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Mexico

Mexico is a country on the southern tip of North America. Not to be confused with the US State of New Mexico, it is home of ancient Aztec and Maya civilizations. Also known for Tequila, Mariachis, Cancun and Los Cabos, this is the place to ask anything related to Mexico.

56,076 Questions
Immigration
Mexico

Why do Mexicans illegally cross the US-Mexican border?

Like most modern Americans (unless you are a Native American), they leave their home country for economic, religious or political reasons. In the case of Mexicans (and nowadays, more and more Central Americans), they are attracted to the "American dream": while, on average, a U.S. worker earns a wage of US$58,714, the average Mexican worker earns only US$14,867.

In addition, many of them flee their home countries due to increasing drug violence in Mexico and the Northern Triangle (Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Honduras). For example, while the United States has a murder rate of 3.9 homicides per 100,000 people, the Mexican state of Guerrero has a murder rate of 67; El Salvador has a rate of 64, and Honduras has a rate of 84 (highest in the world).

Most illegal immigrants are people with little or no education; most of them are former farm laborers who do not earn enough to support their families and are forced to look for alternatives. As the process of immigration and naturalization into the U.S. would disqualify them, many opted to enter the country illegally.

Nowadays, due to stricter border controls and a general improvement of the Mexican economy, the immigration process has begun to reverse: the net migration rate between 2009 and 2014 is 140,000 people leaving the country for Mexico; most illegal immigrants that enter U.S. soil today are Central Americans, and even an increasing number of them apply for asylum in Mexico.

Mexico Push Factors:

  • Few opportunities
  • Poor medical care
  • Loss of wealth
  • Poor housing
  • Discrimination

Pull Factors of the United States:

  • Job opportunities
  • Better living conditions
  • Education
  • Better medical care
  • Security
  • Family links
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Calendar
Mexico
Father's Day

When is Father's Day in Mexico?

Father's Day in Mexico is the third Sunday of June, same as in the United States and many other countries.

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United States of America
New Mexico
Mexico
United States

What US States border Mexico?

The US-Mexican Border is the international border between the United States of America and the country of Mexico. Most of this 3,141 Kilometers (1,952 miles) border is defined by the course of the Rio Grande River (Rio Bravo del Norte, as it is known in Mexico) which runs from Ciudad Juarez-El Paso into the Gulf of Mexico, close to the cities of Matamoros-Brownsville.

The four US states that border Mexico, with their respective border lengths are, from west to east:

  • California (capital: Sacramento) - 220 Kilometers (137 miles).
  • Arizona (capital: Phoenix) - 564 Kilometers (350 miles).
  • New Mexico (capital: Santa Fe) - 338 Kilometers (210 miles).
  • Texas (capital: Austin) along the Rio Grande River - 2,019 Kilometers (1,254 miles).
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Mexico
World Currencies

What is the currency of Mexico?

The Mexican Peso is the currency of Mexico; its symbol and code are $ and MXN. The most important currencies' exchange rates for Mexican Pesos (Jan 2017) are:

  • Euros: 1 EUR = 22.97 MXN (conversely 1 MXN = 0.044EUR)
  • US Dollars: 1 USD = 21.66 MXN (conversely 1 MXN = 0.046 USD)
  • British Pounds: 1 GBP = 26.14 MXN (conversely 1 MXN = 0.038 GBP)
  • Canadian Dollars: 1 CAD = 16.47 MXN (conversely 1 MXN = 0.061 CAD)
  • Japanese Yens: 1 JPY = 0.19 MXN (conversely 1 MXN = 5.27 JPY)

Mexican denominations include 0.05 (five cents or centavos), 0.10, 0.20 , 0.50, 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 coins as well as 20, 50, 100, 200, 500 and 1000 bank notes.

100 centavos = 1 peso

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Languages and Cultures
Mexico

What languages are spoken in Mexico?

Mexico is a nation with a huge linguistic diversity. Spanish is the de-facto language (meaning Mexico does not have any official language) spoken by 92.7% of the Mexican population. 63 Amerindian languages are also recognized as national languages and can be used for official purposes; these include Nahuatl, Yucatec Maya, Mixtec, Zapotec, Tzeltal Maya, Tzotzil Maya and Otomi. It is estimated 5.7% of the population, or about 6 million people (the second largest after Peru), speaks any one of these languages besides Spanish and 0.8% speaks only one of these Amerindian languages. Nahuatl is spoken by about 1.5 million and about 800,000 to 1.2 million speak Yukatek Maya and about 700,000 more speak other Mayan languages.

There are also many non-indigenous languages spoken in Mexico, the most important being English - spoken by English-speaking immigrants, many residents on the northern border states of Mexico and many people who use it on a daily basis for business and tourism activities.

Finally, other foreign languages include German, French, Arabic, Russian, Hebrew, Korean and Chinese, spoken by less than 0.8% of the population; most of them are spoken by first or second generation immigrants. One example of these is the rather large Orthodox Jewish community in Mexico City, keeping many of their customs intact, including their language.

Well, books and papers in general normally mention Spanish and Náhuatl, but undoubtedly some other indigenous (native) languages are still spoken, and maybe some groups don´t speak Spanish!

Spanish is the major language of Mexico, spoken by over 90% of the population.

Mexico is a nation with a huge linguistic diversity. Spanish is the de-facto language (meaning Mexico does not have any official language) spoken by 92.7% of the Mexican population. 63 Amerindian languages are also recognized as national languages and can be used for official purposes; these include Nahuatl,Yucatec Maya, Mixtec, Zapotec, Tzeltal Maya, Tzotzil Maya and Otomi. It is estimated 5.7% of the population, or about 6 million people (the second largest after Peru), speaks any one of these languages besides Spanish and 0.8% speaks only one of these Amerindian languages. Nahuatl is spoken by about 1.5 million and about 800,000 to 1.2 million speak Yukatek Maya and about 700,000 more speak other Mayan languages.

Answer

There are also many non-indigenous languages spoken in Mexico, the most important being English - spoken by English-speaking immigrants, many residents on the northern border states of Mexico and many people who use it on a daily basis for business and tourism activities.

Finally, other foreign languages include German, French, Arabic, Russian, Hebrew, Korean and Chinese, spoken by less than 0.8% of the population; most of them are spoken by first or second generation immigrants. One example of these is the rather large Orthodox Jewish community in Mexico City, keeping many of their customs intact, including their language.

As an interesting fact, the least spoken languages in Mexico include either Lao (From Laos), Dhivehi (from the Maldives Islands), Kazakh (Kazakhstan) or Uzbek (Uzbekistan), spoken by less than 10 people in Mexico, all of them registered immigrants. The least spoken Amerindian, native language in Mexico would be the Opata language, spoken by 12 speakers in 1997 and considered almost extinct.

Spanish, Nahuatl, Maya, Zapotec, Mixtec, P'urhépecha, others

Spanish is the lingua franca of Mexico. Linguists have identified over 260 languages and dialects spoken in Mexico today. Many people in Mexico start life in one of these dialects. They learn Mexican Spanish as a second language when they attend school. When they come to the US and learn English, they're working on their third or fourth language. Some of the major branch languages spoken are Mixtec, Zapotec, Nahuatl, Totonac, Chinantec.

Answer

In addition to Spanish, the de-facto language spoken by 92.7% of the Mexican population, 63 Amerindian languages are recognized as national languages; these include Nahuatl, YucatecMaya, Mixtec, Zapotec, Tzeltal Maya, Tzotzil Maya and Otomi. It is estimated 5.7% of the population speaks any one of these languages besides Spanish and 0.8% speaks only one of these Amerindian languages.

There are also many non-indigenous languages spoken in Mexico, the most important being English - spoken by English-speaking immigrants, many residents on the northern border states of Mexico and many people who use it on a daily basis for business and tourism activities.

Finally, other foreign languages include German, French, Arabic, Russian, Hebrew, Korean and Chinese, spoken by less than 0.8% of the population; most of them are spoken by first or second generation immigrants. One example of these is the rather large Orthodox Jewish community in Mexico City, keeping many of their customs intact, including their language.

