How did Switzerland Ireland Spain and Portugal manage to avoid being involved in World War 2?
Spain: just recovering from a dreadful civil war, had no energy or resources for war. Portugal: traditional ally of Britain, didnt want to antagonise Spain and also had no resources for war. Switzerland: a tough nut to , it would have been very difficult to attack, and perhaps suited the s to have it as a bolt hole for money etc. Ireland: favoured the allied cause but historical enmity with England kept them out of the war.