In a Power generating plant, steam is produced in a boiler. The boiler is effectively a huge kettle. Generally a boiler has the following subassembly layout: high pressure water flow (>200 bar g, >250 DEG C) enters the economizer inlet headers and then thru the economizer heat exchange pipes to arive in the economizer outlet headers. Main role of the economizer is heat up the water. After the economizer the water runs thru the headers and heat exchange pipes of the evaporator. Here the water vaporizes in to steam. Steam then runs through the headers and heat exchange pipes of generally 2 - 3 superheaters. Between superheaters and after the last superheater is a water injection point to control the temperature of the superheated steam.
This layout would be in case of drum boiler, used in small power plants (electric power output not more then 100MW). Now the drum is large barell on top of the boiler where water and steam are separated. In case of large MW rated power plants the boiled does not have a drum. I must also say that when a boiler has a drum it is called a multiple pass boiler. That means that water is circulated through the vaporizer in 2,3 or more cycles until is fully transformed in to steam. In case of large MW rated power plants water passes through the vaporizer only one time and is fully transformed in to steam. This type of boilers are called " once through" boilers or "Benson" type after the name of the inventor.
Now to have a view about the actual layout of the heat exchange surfaces here are some facts :
- furnace, wih burners, is place where the flame or fire is located. Here temperature is very high ( >900DEG C). Heat surfaces are superheaters. Main heat exchange is done through radiation. Professionals calls this heat exchanger as radiation superheater.
- convective superheaters. Called like this because heat exchange is particularly by convective means. The flue gases are cooler here and this is an array of pipes that the flue gases washes them. As I mentioned earlier it can be 2-3 convective superheaters.
Steam that comes out from superheaters is run through pipes to the turbine inlet valves. In large MW rated power plants, steam that comes out from the high pressure turbine body is reheated in the boiler. Reheaters are also heat exchange surfaces that are generally intercalated with the superheaters. After reheating the steam is run to the intermediate pressure turbine body.
To continue with the heat exchange surfaces layout in boiler, flue gases after washing the superheaters and/or reheaters will wash the evaporator and then the economizer before actually exiting the boiler body. To recover as much heat from the flue gases, after exiting the boiler, flue gases are run through a rotarry or tube heat exchanger. Here, air that is fed to the burners is heted. This way remanent heat of the flue gases is put back in to boiler making it more efficient.
So to summarize a boiler is made of ( in order of flue gases pass) :
- furnace (radiation superheater, pipes are run by high pressure steam)
- convective superheaters ( pipes are run by high pressure steam)
- evaporator (pipes are run by a mixture of water and steam)
- economizer ( pipes are run by water )
Unlike a huge kettle, modern boilers use tubes filled with water and steam. Contained within a furnace.
Electric boilers require approximately 3 1/2 kilowatts per boiler horsepower. Fuel oil typically produces approximately 3.5 boiler horsepower per gallon of oil burned*. *This depends on several factors in boiler design, furnace design and fuel heat content.
Absolutely. Typical practice is to operate boilers at less than design pressure to reduce stress on the boiler parts. The boilers last longer than design, often.
Brad Buecker has written: 'Fundamentals of Steam Generation Chemistry' 'Basics of Boiler and Hrsg Design'
The boiler in a hydronic heating system is just a heat source. An electric or gas water heater could be used as well. Proper design and installation are the key attributes.
a designed pressure in a boiler is a little man who lives inside the boiler continually watching animated porn.
the advantage is the design is complicated
D. S Weber has written: 'Modeling and simulation of Hanford K-area boiler-turbine-generator system' -- subject(s): Design and construction, Electric power-plants, Electric generators
the maximum pressure and the capacity in the fire tube boiler are usually depends on the model design and specified by the manufacturers in the manufacturer manual.
J. R. Hendershot has written: 'Design of brushless permanent-magnet machines' -- subject(s): Permanent magnet motors, Brushless Electric motors, Design 'Design of brushless permanent-magnet motors' -- subject(s): Brushless Electric motors, Design, Direct current Electric motors, Electric motors, Electric motors, Brushless, Electric motors, Direct current, Permanent magnet motors
A high pressure steam boiler is boiler in which steam is generated at pressure exceeding 15 psig and operates hot water boiler above 160 psig or 250o F. Application this type usually is used for utility plants, big industrial plants and process application. A high pressure steam boiler can be named as Power Boiler, in which design and construction rule following to rules of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section I - Power Boiler.
They work with clients and design stuff. Also draw sketches of the room.
You will find it in any mechanical engineering heat transfer book
The first generation computer was changed to make improvements in speed, capacity and design.
With the upcoming and advanced technology, everyone looks out for perfection. This is the time when even engineers look out for customized electric motor design, gear design, gearbox design etc for creating something worth great performance. While having a customized electric motor design, gear design, gearbox design etc, one needs to make sure what aspects play vital role in an electric motor design. Over here we will discuss more about the various facets of electric motor design and how the design plays an important part in our electronic products.Electric motors whether it is ac motors or dc motors, both come in different shapes and sizes. For routine utilization standardized electric motors are available so that these can be used for general purposes. Apart from this there are electric motor designs devised especially for specific tasks. In all the cases where electric motor design is required, it always satisfies the dynamic need of the machines on which they are applied without exceeding rated electric motor temperature. It is therefore rightly said that the electric motor design plays a very important part as the first and foremost step in electric motor selection is determining load characteristics i.e. torque and speed against time. Along with these aspects, electric motor design selection must also be a result of mission that you want to accomplish, power availability and cost.In order to initiate the design your electric motor, you can start from a small fractional horse power ac electric motor to a 200 hp ac electric motor. The best part of getting your tailor-made electric motor design is that you have the options to change any of the values from output design data to meet the requirement of your specifications. Also, with the change in any of the values, the remaining values get modified automatically, without causing any change in the output design and performance of the motor.The advantage that user reap from getting contract manufacturing of electric motor design , gear design and gearbox design is that these can be designed as per the requirement of the machine where the machine needs to be installed. Moreover, contract manufacturing of mechanical, electromechanical and electronic products offers you the ease of minimized cost. There are electric motor design contract manufacturing companies assist the clients by offering them a strategic, integrated, manufacturing and life cycle solution for the product.The electric motor designs, gear design and gearbox design etc are developed for the engineers with the motto to get high productivity. The easy to understand designs are designed with complete documentations and include extensive information on machine theory and design. All this and more, getting your mechanical, electromechanical and electronic products designed under your thumb with the design as per your need and budget requirements. Don’t lag behind with the standardized designs that do not suit your needs, go forth and seek for the one that meets your needs and requirements.[video=]
No. The second generation cradle design was introduced first on 1995 SL series. 1994 was the older first generation design.....very different.
That would depend on if the steam is superheated dry steam or not and if superheated dry steam its temperature. It should be possible to google "boiler equations" or "boiler design" to get details.
We have nuclear power plants to generate electric power without the generation of green house gasses. Yes, these complex systems pose risks, but we do our best to design and build them so they operate safely.
The energy efficiency of a typical nuclear power plant varies, depending on its design, but a typical value might be around 33%.
Design video games
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Identify Criteria and Specify ConstraintsIdentify constraints (i.e., budget and time are typical considerations).Draft the Design Brief.