Answer

Spanish is the main language spoken in Mexico.

Spanish.

Spanish.

Spanish

Answer

Mexico is a nation with a huge linguistic diversity. In addition to Spanish, the de-facto language spoken by 92.7% of the Mexican population, 63 Amerindian languages are recognized as national languages; these include Nahuatl, Yucatec Maya, Mixtec, Zapotec, Tzeltal Maya, Tzotzil Maya and Otomi. It is estimated 5.7% of the population, about 6 million people (the second largest after Peru), speaks any one of these languages besides Spanish and 0.8% speaks only one of these Amerindian languages. Nahuatl is spoken by about 1.5 million and about 800,000 to 1.2 million speak Yucatec Maya and about 700,000 more speak other Mayan languages.

There are also many non-indigenous languages spoken in Mexico, the most important being English - spoken by English-speaking immigrants, many residents on the northern border states of Mexico and many people who use it on a daily basis for business and tourism activities.

Finally, other foreign languages include German, French, Arabic, Russian, Hebrew, Korean and Chinese, spoken by less than 0.8% of the population; most of them are spoken by first or second generation immigrants. One example of these is the rather large Orthodox Jewish community in Mexico City, keeping many of their customs intact, including their language.

As an interesting fact, the least spoken languages in Mexico include either Lao (From Laos), Dhivehi (from the Maldives Islands), Kazakh (Kazakhstan) or Uzbek(Uzbekistan), spoken by less than 10 people in Mexico, all of them registered immigrants. The least spoken Amerindian, native language in Mexico would be the Opata language, spoken by 15 speakers in 1993 and considered almost extinct.
Spanish
Spanish.
Spanish is the most widely spoken language in Mexico.
jantahik
Nahuatl qualifies as such. It is spoken by approximately 1.5 million people (1.3% of the population, 2010).

If you mean foreign languages, English is the largest, spoken by at least 0.5 million people due to business and tourism-related activities.
Spanish is the most spoken language in Mexico and is the de facto national language. The second most spoken language is English. Other minor languages include French, German, Russian, Arabic, and Basque. Major indigenous languages include Nahuatl, Yucatec Maya, and Mixtec.

62 indigenous languages. Spanish makes 63.
Mexico does not have any official languages (just like the U.S.). But the most commonly spoken language is Spanish.
Yes. In addition to Spanish, the de-facto language spoken by 92.7% of the Mexican population, 63 Amerindian languages are recognized as national languages; these include Nahuatl, YucatecMaya, Mixtec, Zapotec, Tzeltal Maya, Tzotzil Maya and Otomi. It is estimated 5.7% of the population speaks any one of these languages besides Spanish and 0.8% speaks only one of these Amerindian languages.
In addition to Spanish, the de-facto language spoken by 92.7% of the Mexican population, 63 Amerindian languages are recognized as national languages; these include Nahuatl, Yucatec Maya, Mixtec, Zapotec, Tzeltal Maya, Tzotzil Maya and Otomi. It is estimated 5.7% of the population speaks any one of these languages besides Spanish and 0.8% speaks only one of these Amerindian languages.
Indian Native American Languages are spoken in South Mexia by 14 mio people

Spanish is Spoken in the North mostly around the Mexican American Border
Spanish, the official language, is spoken by nearly the entire population, thus giving Mexico the world's largest Spanish-speaking community; more Mexicans speak Spanish than Spaniards. Only a small number of inhabitants, about 1% of the population according to last estimate, speak only indigenous Amerindian languages or dialects. A larger percentage, some7.5% at last estimate, speak some Amerindian language. There are at least 31 different Amerindian language groups, the principal languages being Nahuatl, Maya, Zapotec, Otomi, and Mixtec.


the Mexicans speak a mixture of spanish, Aztec, Mayan, and many others
Spainish
Spanish.
Here is a list of all 299 languages spoken in Mexico:

