Vaccinations

A vaccine is the preparation of dead microorganisms, living weakened microorganisms or inactivated toxins. Its administration induces the development of immunity and protection against a pathogen or toxin and is called a vaccination.

Asked in Cold and Flu, Vaccinations, Swine Flu (H1N1/09)

Does last year's flu shot still work?

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It will work almost forever for the exact same flu viruses. However due to viruses' ability to mutate to new forms that would not be prevented by the injection you already had, you will need a new vaccine for the new mutated virus or other different flu viruses that the scientists have determined are likely to be the ones making people sick this year. Sometimes it is the same ones, but most often the strains of flu viruses do change each year and that is why a new shot is required before each new flu season and why each vaccination is for three different types of flu (called trivalent vaccines). This year the 2011-2012 seasonal flu vaccine in the US contains vaccines for these three different flu viruses: A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)-like virus; (the pandemic swine flu) A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2)-like virus; and B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus. * Note: The pandemic swine flu vaccine was also in the 2010-2011 flu season vaccine formulation, but it does not hurt to have a second dose (or if you took it also in 2009-2010, it is still okay to get this year's vaccine and, it might help some people).
Asked in Conditions and Diseases, Infectious Diseases, Vaccinations, Swine Flu (H1N1/09)

What is the purpose of vaccines?

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Vaccines, medicines containing a preparation of weakened or dead microbes of the kind that cause a particular disease, are administered to stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies against that disease. They are used to force the body's white blood cells to develop a response to the specific pathogen and rid the body of the invading microorganisms. Immunization can occur naturally when an untreated microbe in the environment is received by a person who has had no prior exposure to that microbe and, therefore, has no pre-made antibodies for defense. The immune system of an otherwise healthy individual will eventually create antibodies for the microbe, but this is a slow process and, if the microbe is deadly, there may not be enough time for the antibodies to begin being used to inactivate the microbe before serious symptoms or even death can occur. Artificial active immunization (vaccination) was created to boost the immune system's abilities to more quickly respond. In this process, the microbe is introduced into the person before they have been exposed to take it in naturally from the environment or directly from an infected person. Microbes to be used in a vaccine are treated to weaken them (attenuated live vaccines) so that they will not cause disease in the person receiving the vaccination. Depending on the type of microorganism for which immunization is desired, vaccines can be used made from the attenuated pathogen, from entirely inactivated ("dead") microbes, from incomplete particles of the microbe, or treated toxins from the germ. See the related questions below for more information about vaccinations.
Asked in Cold and Flu, Vaccinations

Why can't a flu shot be given sub q?

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There is a vaccine for the flu that was recently developed and is available for use in the US in the 2011-2012 flu season that is administered intradermally with a special microinjection system. This vaccine was specifically developed for that route of administration which is very similar to a sub q (subcutaneous) injection. Subcutaneous refers to the tissue beneath the skin and above the muscle. Each formulation of a vaccine is made for a specific route of administration and until recently there were only intramuscular and intranasal vaccines for the flu. Now there is the new intradermal formulation. It could be that a sub q vaccine will also be developed some day. There is no reason not to use that route, it is just that the current formulations are not developed for sub q use.
Asked in Vaccinations, Before Birth of Baby

Should you have vaccinations before getting pregnant?

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Answer-- Get all your vaccinations done BEFORE you get pregnant. You don't want live vaccine viruses around while you are pregnant, because they can hurt the developing baby. Some vaccines are live viruses and other vaccines are dead viruses, so check with your doctor which is which. As long as you get pregnant about 4-6 months after your final vaccination (for a live virus vaccine) you should be OK. Also, don't let the new baby get vaccines too young, or too many all at once. "Get your immunities to common childhood diseases (mumps and measles) tested. If you received the shots during certain years and lot numbers, they might not have worked. This is to avoid birth defects. Wait a while (at least three months) after getting the shot, before you get pregnant." "Getting rubella (German measles) early in pregnancy can cause birth defects. A simple blood test can tell if you have immunity. If you are not immune, a vaccine given at least 3 months before getting pregnant will protect you from getting rubella in the future."
Asked in Vaccinations, Chickenpox

When was chickenpox vaccine invented?

