Can the president appropriate money to run his departments without consulting congress?
No- the president does not have the power to appropriate money.
Does the president and congress have tools for holding federal departments and agencies accountable?
According to the constitution, absolutely not. Only congress can declare war which is stated in Article 1, Section 8. Although many presidents do send troops to battle without congress declaring war or even without consulting congress. To answer your question, they aren't suppose to but they do anyways.
What was President Nixon's reason for not consulting with Congress on the bombing of Cambodia in the Vietnam War?
US President Nixon believed it was unnecessary to consult the US Congress on his decision to bomb Cambodia during the Vietnam War. His rational was the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. In that case, President Kennedy did not consult with the Congress on his decisions regarding Cuba and the USSR. Nixon claimed that the Vietnam War was in itself a crisis and as Commander in Chief, he could make major policy changes without consulting with…
It's a form of government check and balances. The legislature is mandated by the constitution to have an oversight on executive departments. Plus, heads of executive departments need to testify before Congress to depend their annual budget. Otherwise, lawmakers will appropriate funding that is less than what the heads wanted for their respective departments.
The cabinet secretaries all head the various departments. It is necessary for these departments to have a manager. It does not seem not absolutely necessary that they be appointed by the President, but that is the way the Constitution sets it up and it works. It makes sense to have all the executive officers report to the President and make him responsible to seeing that they do their jobs right. Congress must approve the appointments.
The president can apoint hisher choice to head each of the executive departments as long as congress each appointment?
That is correct. According to the Constitution, Article II Sec. 2, the President has the power to appoint whoever he wants, but with the "advice and consent" of the Senate (not the whole Congress, only the Senate). So yes, as long as the Congress agrees, the President can appoint whoever he wants. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advice_and_consent
The President can order military strikes without consulting Congress. He needs money for a war of any duration and only Congress can authorize the spending of money. Only Congress can declare war, but if Congress approves money, undeclared wars can last a long time and use hundreds of thousands of troops as in Vietnam. Wars of any kinds can be also be called (military) interventions and peace-keeping operations.
New cabinet departments are established when Congress passes legislation creating the department. For example after the 9-11 attacks at President Bush's urging The Department of Homeland Security was formed. It took the Congress less than a year to conceive, draft, and pass the bill authorizing the department - a remarkable accomplishment given the enormity of the task.
1) Ability to appoint dept heads, congress must vote to approve 2) Create legislation, congress must approve by voting 3) ability to nominate supreme court justice's, Congress must vote on each one 4) President can veto any congressionally passed bill,congress can override his veto 5) President can take military action, congress can refuse to appropriate money. Kapish?
The president gets help from the congress. He also gets help from his cabinet secretaries who head the major departments of the federal government and from the thousands of employees who work for these departments. He gets general help from his White House staff. He gets military advice from the generals and admirals who make up the chiefs of staff.
Only Congress can pass laws, but the President can fail to enforce them and the Supreme Court can nullify them. Only Congress can appropriate money but only the President can spend it and he has considerable leeway on how he spends it. Only the Senate can ratify a treaty, but the President can make agreements with foreign countries and not send them to the Senate.
The president has veto power over bills passed by Congress. The Senate has the power to confirm or reject nominations that the President makes for ambassadors, cabinet member and federal judges. The Senate has to ratify any treaties the President makes by a 2/3 vote before they can take effect. The president can send troops to some foreign country and essentially make war, but only Congress can declare war and appropriate the funding for military…
Article establishes the office of President. Section 2, paragraph 2, (see below) gives Congress the power to espablish the cabinet. Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.