1. Afro-Seminole Creole

2. Amuzgo, Guerrero

3. Amuzgo, Ipalapa

4. Amuzgo, San Pedro Amuzgos

5. Chatino, Eastern Highland

6. Chatino, Nopala

7. Chatino, Tataltepec

8. Chatino, Western Highland

9. Chatino, Zacatepec

10. Chatino, Zenzontepec

11. Chiapanec

12. Chichimeca-Jonaz

13. Chicomuceltec

14. Chinantec, Chiltepec

15. Chinantec, Comaltepec

16. Chinantec, Lalana

17. Chinantec, Lealao

18. Chinantec, Ojitlán

19. Chinantec, Ozumacín

20. Chinantec, Palantla

21. Chinantec, Quiotepec

22. Chinantec, Sochiapam

23. Chinantec, Tepetotutla

24. Chinantec, Tepinapa

25. Chinantec, Tlacoatzintepec

26. Chinantec, Usila

27. Chinantec, Valle Nacional

28. Chocholtec

29. Chol, Tila

30. Chol, Tumbalá

31. Chontal, Highland Oaxaca

32. Chontal, Lowland Oaxaca

33. Chontal, Tabasco

34. Chuj, Ixtatán

35. Cochimi

36. Cocopa

37. Cora, El Nayar

38. Cora, Santa Teresa

39. Cuicatec, Tepeuxila

40. Cuicatec, Teutila

41. Huarijío

42. Huastec, San Luís Potosí

43. Huastec, Southeastern

44. Huastec, Veracruz

45. Huave, San Dionisio del Mar

46. Huave, San Francisco del Mar

47. Huave, San Mateo del Mar

48. Huave, Santa María del Mar

49. Huichol

50. Ixcatec

51. Jacaltec, Western

52. Kanjobal, Western

53. Kickapoo

54. Kiliwa

55. Kumiai

56. Lacandon

57. Mam, Northern

58. Mam, Todos Santos

59. Matlatzinca, Atzingo

60. Matlatzinca, San Francisco

61. Maya, Chan Santa Cruz

62. Maya, Yucatán

63. Mayo

64. Mazahua, Central

65. Mazahua, Michoacán

66. Mazatec, Ayautla

67. Mazatec, Chiquihuitlán

68. Mazatec, Huautla

69. Mazatec, Ixcatlán

70. Mazatec, Jalapa de Díaz

71. Mazatec, Mazatlán

72. Mazatec, San Jerónimo Tecóatl

73. Mazatec, Soyaltepec

74. Me'phaa, Acatepec

75. Me'phaa, Azoyú

76. Me'phaa, Malinaltepec

77. Me'phaa, Tlacoapa

78. Mexican Sign Language

79. Mixe, Coatlán

80. Mixe, Isthmus

81. Mixe, Juquila

82. Mixe, Mazatlán

83. Mixe, North Central

84. Mixe, Quetzaltepec

85. Mixe, Tlahuitoltepec

86. Mixe, Totontepec

87. Mixtec, Alacatlatzala

88. Mixtec, Alcozauca

89. Mixtec, Amoltepec

90. Mixtec, Apasco-Apoala

91. Mixtec, Atatláhuca

92. Mixtec, Ayutla

93. Mixtec, Cacaloxtepec

94. Mixtec, Chayuco

95. Mixtec, Chazumba

96. Mixtec, Chigmecatitlán

97. Mixtec, Coatzospan

98. Mixtec, Cuyamecalco

99. Mixtec, Diuxi-Tilantongo

100. Mixtec, Huitepec

101. Mixtec, Itundujia

102. Mixtec, Ixtayutla

103. Mixtec, Jamiltepec

104. Mixtec, Juxtlahuaca

105. Mixtec, Magdalena Peñasco

106. Mixtec, Metlatónoc

107. Mixtec, Mitlatongo

108. Mixtec, Mixtepec

109. Mixtec, Northern Tlaxiaco

110. Mixtec, Northwest Oaxaca

111. Mixtec, Ocotepec

112. Mixtec, Peñoles

113. Mixtec, Pinotepa Nacional

114. Mixtec, San Juan Colorado

115. Mixtec, San Juan Teita

116. Mixtec, San Miguel el Grande

117. Mixtec, San Miguel Piedras

118. Mixtec, Santa Lucía Monteverde

119. Mixtec, Santa María Zacatepec

120. Mixtec, Silacayoapan

121. Mixtec, Sindihui

122. Mixtec, Sinicahua

123. Mixtec, Southeastern Nochixtlán

124. Mixtec, Southern Puebla

125. Mixtec, Southwestern Tlaxiaco

126. Mixtec, Soyaltepec

127. Mixtec, Tacahua

128. Mixtec, Tamazola

129. Mixtec, Tezoatlán

130. Mixtec, Tidaá

131. Mixtec, Tijaltepec

132. Mixtec, Tlazoyaltepec

133. Mixtec, Tututepec

134. Mixtec, Western Juxtlahuaca

135. Mixtec, Yoloxóchitl

136. Mixtec, Yosondúa

137. Mixtec, Yucuañe

138. Mixtec, Yutanduchi

139. Mocho

140. Nahuatl, Central

141. Nahuatl, Central Huasteca

142. Nahuatl, Central Puebla

143. Nahuatl, Classical

144. Nahuatl, Coatepec

145. Nahuatl, Durango

146. Nahuatl, Eastern Huasteca

147. Nahuatl, Guerrero

148. Nahuatl, Highland Puebla

149. Nahuatl, Huaxcaleca

150. Nahuatl, Isthmus-Cosoleacaque

151. Nahuatl, Isthmus-Mecayapan

152. Nahuatl, Isthmus-Pajapan

153. Nahuatl, Michoacán

154. Nahuatl, Morelos

155. Nahuatl, Northern Oaxaca

156. Nahuatl, Northern Puebla

157. Nahuatl, Ometepec

158. Nahuatl, Orizaba

159. Nahuatl, Santa María la Alta

160. Nahuatl, Sierra Negra

161. Nahuatl, Southeastern Puebla

162. Nahuatl, Tabasco

163. Nahuatl, Temascaltepec

164. Nahuatl, Tetelcingo

165. Nahuatl, Tlamacazapa

166. Nahuatl, Western Huasteca

167. Nahuatl, Zacatlán-Ahuacatlán-Tepetzintla

168. Opata

169. Otomi, Eastern Highland

170. Otomi, Estado de México

171. Otomi, Ixtenco

172. Otomi, Mezquital

173. Otomi, Querétaro

174. Otomi, Temoaya

175. Otomi, Tenango

176. Otomi, Texcatepec

177. Otomi, Tilapa

178. Paipai

179. Pame, Central

180. Pame, Northern

181. Pame, Southern

182. Pima Bajo

183. Plautdietsch

184. Popoloca, Coyotepec

185. Popoloca, Mezontla

186. Popoloca, San Felipe Otlaltepec

187. Popoloca, San Juan Atzingo

188. Popoloca, San Luís Temalacayuca

189. Popoloca, San Marcos Tlalcoyalco

190. Popoloca, Santa Inés Ahuatempan

191. Popoluca, Highland

192. Popoluca, Oluta

193. Popoluca, Sayula

194. Popoluca, Texistepec

195. Purepecha

196. Purepecha, Western Highland

197. Seri

198. Spanish

199. Tacanec

200. Tarahumara, Central

201. Tarahumara, Northern

202. Tarahumara, Southeastern

203. Tarahumara, Southwestern

204. Tarahumara, Western

205. Tectitec

206. Tepecano

207. Tepehua, Huehuetla

208. Tepehua, Pisaflores

209. Tepehua, Tlachichilco

210. Tepehuan, Northern

211. Tepehuan, Southeastern

212. Tepehuan, Southwestern

213. Tojolabal

214. Totonac, Coyutla

215. Totonac, Filomena Mata-Coahuitlán

216. Totonac, Highland

217. Totonac, Papantla

218. Totonac, Tecpatlán

219. Totonac, Upper Necaxa

220. Totonac, Ozumatlán

221. Totonac, Xicotepec de Juárez

222. Totonac, Yecuatla

223. Triqui, Chicahuaxtla

224. Triqui, Copala

225. Triqui, San Martín Itunyoso

226. Tubar

227. Tzeltal, Bachajón

228. Tzeltal, Oxchuc

229. Tzotzil, Chamula

230. Tzotzil, Chenalhó

231. Tzotzil, Huixtán

232. Tzotzil, San Andrés Larrainzar

233. Tzotzil, Venustiano Carranza

234. Tzotzil, Zinacantán

235. Yaqui

236. Yucatec Maya Sign Language

237. Zapotec

238. Zapotec, Aloápam

239. Zapotec, Amatlán

240. Zapotec, Asunción Mixtepec

241. Zapotec, Ayoquesco

242. Zapotec, Cajonos

243. Zapotec, Chichicapan

244. Zapotec, Choapan

245. Zapotec, Coatecas Altas

246. Zapotec, Coatlán

247. Zapotec, El Alto

248. Zapotec, Elotepec

249. Zapotec, Guevea de Humboldt

250. Zapotec, Güilá

251. Zapotec, Isthmus

252. Zapotec, Lachiguiri

253. Zapotec, Lachixío

254. Zapotec, Lapaguía-Guivini

255. Zapotec, Loxicha

256. Zapotec, Mazaltepec

257. Zapotec, Miahuatlán

258. Zapotec, Mitla

259. Zapotec, Mixtepec

260. Zapotec, Ocotlán

261. Zapotec, Ozolotepec

262. Zapotec, Petapa

263. Zapotec, Quiavicuzas

264. Zapotec, Quioquitani-Quierí

265. Zapotec, Rincón

266. Zapotec, San Agustín Mixtepec

267. Zapotec, San Baltazar Loxicha

268. Zapotec, San Juan Guelavía

269. Zapotec, San Pedro Quiatoni

270. Zapotec, San Vicente Coatlán

271. Zapotec, Santa Catarina Albarradas

272. Zapotec, Santa Inés Yatzechi

273. Zapotec, Santa María Quiegolani

274. Zapotec, Santiago Xanica

275. Zapotec, Santo Domingo Albarradas

276. Zapotec, Sierra de Juárez

277. Zapotec, Southeastern Ixtlán

278. Zapotec, Southern Rincon

279. Zapotec, Tabaa

280. Zapotec, Tejalapan

281. Zapotec, Texmelucan

282. Zapotec, Tilquiapan

283. Zapotec, Tlacolulita

284. Zapotec, Totomachapan

285. Zapotec, Xadani

286. Zapotec, Xanaguía

287. Zapotec, Yalálag

288. Zapotec, Yareni

289. Zapotec, Yatee

290. Zapotec, Yatzachi

291. Zapotec, Yautepec

292. Zapotec, Zaachila

293. Zapotec, Zaniza

294. Zapotec, Zoogocho

295. Zoque, Chimalapa

296. Zoque, Copainalá

297. Zoque, Francisco León

298. Zoque, Rayón

299. Zoque, Tabasco
spanish, English and franch

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Arizona
California
Mexico

Does Arizona touch the Gulf of Baja California?

Not at all.

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Geography
Mexico
Borders and Boundaries

What countries border Mexico?

The country of Mexico, located on the southern tip of North America, has three international borders, one with another North American country and two with a couple of Central American nations:

To the north, with the United States of America (capital: Washington, DC), sharing a common border of 3,141 Kilometers (1,952 miles) along the American states of California, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas. The US-Mexican Border also runs along the Mexican northern states of Baja California, Sonora, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas and most of it is defined by the Rio Grande River (Rio Bravo del Norte, as it is known in Mexico).

To the southeast, with Belize (capital: Belmopan) along the course of the Hondo River. The Belize-Mexico Border has a length of 251 Kilometers (132 miles), delimiting the border between Mexican states of Quintana Roo and Campeche on the Yucatan Peninsula, and Belize.

Finally, also to the southeast, with the country of Guatemala (capital: Guatemala City) running along the Mexican states of Quintana Roo, Campeche, Tabasco and Chiapas and the Guatemalan departments of El Peten, El Quiche, Huehuetenango and San Marcos. The Guatemala-Mexico Border has a length of 871 Kilometers (542 miles) and is defined at some stretches by the Usumacinta, Salinas and Suchiate Rivers.
The United States of America.

