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# How emf is calculated?

EMF is basically a term for voltage. Two rules that are often used in calculations are: 1) Kirchoff's Voltage Law, which states that the total voltage around a closed loop… is zero. Alternately, the voltage provided by a battery (for example) is equal to the voltage drop accross one or more connected resistances. 2) Ohm's Law: V=IR (voltage = current x resistance). For more details, and example, I would suggest consulting a high school (or first-semester college) book about electricity. (MORE)