How did the French eventually stop the English Army in the Hundred Years war?
Most of the French nobility, accepted Philip of Valois as King Philip VI, because Edward III was English and unsuitable. He was only fifteen years old, had only just succeeded in England to the throne in very dubious circumstances and had plenty that was to occupy him at home. Edward did visited Philip for Aquitaine and Ponthieu in 1329, but in 1337 Philip confiscated them to punish him for harbouring Philip's cousin and enemy, Robert of Artois. This was really the starting point of the war, in which the English won victories at Crécy in1346, Poitiers in1356 and Agincourt in 1415. The high point of English fortune came when Henry V took control of Paris, Normandy and much of northern France. He then married Charles VI's daughter and forced the French king to accept him as regent of France and successor to the throne. The aggitation coninued
However, both Henry and Charles died in year 1422. The French dauphin made himself king as Charles VII with inspirational support from Joan of Arc. Henry VI was the only English king ever to have been crowned King of France in France, this was at the age of ten in Paris in 143. Gradually the territory that was held across the Channel slipped out of the English monach control. Then, in 1436 the English lost Paris and by 1450 the French went on and recovered Normandy. In 1451 the French overran Aquitaine and took Bordeaux, which had been in English hands for some three hundred years and who ran a thriving wine trade with English. A deputation of citizens then sailed to England around 1452 to beg Henry VI for help. The King decided to send a force some 3,000 strong under John Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, wich arrived in October. The locals welcomed the army who turned the French garrison out.
In that time the English recovered most of western Gascony. However, in July 1453 a French army defeated Talbot at Castillon and Talbot himself, greatly admired by French and English alike, was killed in battle
When it was clear to the Talbots armies that no more help would come from England, Bordeaux surrendered in October. They were left to pay a heavy fine and leave Calais as the last English possession in France. It is this event that marked the accepted end of the war. The Wars of the Roses soon commenced and this was to keep the English occupied for some time both straegically and financially and when an English army next landed in France, in 1475, King Louis XI is said to have bribed it to go home again. The French finally recovered Calais itself in 1558.
A mutual antagonism has lasted ever since between the two countires. England was left to develop parliamentary democracy and an empire as an offshore island, separate from the rest of Europe, though the English kings still officially claimed to be kings of France all the way down to George III.