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Oral Health and Dental Care
Mexico
Dentists

How do you find a reputable dentist in Mexico?

Dental care abroadIf you go abroad for dental care:

-- Check with the appropriate government agency in the destination country about its national dentistry guidelines.

-- Find out what recourse is available if something goes wrong.

-- At the dental office, look for infection-control procedures, including instrument sterilization and use of protective gloves, mask and eyewear.

-- A traveler's guide to dental care is available through the Organization for Safety and Asepsis Procedures at www.osap.org.

Source: American Dental Association.

Why is dental cheaper in Mexico? - lower operating costs, dentists are not required have malpractice insurance, dentists are less advanced and use less expensive technology and infection control procedures.

Dental treatment performed abroad although less expensive, also carries an increased number of associated complications and risks.

Travel, Dental Care and Dental Tourism

There is a growing phenomena called "Dental Tourism" in which people travel to a destination that offers less expensive dental care. The decision to visit another country for dental care should go beyond simply comparing prices or even evaluating the dentists' expertise. Countries differ in their standards for infection control and safety. The use of fresh gloves, sterile instruments and safe water are not standard practice in all countries. Without these precautions, patients could be infected with diseases such as hepatitis B.

Before considering such trips, it is important to be prepared by using information such as that contained in OSAP's Traveler's Guide. Additional information may be obtained at www.ada.org, www.iamat.org and www.adse.co.uk.

Go to Mexico's largest dental directory at dentistasdemexico.com and search for a dentist, all dentists are fully licensed and governed by the country of Mexico

From other contributors:
  • My wife has experienced in our opinion, the worst dentist ever and he is in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico... His name is Dr. Victor M. Silva. He put in an implant in her upper jaw and two days later she had a very bad infection. Upon Dr. Silva looking at it, he just stated that it was too small of an implant and grabbed it with his finger and just pulled it out ... He did not even offer her any antibiotics until I insisted on them... His practice is a one room office/examining room that is not sanitary and usually he is there by himself without an assistant.

After removing the implant, he told her to come back in two months and he would put in another one that was longer. When my wife returned, to his office, he then told her that there was not enough bone and that she should come back in one year, At this point (4 trips later from Tucson to Nogales)we did not want to deal with him anymore and asked for our money back, he straight out refused to refund the money that we had given him as a down payment for the service. I would strongly suggest that this dentist be avoided at all if looking for a good dentist in Nogales. REMEMBER, his name is Dr. Victor M. Silva. He will take your money and give you the run around.

  • I went to a dentist in Naco 9 years ago and please don't make the mistake I did.

I was 25 at the time and had great teeth but I hadn't been to the dentist for 2 years for financial reasons. I was living in Bisbee at the time and heard dentists were cheaper in Mexico. The dentist told me I had 9 cavities-- which should have tipped me off right there-- 5 on my lower teeth and 4 up top. I only had only two tiny cavities previously, but I thought, was afraid that I had "neglected my teeth". He drilled and filled the lower teeth, one side at a time on 2 separate visits (if I remember correctly) and told me to come back for the top teeth. It was incredibly painful whereas I usually have a high pain tolerance. I think on some level my body knew it was wrong and was trying to tell me. He charged me $50 per filling. They were enormous fillings and I could see the metal shifting around my mouth, or my chemistry reacting to it or something because months later dark lines were settling around the base of my teeth. I did not return for the top teeth.

About six months later, I went to a free dental clinic in the town where I now live (U.S.) thinking that i would need to get the cavities up top filled. The dentist there told me that I didn't have 4 cavities that needed to be filled, only ONE "weak spot" (which to this day has not required a filling). He said the dentist in Mexico must have been following a very old dental philosophy. Nowadays dentists fill very minimally if at all. It looked like he had carved out all the valleys, any area potentially vulnerable and filled, over what were probably "weak spots" or tiny cavities at best.

I had the fillings replaced with composite a few years later just to have all the metal out of my mouth. The receptionist (U.S.) on the phone had quoted me about $60 per filling (I swear I was specific). I was surprised, but really happy it would be so affordable, so when I came out of the dental chair after the procedure and they told me I had a $3,000 bill, I nearly passed out.

It's not over either. The fillings were so big that the integrity of the teeth under them has been compromised and 2 or more of my teeth have fractures in them now. Those cracks don't heal, they only eventually go all the way down to the nerve. That means I will need crowns, and maybe root canals, and maybe to have the teeth completely extracted and a bridge put on. I got the news it's time for the first crown today, because the tooth actually has two cracks and has started causing some pain. $1,150.

I am not the kind of person that has awful things like this happen a lot. I have just been had this very unfortunate experience with dentistry, and it's not over yet, and it's very expensive. I think there surely must be many reputable dentists in Mexico, and occasions when getting a procedure done there is more affordable. But please be careful and trust your gut. I was nearly shaking when I drove to those appointments in Naco, but my foolish reasoning mind did not listen to my body. I had great teeth.

  • HOW DO YOU FIND A GOOD DDS IN MEXICO? GOOD QUESTION - I KNOW THAT THERE ARE MANY, HOWEVER THE ONE I FOUND BEWARE!!!! IT WAS WASHINGTON DENTAL CLINIC. BEFORE ANY TREATMENT YOU TALK TO A CLOSER {YOU KNOW LIKE BUYING A USED CAR} YOU NEED TO PAY BEFORE ANY TREATMENT. THE TREATMENT I RECEIVED WAS FROM THE STONE AGE. THE SHOTS WERE NOT IN THE LEAST gentle - picture this I wore a hair piece and within the first five minutes it was on the floor the dentist (so called) kicked it to the side with his worn out cowboy boots. I WANTED TO STOP HIM BUT HE SUPPOSEDLY KNEW NO ENGLISH AND KEPT GOING MY TREATMENT WAS TO EXTRACT ONE FRONT TOOTH AND REPLACE IT WITH A PARTIAL I WAITED FOR THE PARTIAL FOR HOURS AND WHEN IT WAS DONE IT LOOK ABSOLUTELY HORRIBLE. I COMPLAINED AND WAS TOLD TOO BAD THAT THEY LOOKED GOOD TO THEM I HAD ALREADY PAID (WITH CREDIT CARD) WHEN I RETURNED TO STATES I PUT A STOP ON THE PAYMENT. AFTER A BIG HASSLE MY CARD RULED FOR THEM THE CHARGE WAS 2700-5000. I'M OUT THE CASH BACK IN THE STATES, I HAD TO HAVE A ROOT CANAL ON ONE OF MY TEETH THAT THEY RUINED AND A NEW PARTIAL FOR ANOTHER 3,000. YOU DO THE MATH. JUST BE REALLY CAREFUL NO CLINICS THEY ARE SO MUCH WORSE THEN CLINICS HERE!!
  • This is in regards to the Fierro Clinic in Palomas, MX. Beware, the good Dr. Fierro has much more competition from other very good dentists in the town like Dr. Lam and others, therefore he is not backing up the work done in his clinic and not willing to "make good" on bad work. He has overextended himself by beginning to build a hotel next door to his clinic and therefore the clinic's practice is compromised! I will not go into any details because I believe that the clinic has some very good doctors, specially the specialists, and the clinic still has a chance to live up to its reputation if Dr. Fierro maintains the standards that people coming from the U.S. side expect.
  • Dr. Carolina Borjon AKA Dr. Borjon Acevedo Carolina did a hack job on my teeth. I would never recommend anyone to ever visit her or any other practicing Dentist in Mexico. The price quoted to me over the phone was much lower than what it was at the time of payment. I went in to receive 3 crowns and I ended up with 3 large boulders in my mouth. The pain is intolerable and I am out 600$, now I have to pay another 2100$ here in California just to repair the mistakes she made. So much for a guarantee, she will not even return my phone calls. I just came back from a local dentist office and he was horrified to see the work that was done on me, he compared it to a mad doctors science experiment. PLEASE DON"T EVER VISIT ALGODONES MEXICO FOR DENTAL CARE< & JUST TO BE SAFE FOR NOT ANY TYPE OF HEALTH CARE. Please spread the word so that no one else will make the same mistake as I did, many elderly were at her office and I hope that she did not take them for a ride like she did me.
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Mexico

What is the climate of Mexico?

