Discuss Rene Descartes' metaphysical dualism as opposed to both monism and pluralism?
Descartes' dualism stated that the mind and body were distinct and occupied different planes of reality. A monism theory of reality believes that there is only one reality, and would state that the mind and body are connected. Pluralism believes that there are many realities, not just two, so the mind and body might be distinct, but there would also be other planes of reality.
The concept of dualism is that immaterial 'mind' is superior over material body. Western dualism = THEORETICAL division of sense reality in man-made 'civilized' society and wilderness, in metaphysical and physical, 'good' and 'evil, 'science' and 'intuition'. Resulting in Priests of Science in universities
The one thing that Descartes couldn't doubt was his thoughts, he thinks there for he is. To be a good philosopher, you need to be skeptical (to ask a lot of questions), Descartes asked questions then doubted them. That brought in dualism. He is considered one of the greatest thinkers of the enlightenment period.
Dualism is economic and social divisions of an economy. The social dualism in India is the coexistence of advanced science, superstitions and the cost system. Technical dualism in India is the Green Revolution in the top 10% of their rural population. Geographical dualism is the labor migration, capital movements and trade.
The "ghost in the machine" is the British philosopher Gilbert Ryle's description of René Descartes' mind-body dualism. The phrase was introduced in Ryle's book The Concept of Mind (1949) to highlight the perceived absurdity of dualist systems like Descartes' where mental activity carries on in parallel to physical action, but where their means of interaction are unknown or, at best, speculative.