How do gymnosperms reproduce?

Gymnosperms (meaning "naked seeds") are seed-bearing plants that don't produce flowers, instead they have male and female reproductive organs mostly in the form of cones. Their microsporophylls release pollen into the air to make available to the ovule, in the megasporophylls causing fertilization. Their seeds develop without a protective covering of ovary wall. Conifers (like pines, redwoods, and fir), gingkos, seed ferns, cycadeoids, and cycads are gymnosperms.

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