Located atop three tectonic plates (North American, Pacific and Cocos Plates), Mexico is one of the most geologically active regions of Earth. This has resulted in a varied topography, which includes the three Sierra Madre mountain ranges, the Mexican Altiplano and the flat lands around the Yucatan Peninsula. Also, The Tropic of Cancer (23° 26' 22'' N) effectively divides the country into northern temperate and southern subtropical zones.

Due to its topography and extensive territory (1,972,550 square kilometers or 761,606 square miles, ranked 14th largest worldwide) Mexico has one of the world's most diverse climates:

Arid or semiarid conditions are encountered in the Baja California Peninsula, the northwestern state of Sonora, the northern Altiplano, and also significant portions of the southern Altiplano. Rainfall in these regions averages between 300 and 600 millimeters (12-24 inches) per year, and temperature variations are pronounced, between 5°C (41°F) on winter up to 42°C (107°F) on summer months.

Low-lying areas along the Gulf of Mexico and Yucatan Peninsula receive in excess of 1,000 millimeters (40 inches) of rainfall in an average year, with the wettest region being the southeastern state of Tabasco, which typically receives approximately 2,000 millimeters (80 inches) of rainfall on an annual basis. These lands are mostly tropical savanna, with fairly constant temperatures averaging 24°C (75°F) and 28°C (83°F).

Towns and cities on the Mexican Altiplano, as well as those found along the Sierra Madre mountain ranges bellow the 1,000 meter mark (3,300 feet) have relatively constant, pleasant temperatures throughout the year between 16°C (61°F) and 20°C (68°F); the most common climate is subtropical highland. On the other hand, more northerly locations experience sizable seasonal variations. Above 2,000 meters (6,600 feet), temperatures drop as low as an average yearly range between 8°C (47°F) and 12°C (54°F). Parts of the northern Altiplano and high peaks in the Sierra Madre Occidental and the Sierra Madre Oriental occasionally receive significant snowfalls.

Due to the diversity of temperatures Mexico is composed by a wide variety of biomes and land uses:

  • Scrub forests and deserts: 29% - same size of Spain and Lithuania, or California and Illinois put together.
  • Forests of many kinds, including boreal, temperate and subtropical highland forests: 17% - roughly the size of Finland or New Mexico.
  • Tropical rainforest or 'jungle': 17%
  • Man-made pastures: 12% - roughly the size of Romania or slightly larger than Minnesota.
  • Naturally occurring pastures: 4% - roughly the size of the Czech Republic or slightly smaller than South Carolina.
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Geography
Mexico
Landforms

What are two peninsulas found in Mexico?

There are two important peninsulas in Mexico:

The Baja California Peninsula, located on northwestern Mexico, is a long but slim peninsula stretching along 1,250 Kilometers (775 miles) from the San Diego-Tijuana border down to the seaside resort of Cabo San Lucas, and is separated from mainland Mexico by the Gulf of California (also known as Sea of Cortes). It has an arid climate (Köppen BWh: Warm, Dry) as most of the peninsula falls within the Sonoran Desert limits, but has occasional fertile valleys on which grape and citric fruits are grown, such as the Valle de Guadalupe, one of the largest wine countries in Mexico. There are two federal states along this peninsula: Baja California (capital Mexicali) and Baja California Sur (capital La Paz). The most important cities include Tijuana (1,840,710), Mexicali (1,102,342), Ensenada (522,768), Los Cabos (305,983) and La Paz (290,286).

The Yucatan Peninsula, located on southeastern Mexico, is a triangular peninsula that separates the Gulf of Mexico from the Caribbean Sea. With a tropical savanna climate (Köppen Aw), it is mostly a flat land composed of limestone. Due to this nature, there are almost no surface rivers in the peninsula and most water comes from holes in the ground known as cenotes. It is a place known for being home of the ancient Mayan civilization, with beautiful remains of cities such as Chichen Itza and Tulum; however many of these ruins are covered by the thick vegetation that characterizes the region. It is also believed that the Chicxulub crater, covering almost half of the peninsula, is the site of the crater impact that killed the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago. There are three federal states on this peninsula: Campeche (capital: Campeche), Yucatan (capital Merida) and Quintana Roo (capital Chetumal). Some of the most important cities include Campeche (220,389), Merida (777,615) and Cancun (628,306).

Note: all population figures were taken from the 2010 census.

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Religion & Spirituality
Mexico
Mexican Culture

What religions are practiced in Mexico?

Mexico is a secular country, having no official religion. However, it is Roman Catholic in its majority: Christmas is a national holiday and during Easter most people leave for vacations. Other Catholic religious days such as January 6 (Epiphany) or December 12 (Our Lady of Guadalupe, saint patron of Mexico) are observed by many people.

Following are some estimates for religion practices in Mexico:

  • Roman Catholic: 88% (98.6 million)
  • Pentecostal and Neopentecostal (Protestant): 1.62% (1.8 million)
  • Other Protestant: 2.87% (3.2 million)
  • Jehovah's Witnesses: 1.25 % (2.2 million attendance at just one meeting in 2011)
  • "Historical" Protestants: 0.71% (0.8 million)
  • Seventh-day Adventists: 0.58% (0.6 million)
  • Latter-day Saints Mormons: 0.25% (0.3 million)
  • Jewish: 0.05% (56,000)
  • Other religions (including Islam and Buddhism): 0.31% (0.3 million)
  • Unspecified: 0.85% (0.9 million)
  • Nonreligious: 3.53% (3.95 million)

Note: Because of rounding, percentages may not add up to 100% (or 112 million, the population of Mexico).

Muslims in Mexico:

Islam religion arrived in Mexico with either Lebanese or Syrian immigrants and some other Middle Easterners like Egyptians, Iranians, and Turks. According to the 2010 census conducted by the National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI) there were 3,760 Muslims in the country (that means less than 1% of total Mexico population).

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Geography
California
Mexico
Bodies of Water

What body of water separates the Baja California Peninsula from mainland Mexico?

The Gulf of California, also known as Sea of Cortes or Mar de Cortez (as known in Mexico), is the body of water that separates Baja California Peninsula from the Mexican mainland. It has a coastline of about 4,000 Kilometers (2,500 miles) and has an approximate area of 160,000 square Kilometers (62,000 sq mi). There are many rivers that flow into the sea, including the Colorado, Sinaloa and Yaqui rivers. Some coastal cities around the sea include La Paz (189,176), Los Cabos (164,162) or Guaymas (134,153). The region is also known to be rich in biodiversity, and an important commercial fishery, where many shrimp and sardine fleets from the city of Mazatlan exploit the local species.

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Mexico

What are Mexico's natural resources?

Located atop three tectonic plates (North American, Pacific and Cocos Plates), Mexico is one of the most geologically active regions of Earth. This has resulted in a varied topography, which includes the three Sierra Madre mountain ranges, the Mexican Altiplano (or Central Mexican Plateau) and the flat lands of the Yucatan Peninsula. Also, The Tropic of Cancer (23° 26' 22'' N) effectively divides the country into northern temperate and southern subtropical zones. Due to the combination of its climate, topography and extensive territory (1,972,550 square kilometers or 761,606 square miles, ranked 14th largest worldwide) Mexico is rich in natural resources:

Minerals: The mining sector was dominated by hydrocarbons, with some of the world's largest deposits of petroleum (17th) and natural gas (18th). Mexico is also ranked in the top 5 producers of silver (13% of world production), bismuth (20% of the world's total), celestite (7% of world output) and fluorspar (18% of world output); sixth in molybdenum; among the top 10 in barite, bentonite, arsenic, diatomite, graphite, cadmium, gypsum, mine lead, manganese ore, salt, sulfur, and mine zinc; and in the top 15 in mine copper, cement, gold, and crude steel (second largest producer in Latin America).