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It was first developed in Japan in 1974 by Takahashi. It was many years in the development and was first licensed in 1988 in Japan and Korea. It was licensed in the US in 1995.
Asked in Vaccinations

Does pertussis vaccine contain a live virus?

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The pertussis vaccine contains killed cells of the virus. Until the 1990s, the vaccine contained the whole cell of the virus, but there were numerous incidents of adverse reactions, and so in recent years the whole cell vaccine has been gradually replaced by an acellular pertussis vaccine. The safety issue still remains, however.
Asked in Vaccinations

How much does inactive polio vaccine cost in India?

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in Bangalore it costed 800 rupees for one dosage and we nee to give three dosage with a months frequency
Asked in Conditions and Diseases, Vaccinations, Chickenpox, Shingles (infection)

Can you get shingles if you had chickenpox vaccine?

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The manufacturer of the vaccine say that you can get the shingles as this is a live virus that has been attenuated (made "weaker"). You should not get the chickenpox from it. Another answer: The manufacturer doesn't know if this will prevent shingles. They said that it will take several generations to know. If you get the chickenpox vaccine as a child, you should get the shingles vaccine as well later on to be sure.
Asked in Cold and Flu, Vaccinations, Antibiotics

Can you take doxycycline and get a flu shot?

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It is usually OK to get a flu vaccine when using antibiotics; there is no drug interaction problem. However, if you are taking antibiotics, then you must have a bacterial infection. If your infection is still acute - and you have ongoing symptoms such as a high fever - you may want to consult your health-care professional to be sure that your body will be able to tolerate the immune response needed to create immunity to the virus while you are also fighting an infection by a different type of organism. Before receiving the injection the person about to give you the vaccine will ask you a series of questions that will include questions about fever or other infection symptoms, ask this clinician if there is any reason you should not have the injection, given your current condition.
Asked in Pregnancy Health and Safety (Prenatal Care), Vaccinations

What is the use of hucog 5000 iu injection during pregnancy?

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to make your pregnancy normal. as far i know its given when your HCG levels decrease.
Asked in Cold and Flu, Vaccinations, Swine Flu (H1N1/09)

What if your flu shot was given subcutaneously?

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It may give you symptoms of irritation at the site of the injection and be more sore. It may give an incomplete immunization. It will likely not do long term harm, but, in the US, you should contact the management at the place where you received the injection incorrectly so that they are aware that this has happened and ask them to file an "Adverse Event" report with VAERS (Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System). You can also file a report yourself at VAERS, see the related link to the VAERS site in the related links section below. Just to be sure it was incorrectly administered, there is a new vaccine for the 2011-2012 flu season approved for use in the US that is given intradermally (in the layers of the skin). That vaccine is specially formulated to be given differently than the vaccines for IM (intramuscular) injection. There is no approved subcutaneous formulation approved in the US. Find out which vaccine you were given and confirm that it was administered by the incorrect route.
Asked in Medicare and Medicaid, Vaccinations, Shingles (infection)

Does Medicare cover the shingles vaccine?

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Medicare denied the shingles vaccine for me. I had the vaccine in January 2008. I do not have Medeicare Part D, just A and B. My "coordinated" insurance also denied the claim. Nichole S October 10, 2007 8:48 AM You may want to check with Medicare about this. I found this info on the web: For patients over 65, Medicare will begin paying for the shingles vaccine in January, 2007 - but not the way it pays for the most widely used adult inoculations, flu shots, which are fully covered. Instead, the shingles vaccine will be treated like a prescription drug, with varying co-pays depending on a patient's drug plan.
Asked in Information Science and Libraries, Vaccinations

Why use vaccinations?

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Vaccinations are important so that if you get that disease, your body will know how to fight it off and you won't suffer. Basically a vaccine is when they are putting the disease into your body but in a much weaker form of the disease so that every human body is capable of fighting it off quickly. This way your body knows how to fight it off and is prepared to fight it off if you get the real disease. This is why vaccinations are important for your body.
Asked in Vaccinations

How long should you wait after vaccinations before you try to get pregnant?

