question is more about how many shots they need to create the initial immunity, then children under 10 need a series of two vaccinations. The second one is given approximately one month after the first and then in 3 - 4 weeks after the second one, they will have produced immunity for life to that exact virus strain and sometimes to very similar ones.

*Some vaccines eventually lose their ability to protect over time and that is a good reason to get a flu shot each year to be sure your protection is still working.

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Conditions and Diseases
Vaccinations

Does the child hep-b vaccination hurt?

No. it will only hurt if you think about it. honestly , all it is, is a pinch. I got mine yesterday. I was over exaderating. it is nothing compared to the flu shot or h1n1. you will be fine. just don't think about it. if you think about it too much, then yes it will hurt . but that's mentally. so just relax. when it's done, you'll be like "that was nothing". good luck!

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Inventions
Vaccinations

Who invented the first vaccine?

Edward Jenner invented the first vaccine for smallpox in 1796
Edward Jenner invented the vaccine
darwin
Early forms of vaccination were developed in ancient China as early as 200 B.C. Scholar Ole Lund comments: "The earliest documented examples of vaccination are from India and China in the 17th century, where vaccination with powdered scabs from people infected with smallpox was used to protect against the disease.

Quoted from http:/en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaccination

In 1774,some twenty years before Jenner first used vaccination on a boy called James Phipps in 1796, at Berkeley in Gloucestershire, a farmer's wife, together with her two sons was vaccinated by her husband at Yetminster in Dorset.

The husband's name was Benjamin Jesty, his wife was Elizabeth and the sons were Robert and Benjamin, aged 3 and 2.

From http:/www.thedorsetpage.com/history/smallpox/smallpox.htm

In the early empirical days of vaccination, prior to Pasteur's work on establishing a germ theory and Lister's on antisepsis and asepsis there was considerable cross-infection. One of the early vaccinators is thought to have contaminated the cowpox matter---the vaccine---with smallpox matter (he worked in a smallpox hospital) and this produced essentially variolation.

From http:/en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smallpox_vaccine

Variolation means the deliberate inoculation of an uninfected person with the smallpox virus (as by contact with pustular matter) that was widely practiced before the era of vaccination as prophylaxis against the severe form of smallpox.


Edward Jenner preformed the first vaccination.
Edward Jenner
Edward Jenner invented the first vaccine for smallpox in 1796
Edward Jenner invented the vaccine
darwin
Edward Jenner.

He introduced the smalpox vaccine, which was the

first vaccine in 1798.

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