Fishing: With 9,330 kilometers (5,798 miles) of coast along the Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, fishery is very extensive in Mexico with a total catch of 1.02 million tonnes for 2007, accounting for 1.4% of the world's production and ranking at the 17th position.

Agriculture: This economic activity is another important area. Main crops include corn (ranked 4th worldwide), sorghum (4th), and beans (5th). Mexico is also a major producer and exporter of fruits, vegetables and other agricultural products, being among the top 10 producers of avocado, cacao, coffee, lemon, mango, orange, tomato, sugarcane, honey and banana. Mexico also has the climatic conditions which allow the production and export of cattle, pigs, goats and sheep.

Forestry: 39% of the Mexican territory is composed of forests and woodland. This includes scrub, oak and pine forests, low jungles and tall deciduous forests, combined with mangroves, marshes, and savannas. These forests are commonly used for providing timber - however wood production costs are 35-40% higher due to topography - as well as ecological and wildlife reserves and untapped pharmaceutical stores due to Mexico being a megadiverse country (see related questions).

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Oral Health and Dental Care
Mexico
Dentists

What is the cost of dental implants in Mexico?

Dental care abroad

If you go abroad for dental care:

-- Check with the appropriate government agency in the destination country about its national dentistry guidelines.

-- Find out what recourse is available if something goes wrong.

-- At the dental office, look for infection-control procedures, including instrument sterilization and use of protective gloves, mask and eyewear.

-- A traveler's guide to dental care is available through the Organization for Safety and Asepsis Procedures at www.osap.org.

Source: American Dental Association.

Why is dental cheaper in Mexico? - lower operating costs, dentists are not required have malpractice insurance, dentists are less advanced and use less expensive technology and infection control procedures.

Dental treatment performed abroad although less expensive, also carries an increased number of associated complications and risks.

Cost of dental implants in Mexico

Dental implants Mexico are today's best alternative to natural teeth. They can be your doorway to renewed self-confidence and peace of mind.

An implant is, essentially, a sophisticated titanium screw which is placed into the jaw bone to replace the root of a lost natural tooth. The implant fuses with the jawline to form a secure foundation for tooth replacement. The end result... replacement teeth that look, feel and function just like natural teeth. The embarrassment , irritation and self-consciousness often experienced by people who have missing teeth, those who wear dentures or who have suffered through older methods of tooth replacement are overcome with the confidence of permanently anchored dental implants.

Dental implants are now recognized as routine treatment for a full range of problems from replacing a single tooth, to full oral rehabilitation, or simply for reliable denture retention.

The fees that I see are only $100-$300 more in McAllen, Brownsville, or Harlingen for an oral surgeon to place the implant. The cost of the crown or denture on top of it is only slightly higher, too. What you must realize is the post-op care and guarantee that goes along with the cheaper price. What if you get a bleeding problem after the surgery? What if your are left permanently numb in your chin after the surgery? What if you get a serious, life-threatening infection in your neck and chest after the implant is placed? What if the implant fails after 2 or 3 months? Would you rather have a US trained dentist, or Mexico trained? What if you get Hepatitis, TB, or AIDS from the procedure? I am a retired dental assistant from south Texas and I have seen it all. Be Careful!

Dental care abroad

If you go abroad for dental care:

-- Check with the appropriate government agency in the destination country about its national dentistry guidelines.

-- Find out what recourse is available if something goes wrong.

-- At the dental office, look for infection-control procedures, including instrument sterilization and use of protective gloves, mask and eyewear.

Source: American Dental Association.

Why is dental cheaper in Mexico? - lower operating costs, dentists are not required have malpractice insurance, dentists are less advanced and use less expensive technology and infection control procedures.

Dental treatment performed abroad although less expensive, also carries an increased number of associated complications and risks.

Travel, Dental Care and Dental Tourism

There is a growing phenomena called "Dental Tourism" in which people travel to a destination that offers less expensive dental care. The decision to visit another country for dental care should go beyond simply comparing prices or even evaluating the dentists' expertise. Countries differ in their standards for infection control and safety. The use of fresh gloves, sterile instruments and safe water are not standard practice in all countries. Without these precautions, patients could be infected with diseases such as hepatitis B.

Before considering such trips, it is important to be prepared by using information such as that contained in OSAP's Traveler's Guide.

What can anxious patients can do to prepare themselves for dental treatment?

  • If one has had a negative dental experience in the past, especially in the distant past, be aware much has changed in the dentistry in a short time. The dentists are using more modern equipment, better materials and up to date methods to insure better comfort.
  • Inform them of your fears. Don't expect them to know your fears by mental telepathy. Most dentists try to be kind, caring and gentle, but I assure you they will try even harder if they are aware of your fears.
  • Patients should never self medicate prior to dental treatment without informing their dentist. It could pose a danger if the dentist administers anesthesia or other medications.
  • Think positively! Once a patient convinces themselves that treatments is necessary, and the dental problem will only worsen if gone untreated and may required more difficult procedures whish could cost more.
  • The patients must remember that the dentist is their partner in achieving good oral health. Never consider your dentist an adversary, but rather a friend.

Visiting the dentist could care your finances.

The people that have an extensive treatment plan are usually the ones that haven't visited a dentist in years.

For some one that needs more difficult procedures visited their dentist for regular check ups and cleanings, could care their finances, most dental problems can be quite inexpensive if diagnosed early.

What's a cavity and how to prevent them

A cavity develops when a tooth decays or break down. A cavity is a hole that can grow bigger and deeper over time. Cavities are also called dental caries, and if you have a cavity. Its important to be repaired.

If you don't go to the dentist the acids can continue to make they way through the enamel, and the inside parts of your tooth can begin to decay.

Though cavities can be repaired, try to avoid them by taking care of your teeth, here's how:

  • Brush your teeth with fluoride toothpaste after each time you eat or at least twice a day. Bedtime is an important time to brush
  • Brush up and down in a circular motion
  • Gently brush your gums as well to keep them healthy
  • Floss your teeth once a day fore more plaque and food that's stuck between your teeth.
  • Limit sweets and sugary drinks like a soda
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History of the United States
War and Military History
Mexico
Mexican-American War

What lands did the US acquire from Mexico after the Mexican War?

The whole states of California, Nevada, Utah and Texas, as well as parts of Arizona, New Mexico, Wyoming, Colorado, Oklahomaand Kansas.

The original US-Mexico border was defined by the Sabine River north from the Gulf of Mexico to the 32nd parallel north (32°N), then due north to the Red River, west along the Red River to the 100th meridian west (100°W), due north to the Arkansas River, west to its headwaters, north to the 42nd parallel north (42°N), and finally west along that parallel to the Pacific Ocean.

Texas was lost during the Texas Revolution (1835-1836). Territory of Texas at the time included present-day Texas, as well as those parts of Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado and Wyoming described above.

During the Mexican-American War (1846-1848) Mexico lost all the remaining territories, including present-day California, Nevada, Utah and the rest of Colorado as well as most of northern New Mexico and Arizona. Also at the end of the war Mexico was forced to cease any attempt on reclaiming Texas. This is also known as the Mexican Cession (1848).

During the Gadsden Purchase (1853), Mexico sold parts of southern Arizona and New Mexico to the United States. This was the only peaceful purchase of land made from Mexico.

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Mexico
Importing and Exporting

What are Mexico's exports?

Mexico is the tenth largest economy in the world, with a Gross Domestic Product of US$1.85 trillion (2013). It is also the eleventh in terms of population with more than 120 million people for 2013, thus allowing Mexican exports to be not only raw materials such as oil or silver, but also manufactured goods and even high-technology products, including assembled aircraft, pharmaceuticals, communications equipment, and computer and office machinery.

Mexico is also one of the countries with most trade agreements in the world, having 12 free trade agreements with over 40 countries including North and Central America, the European Free Trade Area and Japan, putting more than 90% of its trade under free trade agreements.