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It doesn't matter, Vaccinations won't affect the chances of you getting pregnant. It depends on the vaccine. Generally, at least a month. For Rubella, you have to wait three months after its administration before you can try to conceive. That's why it's so important to have a pre-conception visit at least three months before planning to get pregnant. (You don't have that luxury with "oops" babies, of course.) You can find out then if you need to update vaccines, start a multi-vitamin and folic acid, and address any routine medical issues. It's also a good idea to get a basic blood workup before trying to conceive to test for thyroid problems, hormone imbalances, etc. Most of those things are automatically included in a pre-conception visit.
Asked in Cold and Flu, Vaccinations, Swine Flu (H1N1/09)

Does a flu shot work if given subcutaneously?

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Most of the flu vaccines for injection are designed to be given in the muscle tissue. If your injection was given with the wrong length needle and it ended up in the subcutaneous tissue instead of the muscle, it may still provide some immunity. Check with the clinician who gave you the shot, or with your doctor or pharmacist to find out if you will need another vaccination to be fully protected. There is a new form of flu vaccine that is made to be injected intradermally (within the layers of the skin). It comes with its own micro-injection system that should assure the injection is in the correct tissue. This would be a type that would likely work better than the IM formulation if given subcutaneously, but the vaccines are not intended to be given by that route.
Asked in Public Health and Safety, Vaccinations

What is a mass immunization campaign?

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A mass immunization campaign is when the vaccination needs lots of people to get the jab for it to work otherwise it doesn't work and the people who had the jab won't get any benefits from having it.
Asked in Inventions, Conditions and Diseases, Vaccinations, Smallpox

Who invented cholera vaccination?

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Filppo Pacini was the "inventor" of Cholera, but John Snow had a huge part in the invention
Asked in Cold and Flu, Vaccinations, Swine Flu (H1N1/09)

Is there a vaccine to prevent Swine Flu?