Following are some statistics related to Mexican balance of trade:

  • Exports: USD 370.9 billion (world's rank: 16th).
  • Major exports: Manufactured goods, electronics, oil and oil products, aircraft, silver, computers and servers, fruits, meats, consumer electronics, processed foods, vegetables, ships, coffee, LCD screens, electricity, biotechnology, cotton, rolling stock, automotive and aircraft engines, cellular phones, metals, industrial equipment, granite and marble, lithium batteries.
  • Top export partners: United States (78.2%), Spain (2.8%), Canada (2.7%), China (1.7%), Germany (1.5%), Colombia (1.3%), Brazil (1.0%), Netherlands (0.8%), Chile (0.6%), Japan (0.5%).
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Mexico
Mexican Food

What kinds of food are found and eaten in Mexico?

Due to globalization, cuisine from many countries can be found in larger cities of Mexico, including Chinese, Japanese, French and especially Italian food. The popularity of pizza and sushi have increased greatly during the past few years. American fast food chains like KFC, McDonald's and Burger King have also gained in popularity.

However, Mexico is a country with a rather large cuisine history: each state and region within Mexico has a traditional food for which huge encyclopedias can be found. In fact, traditional Mexican cuisine has been declared an intangible cultural heritage of humanity by UNESCO since 2010; a recognition not even French cuisine has ever achieved. Following are some examples from each region or state within Mexico:

  • Nuevo Leon: Large-sized corn tortillas called sobaqueras (more than 25 inches in diameter) to eat beef meat, such as the arrachera. Also, much of the Tex-Mex food originated from Nuevo Leon, such as fajitas and burritos.
  • Tamaulipas: Northern coastal state home of the carne a la tampiqueña: large grilled meat steaks accompanied by a portion of guacamole, black beans and rice.
  • Puebla: Origin of mole poblano, which can be defined as a very thick, homogeneous sauce with complex flavors; it usually includes several varieties of chili peppers, tomatoes, almonds, nuts, raisins, sesame seeds, cloves, cinnamon, parsley, pepper, onion and garlic. The most common way to consume mole is with chicken, though any kind of meat may be served with mole sauce. Another preparation, common in restaurants, is enchiladas, or corn tortillas wrapped around chicken, cheese or some other simple filling, baked in mole sauce.
  • Yucatan: Where the cochinita pibil was invented. A preparation of traditional cochinita involves marinating pork meat in strongly acidic citrus juice, coloring it with annatto seed, and roasting the meat while it is wrapped in a banana leaf. Another dish from this region is the sopa de lima, which is a chicken soup with a hint of citrus from lime, accompanied with chicken, tomato, bell pepper, cilantro, and some tortilla chips.
  • South-Central Mexico: It is the region where pozole (from Nahuatl pozolli) was first created by the Aztec people. When Spain conquered Mexico, some ingredients like the meat changed, but it has kept most of the original recipe: a beef, pork or chicken soup with corn, avocado and some spices. Also tacos de guisado (corn or wheat tortillas wrapped around a meat stew) are from this region. It is worth noting tacos served on food chains outside of Mexico have nothing to do with the original dish. The torta or Mexican sandwich is a kind of baguette known as bolillo, which has several fillings, including ham, chicken, sausages, avocado, tomato slices, mayonnaise, onion and cheese.
  • Jalisco: The regional dish most known for this state is the birria, which is a meat stew, made of mutton, goat or lamb, and it is often served with corn tortillas, onion, cilantro and lime. However, the most popular dish is the torta ahogada, made with a crispy bolillo known as birote, filled with chopped, fried pork; it is then submerged in a sauce made of chili pepper and/or tomato.

There are also many garnish or entree foods from Mexico, including guacamole, nopal salad and hot sauces like pico de gallo (tomato, onion, cilantro), green sauce (made from green tomato) and red sauce (made from chile pepper). Also, there are very unusual foods, even for Mexicans: huitlacoche (corn smut) is a delicacy in Mexico, and is even being preserved and sold for a higher price than corn; escamoles, which are ant larvae, are eaten with corn tortillas. Chapulines(grasshoppers), are toasted, salted and eaten as a snack on some coastal states like Oaxaca.

Regarding desserts, Mexico has a huge variety of them: cacao has been cultivated in Mexico for at least three millennia. When mixed with sugar, chocolate (Aztec: xocolatl, Maya: chocolha) is elaborated. Crystallized fruit is also common, and many traditional Mexican candies such as cocadas (made of milk and coconut), mueganos (popcorn with caramelized sugar) and alegrias (candies made of amaranth seed and bee honey) are popular.

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History of the United States
War and Military History
Mexico

Why did Texas want its independence?

Texians wanted to keep Texas as a slave state.

First on the background of the war:

When Mexico won its independence from Spain in 1821, all the territories it possessed included Mexico, most of Central America (Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica) as well as today's US States of California, Nevada, Utah, Texas, Arizona, New Mexico and parts of Colorado, Oklahoma, Kansas and Wyoming.

Due to the extremely low population for such territorial extension (estimated at 12 million during 1824), Mexico relaxed its immigration policies, thus allowing American settlers to help populate the northern territories. The conditions to settle were simple: 1) to pledge allegiance to Mexico and 2) observe the Mexican Law and customs. In 1830, these laws incorporated the banning of slavery. Due to the fact that many American settlers in such territories were slave owners, they looked for any pretext to break up with Mexico.

Later, Mexican President Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna took measures to transform Mexico from a Federal Republic to a Centralist Republic. This move prompted Yucatan and Texas to secede from Mexico. Santa Anna's government invaded both republics; while Yucatan was regained, Texas was lost. The Texas Revolution ended after the Battle of San Jacinto, but Mexico did not officially recognize the independence of Texas until after the Mexican-American War (1846-1848) as part of the Guadalupe-Hidalgo treaty.

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Economics
Mexico

What is Mexico's economy?

Mexico is the eleventh largest economy in the world, with a Gross Domestic Product of $2.41 trillion (2017). It is also considered an emerging market, with a GDP per capita of $19,500 (2017), on par to medium-income economies such as Iran ($20,000) or Lebanon ($19,500). Its GDP composition includes 64% towards services, 31.6% to industry and only 3.9% to agriculture.

Unlike other emerging markets, whose economies run on commodities, Mexico has a diversified, manufacturing and export-oriented economy, being an active rival of China for access to the North American, Eastern Asian and European markets. Its exports accounted for $407 billion, and its imports for $417 billion during 2016, setting Mexico as the 12th/13th largest exporter/importer in the world, respectively. The largest Mexican exports include crude machinery and equipment (37%), and motor vehicles and parts (25%), while the largest imports also include machinery and machine parts (39%), as well as motor vehicles and parts (10%).

Some of the largest challenges to Mexico's economic potential include market inefficiencies, corruption and security issues; especially those found in Mexico's southern region which still lags in terms of economic advancement and governance. For example, the state of Oaxaca has the health, education and income of the Sub-Saharan country of Botswana, while Mexico City, capital of the country, has the quality of life of Quebec in Canada, or Aragon in Spain (GDP Per capita: $34,223).

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Agriculture
Mexico

What are Mexico's top agricultural products?

Mexico is widely believed to be an arid country, but this is not the case. It has a vast territory, where almost 12% is used for agriculture: 232,761 square kilometers (89,869 sq mi), which are almost the size of the whole United Kingdom, are used to grow food and cash crops. Then another 16% of Mexico's territory (315,608 square Km/121,857 square miles, or an area the same size of Poland or New Mexico) is considered as man-made or natural pastures, where cattle of several species is raised, including bovine, caprine, porcine and poultry.

Main crops include corn (ranked 4th worldwide), sorghum (4th), and beans (5th). Most cereal crops are for internal consumption, but demand is so extensive that corn and wheat are imported from the United States.

Mexico is also a major producer and exporter of fruits, vegetables and other agricultural products, being among the top 10 producers of avocado, cacao, coffee, lemon, mango, orange, tomato, sugarcane, honey and banana. Most fruit grown in Mexico is exported to the United States, Europe and Japan markets during the winter season.

Following are the most important agricultural products from Mexico, along its rank worldwide.

Cereals

  • corn (4th largest producer)
  • wheat (18th)
  • soybeans (7th)
  • rice (52nd)
Legumes and vegetables
  • beans (5th)
  • tomatoes (10th)
Cash Crops
  • cotton (13th)
  • coffee (8th)
Fruits
  • coconut oil (5th)
  • apples (13th)
  • avocados (1st)
  • grapefruit (3rd)
  • lemon (1st)
  • limes (1st)
  • oranges (5th)
  • peaches & nectarines (6th)
  • pears (11th)
  • strawberries (6th)
  • grapes (10th)
Beef, poultry and dairy products
  • beef (8th)
  • poultry (5th)
  • butter (6th)
  • cheese (8th)
  • milk powder (6th)
  • milk fluid (8th)

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Holidays and Traditions
Languages and Cultures
Mexico

What are important holidays in Mexico?

Mexican holidays include:

Observed by law:

  • January 1: Año nuevo / New year's day
  • February 5: Dia de la constitucion / Constitution Day
  • March 21: Nacimiento de Benito Juarez / Benito Juarez's birthday - honors the most beloved president among Mexicans.
  • May 1: Dia del Trabajo / Workers' day
  • September 16: Independence day's military parade (Mexican Independence was declared on September 16, 1810 and the celebration usually begins on the late hours of September 15 at the Grito de independencia).
  • November 20: Dia de la Revolucion / Mexican Revolution Day - commemorates the Mexican Revolution of 1910.
  • December 25: Navidad / Christmas

Not observed / Religious holidays:

Note: Many companies and businesses grant these as paid-absence holidays, but it depends on an individual basis.

  • January 6: Dia de los Santos Reyes / Epiphany celebration - is the day when Mexicans exchange Christmas presents.
  • February: Carnaval / Lent - equivalent to the Mardi Gras in the United States, it is celebrated with parades, floats and dancing in the streets.
  • February 2: Dia de la Candelaria / Candle-mas
  • February 24: Dia de la bandera / Flag Day
  • March 18: Expropiacion Petrolera / Expropriation of the oil industry in 1938.
  • April: Semana Santa / Easter
  • April 30: Dia del Niño / Children's day - Due to the celebration of the Revolution on November 20, in Mexico Children's Day is celebrated on April 30.
  • May 5: Cinco de Mayo / Fifth of May - honors the Mexican victory over the French army at the Battle of Puebla in 1862.
  • May 10: Dia de las madres / Mother's day - Due to the importance of the mother in Mexican culture, Mother's Day is an especially significant holiday.
  • June 1: Dia de la marina / Navy day
  • September 13: Niños Heroes de Chapultepec / Child Heroes of Chapultepec - Honors the martyr cadets of the Battle of Chapultepec during the Mexican-American War of 1847.
  • October 12: Dia de la raza / Columbus Day
  • November 1 & 2: Dia de los muertos / Day of the dead - Mexican holiday that merges Pre-Columbian beliefs and modern Catholicism.
  • December 12: Dia de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe / Day of the Virgin of Guadalupe - honoring Mexico's patron saint.
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Mexico
Population

What is the population of Mexico?

Current population for Mexico is 130,745,337 (mid-2017 est.), ranking 10th worldwide.

Following are the figures of population for Mexico, according to past census and estimates 1950-2050:

1950: 25,791,017 (1950 Census)
1955: 32,930,000
1960: 34,923,129 (1960 Census)
1965: 45,142,000
1970: 48,225,238 (1970 Census)
1975: 60,678,000
1980: 68,347,000
1985: 76,767,000
1990: 81,249,645 (1990 Census)
1995: 91,158,290 (1995 Census)
2000: 97,483,412 (2000 Census)
2005: 103,263,388 (2005 Census)
2010: 112,336,538 (2010 Census)
2015: 124,612,397 2017: 130,745,337

2020: 132,707,645

2025: 140,521,426

2030: 147,844,027

2035: 155,825,793

2040: 160,595,059

2045: 165,927,621

2050: 170,546,390

2055: 174,421,346

Future population estimates (2020+) is taken from the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (CEPAL)


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Geography
Mexico

What is the area of Mexico?

The area of Mexico is 1,958,200 square kilometers or 761,606 square miles.

Mexico is the 15th largest country in the world. It is also roughly three times the size of Texas, slightly larger than Alaska, or one fifth of the total United States land size. On a more "international scale", Mexico is roughly the same size of Spain, the United Kingdom, France, Italy and Germany put together.

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Mexico
Bodies of Water
Oceans and Seas

What bodies of water border Mexico?

Mexico has 11,122 kilometers (6,911 miles) of coastline, facing the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans (via the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea):


On its western coasts, Mexico is bordered by the Pacific Ocean. Along its northwestern coast is the Gulf of California or Mar de Cortes, which is defined by mainland Mexico and the Baja California peninsula.


On its eastern shores, Mexico faces the Gulf of Mexicobetween the US-Mexico border and the northeastern tip of the Yucatan Peninsula, close to the city of Cancun. Between Cancun and the Mexico-Belize border, the Yucatan Peninsula has coasts in the Caribbean Sea.

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Mexico
Manufacturing
Industries and Professions

What are Mexico's largest industries and the products they manufacture?

In terms of importance, Mexican industries include:

  1. Construction: 22.4%
  2. Mining: 19.8%
  3. Food and Beverages: 15.0%
  4. Chemical products including oil, coal, plastics and non-minerals: 11.6%
  5. Transport Equipment (aerospace, motor vehicles): 9.4%
  6. Utilities (electricity, gas and water): 5.3%
  7. Metallic products (iron, steel): 4.7%
  8. Machinery and equipment: 2.1%
  9. Computer Equipment: 2.0%
  10. Clothing and Textiles: 1.9%
  11. Electric engines and equipment: 1.5%
  12. Other manufacturing industries: 1.3%
  13. Paper: 1.1%
  14. Furniture: 0.6%
  15. Wood and timber (non-forestry): 0.5%
  16. Leather products: 0.4%
  17. Printing and related industries: 0.4%

All these activities add up to 34.1% of Mexico's Gross Domestic Product - the percentage dedicated to industrial activities - or US$759.4 billion out of a total GDP of US$2,227 billion for 2015 (PPP).

Among the many types of industry and the products they manufacture, Mexico includes the following, with some representative companies:

  • Food and Beverages - Grupo Bimbo, Sigma Alimentos, Coca-Cola FEMSA.
  • Construction - Cemex, Empresas ICA, CICSA
  • Aerospace - Bombardier Aerospace Mexico, Honeywell Aerospace.
  • Electronics - LG Electronics Mexico, Flextronics Manufacturing, GE Mexico.
  • Tobacco - British American Tobacco Mexico, Philip Morris de Mexico.
  • Chemicals - Pemex Gas y Petroquimica Basica, Cemex, Alpek.
  • Iron and Steel - Altos Hornos de Mexico, Grupo Acerero del Norte.
  • Petroleum - Petroleos Mexicanos.
  • Biotechnology - Bayer de Mexico, Genomma Lab Internacional.
  • Mining - Grupo Mexico, Hylsamex, Industrias Peñoles.
  • Shipbuilding - Bender Shipbuilding, Servicios Navales e Industriales.
  • Electricity - Comision Federal de Electricidad.
  • Defense Products - Navistar International, Textron, Airbus Helicopters.
  • Textiles - Grupo Kaltex, Grupo Industrial Cierres Ideal, Almidones Mexicanos.
  • Clothing - Controladora Milano, Nike de Mexico, Yale de Mexico.
  • Motor vehicles and parts - General Motors de Mexico, Chrysler de Mexico.
  • Computers - HP de Mexico, Inditex Mexico, Toshiba Mexico.
  • Consumer Durables - Industrias Marino, Grupo Mabe.

Note: some of these industries are subsidiaries of foreign companies (for example, Hewlett-Packard Mexico) but these assemble or manufacture products for such brands in Mexican soil. These are commonly known as maquiladoras.

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