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Yes. The antigens have been selected by CDC for the trivalent vaccines for the 2013-2014 flu season and the vaccine contains the following three viruses: Type A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus; Type A(H3N2) virus antigenically like the cell-propagated prototype virus known as A/Victoria/361/2011; and, Type B/Massachusetts/2/2012-like virus. It has been recommended that quadrivalent vaccines containing two Type A and two Type B influenza viruses contain the above three viruses and a Type B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus. For those with egg allergies: The CDC has issued the following media advisory: The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) voted today, 13 to 0, in favor of recommending FluBlok during the 2013-2014 influenza seasons for vaccination of persons 18 through 49 years of age with egg allergy of any severity. FluBlok was licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in January 2013. Unlike current production methods for other available seasonal influenza vaccines, FluBlok does not use the influenza virus or chicken eggs in its manufacturing process. Vaccines for the 2012-2013 flu season in the US: This year's trivalent seasonal flu vaccines will protect against the following three strains of influenza: Type A/California/7/2009 (H1N1) ~ the "swine flu vaccine", Type A/Victoria/361/2011 (H3N2), and Type B/Wisconsin/1/2010. There is also a new vaccine in the 2012-2013 flu season that is FluMist Quadrivalent. This new vaccine includes two Type B strains of flu instead of one. It contains B strains from both the B/Yamagata/16/88 and the B/Victoria/2/87 lineages in addition to the same strains of the Type A viruses (H1N1 and H3N2) that are included in the trivalent vaccines for this season. See the related questions below for more info. For the 2012-2013 Flu season in the US, the following vaccines for influenza are approved for use: AFLURIA Trivalent made by CSL/Merck AGRIFLU made by Novartis FLUARIX Trivalent made by GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals FLUMIST made by MedImmune Vaccines, Inc. FLUMIST QUADRAVALENT made by MedImmune Vaccines, Inc. FLULAVAL Trivalent made by ID Biomedical Corporation of Quebec FLUVIRIN Trivalent made by Novartis FLUZONE made by Sanofi Pasteur, Inc. FLUZONE - High Dose made by Sanofi Pasteur, Inc. FLUZONE-Intradermal made by Sanofi Pasteur, Inc. For the 2011-2012 flu season in the US, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced the approval of six vaccines on July 18, 2011. These approved trivalent vaccines for the seasonal flu will all contain vaccine for the H1N1/09 "Swine Flu" and two other viruses suggested by CDC for this season (see more below). These approved vaccines are: 1. Afluria (CSL Limited) 2. Fluarix (Glaxo Smith Kline Biologicals) 3. FluLaval (ID Biomedical Corporation) 4. FluMist (MedImmune Vaccines, Inc.) 5. Fluvirin (Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics Limited) 6. Fluzone, Fluzone High-Dose, Fluzone Intradermal (Sanofi Pasteur, Inc.) The Fluzone Intradermal is a new formulation for administration in the layers of the skin (intradermal injection) instead of the intramuscular (IM) injection. Fluzone Intradermal administration uses a microinjection system with a very fine needle. Approved for those aged 18 through 64. Nomenclature The naming convention for virus strains such as the one used to produce the pandemic A-H1N1/09 vaccine [ A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)v-like virus ] is explained below: A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)-like virus A = Type A influenza. There are three types of influenza: A, B, and C. CALIFORNIA = The location the strain was first identified. 7 = The strain identification number. 2009 = The year the strain was identified. H1N1 = The antigenic characterization of the H and N proteins. [Antigenic characterization is a method used to describe influenza proteins neuraminidase (N) and hemagglutinnin (H) and how they have changed.] ADDITIONAL AND HISTORICAL INFORMATION ABOUT H1N1/09 VACCINES 2010-2011 Flu Season: For the 2010-2011 flu season in the US, it is included in the regular flu vaccination, so unlike 2009, it will only require a single vaccination to be protected against swine flu and two other types of flu that are expected to be circulating this season. There is no longer any need to prioritize the delivery of the vaccine to those at highest risk since there is plenty of vaccine available now. 2009-2010 Flu Season: Vaccines are available and being administered in the states using the recommendation of international epidemiologists to provide the first vaccinations to those who are most vulnerable, health care workers, to fire and police personnel. A group of international epidemiologists has met and developed a roll out plan and suggestions for nations to plan to vaccinate those critical to the health and welfare of the community first, such as health care workers, fire and police personnel, and also the most vulnerable. The very first batch of the vaccine should be distributed primarily to the following five preferential groups: Pregnant women; Individuals who live with or care for children under 6 months old; Healthcare and emergency service workers; Individuals between 6 months to 24 years old; and then Adults 25 to 64 with chronic health conditions. Unlike seasonal flu, the elderly, aged 65 and older, seem to have a resistance to the H1N1/09 virus (probably from earlier exposure to some similar virus, perhaps the one in the 1930's) and will not be among the first to be vaccinated in this plan. The vaccines for the US approved so far by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are those produced by Novartis, Sanofi, and CSL who have produced the injection inactivated vaccines and MedImmune who has produced an attenuated (weakened) vaccine for administration in nasal spray for ages 2-49. The vaccines for Europe approved by EMEA, are two vaccines that are inactivated ("dead") and adjuvanted ("strengthened" so smaller doses can produce the same immunization to enable more doses). They are Focetria by Novartis and Pandemrix by GlaxoSmithKline and both are for administration by injection. Approval awaits for a third vaccine. Up to 60 human trials of the vaccines that were produced by the various drug Manufacturers were undertaken and monitored by the FDA, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The manufacturers who were contracted and licensed by Health and Human Services (HHS) to produce the H1N1/09 Vaccine are the same ones used for seasonal flu since 2004. Novartis, GlaxoSmithKline, Sanofi Pasteur, CSL Biotherapies, and MedImmune. The first vaccines were released 10/6/09 in the US. The demand is great and therefore the above distribution recommendations are being followed. The latest information available from the CDC is that about 45 million doses will be available in the first round of released vaccine over several weeks in mid to late October. After that the vaccine will be produced at a rate of approximately 20 million doses per week. On September 21, 2009, The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) ordered an additional 56 million doses of vaccine for the 2009 H1N1 flu from MedImmune and Sanofi Pasteur. The drug manufacturers who had been given seed stock from the CDC and WHO, are continuing to grow virus to produce vaccines from the seed stock. Since the growth of the seed stock was not as prolific as was hoped, the release date has now been pushed back, however the first rounds of vaccinations will be made available to those at most risk of complications first to assure the best use of the early doses that are available. A second seed stock was selected that is a more prolific producer and it is expected that the speed of production will increase by use of these more robust strains. The vaccine will be provided to a central distribution point in each state in the US and providers who want to give vaccine directly to their patients can request vaccine from the local government public health contacts. Other vaccination centers will be eventually also set up in schools, hospitals, clinics, and other locations for public vaccination programs. The vaccine will be provided free of cost, however private providers who administer the vaccinations may charge for their administration services. Distribution will be made on a priority basis to those at highest risk first, such as children and pregnant women, those who care for infants under 6 months old who can not take the vaccinations themselves, those who are immunocompromised, people who have underlying health problems such as asthma and diabetes, and healthcare workers, etc. Two injections will not be required for adults or children over 10 as was originally believed, since the trials are showing very good immune responses to the good seed stock that is being used. It is more likely now, that these immunizations will be very similar to the seasonal flu vaccinations. Immunization should be complete approximately 8 to 10 days after the flu shot in adults. However, children under 10 will still need two vaccinations to cause the proper immune response in their immature immune systems, just as with other vaccinations these are given 28 to 30 days apart and within approximately two weeks of the last injection in the series of two, they should have developed an appropriate level of immunity for protection against this strain of flu. The CDC and WHO recommend that people get the seasonal flu shot as usual. It will have no protection against A-H1N1/09, and the swine flu shot will have no protection against the seasonal flu strains that are expected to be in the Northern Hemisphere this fall and winter as usual. Two vaccinations (one for seasonal flu strains and one for H1N1/09) will be required for full protection against the seasonal flu strains and against H1N1/09 Swine Flu this year (2009). Both types of vaccines could be given at the same time (still in separate vaccinations, they can not be combined in one shot, though), however, you should not wait to get the seasonal flu shot until the swine flu shot is available to your risk group. As soon as you have an opportunity to get the seasonal flu shot, you should go ahead and get that done as soon as possible, especially if you are among those at high risk for influenza (for seasonal flu this does include those 65 and older, while for H1N1/09, that older group is actually at less risk than younger healthy people for the swine flu.) The H1N1/09 vaccine is will contain the new 2009 strain of swine flu, but otherwise it is being made the same way and with the same preservatives, and other ingredients for injection as has been used for decades now for seasonal flu shots. So there is no expectation of new side effects or problems with getting the vaccination than that which would be normal for the seasonal flu injections. Over the long period of use of this type of vaccine, problems have been very low. There have been very few reactions or problems with this method of vaccine development (unlike the problems that were had with the swine flu shots in the 1970's) and there is no scientific data to support the concerns that some have voiced about the preservative thimerosal. There is no data from the scientific studies that have been done that link autism or other problems to the thimerosal. The minuscule amount of mercury in the preservative's compound ingredients is no more than would be obtained through a meal of fish. There are some manufacturers who have developed single doses of vaccine that will not contain the thimerosal. These will be available in some locations to those who have this concern. The larger 10cc vials will have to have the preservative added, but single dose vials and single dose pre-loaded syringes may be an option for some. Discuss this with your health care professional in advance of presenting for the vaccination if you have concerns and you may need to reserve this type of single dose vaccine from your pharmacy in advance.
Asked in Vaccinations, Tamiflu

Is tamiflu a vaccine?

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NO. Tamiflu is an anti-viral medication which, as opposed to curing influenza, lessens the symptoms and is said to cut short the amount of time you're sick.
Asked in Conditions and Diseases, Cold and Flu, Vaccinations, Swine Flu (H1N1/09)

Does the regular seasonal flu shot help prevent the H1N1-09 Swine Flu?

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Yes, it does again in the US in the 2012-2013 flu season as it did in the prior flu season. See the related questions section for more information about the vaccines in 2012-2013 flu season. 2012-2013 For the 2011-2012 flu season in the US, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced the approval of six vaccines on July 18, 2011. These approved trivalent vaccines for the seasonal flu will all contain vaccine for the H1N1/09 "Swine Flu" and two other viruses suggested by CDC for this season (see more below). These approved vaccines are: 1. Afluria (CSL Limited) 2. Fluarix (Glaxo Smith Kline Biologicals) 3. FluLaval (ID Biomedical Corporation) 4. FluMist (MedImmune Vaccines, Inc.) 5. Fluvirin (Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics Limited) 6. Fluzone, Fluzone High-Dose, Fluzone Intradermal (Sanofi Pasteur, Inc.) The Fluzone Intradermal is a new formulation for administration in the layers of the skin (intradermal injection) instead of the intramuscular (IM) injection. Fluzone Intradermal administration uses a microinjection system with a very fine needle. Approved for those aged 18 through 64. The CDC-approved trivalent vaccines for the 2011-2012 flu season will protect against the following three virus strains: 1. A/California/7/09 (H1N1)-like virus (Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus) 2. A/Perth/16/2009/ (H3N2)-like virus 3. B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus Nomenclature The naming convention for virus strains such as the one used to produce the pandemic A-H1N1/09 vaccine [ A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)v-like virus ] is explained below: A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)-like virus A = Type A influenza. There are three types of influenza: A, B, and C. CALIFORNIA = The location the strain was first identified. 7 = The strain identification number. 2009 = The year the strain was identified. H1N1 = The antigenic characterization of the H and N proteins. [Antigenic characterization is a method used to describe influenza proteins neuraminidase (N) and hemagglutinnin (H) and how they have changed.] Historical information about the H1N1/09 vaccines: 2010-2011 Flu Season In the US for the 2010-2011 flu season, the vaccine for H1N1/09 is included in the "standard" seasonal flu vaccination. The seasonal flu vaccine is made each year with three types of flu virus vaccines in it. This year one of the three vaccines in the seasonal flu vaccination is the H1N1/09 vaccine. So only one flu vaccination is required to be protected from Swine Flu and from the other two flu viruses that have been determined to be the most likely to be circulating in the Northern Hemisphere during this flu season. If you got the swine flu vaccination last year, it will not hurt you to get the vaccine for swine flu again. If you had the swine flu, then it also won't hurt to get the vaccine now. In fact, unless you had specific lab testing to confirm the exact strain of flu virus that made you ill, you will be sure you have full immunization to A-H1N1/09 by getting the seasonal flu shot, just in case you had a different kind of flu than you thought. The best way to prevent the flu is immunization. 2009-2010 Flu Season The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved four types of A-H1N1-09 ( Swine Flu) vaccines for use in the US in 2009 - 2010. Three of these were injectible vaccines and one was a nasal spray for certain age groups to use. The distribution for use was begun with the first batch on 10/6/09. The vaccine that was new in 2009 was made specific to the A-H1N1/09 virus only, that is why in 2009-2010 flu season there was a need for two vaccinations for the flu. It was initially provided first to those at highest risk until enough vaccine was produced to keep up with the demand. It was being made available free of charge in the US to any one who wanted to use it (although some private providers, such as doctors or pharmacies, may have charged a fee for administering it). There were public immunization programs set up at clinics, schools, hospitals, and other locations under the direction of the public health authorities in each state, who were also in charge of the distribution of the vaccine supply. Anti-viral Treatment of H1N1: If caught early, the Swine flu may respond to treatment with two of the anti-viral medications that have been designed for animal strains of flu, oseltamivir and zanamivir. These medicines do not work to prevent or to cure or "kill" the viruses, they work to shorten the duration of the infection and to ease the severity of the symptoms once you already have it. Antibiotics are for killing bacteria, they do not work on infections by viruses which is why they are not prescribed for directly treating the flu or other viral infections. Prevention: See the related question in the section below for additional information about protecting yourself from contracting viruses. The most important step is basic hand washing and hygiene as described in the related question. There also have been studies showing that taking certain vitamins, such as Vitamin C, can help build a stronger immune system for fighting viruses and other microbes. Prevention is the best medicine! Get a vaccination! Additional information: More information from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is accessible via the related link in the section below.
Asked in Laboratory Testing, Human Anatomy and Physiology, Vaccinations

What is bcg?

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a live organism used to activate the immune system to fight bladder cancer. BCG(bacille Calmette-Guerin) This is a bovine strain of tubercle bacillus rendered completely avirulent by culturing repeatedly. The strain is used in inducing active immunity to tuberculosis.The vaccine contains live avirulent bacilli and is administered to tuberculine negative individual.

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