Gabriel's physical appearance is described in the Hadith (4:54:455): Narrated By Abu Ishaq-Ash-Shaibani: I asked Zir bin Hubaish regarding the Statement of God: "And was at a distance Of but two bow-lengths Or (even) nearer; So did (God) convey The Inspiration to His slave (Gabriel) and then he (Gabriel) Conveyed (that to Muhammad). ([Qur'an 53:9]) On that, Zir said, "Ibn Mas'ud informed us that the Prophet had seen Gabriel having 600 wings."
Gabriel is regarded with the exact same respect by Muslims as all of the Prophets, and upon saying his name or referring to him a Muslim repeats: "upon him be peace". Gabriel's primary tasks are to bring messages from God to His messengers. As in Christianity, Gabriel is said to be the angel that informed Mary (Arabic Maryam) of how she would conceive Jesus (Isa): She placed a screen (to screen herself) from them; then We sent to her Our Ruh [angel Jibrael (Gabriel)], and he appeared before her in the form of a man in all respects. She said: "Verily! I seek refuge with the Most Beneficent (God) from you, if you do fear God." (The angel) said: "I am only a Messenger from your Lord, (to announce) to you the gift of a righteous son." She said: "How can I have a son, when no man has touched me, nor am I unchaste?" He said: "So (it will be), your Lord said: 'That is easy for Me (God): And (We wish) to appoint him as a sign to mankind and a mercy from Us (God), and it is a matter (already) decreed, (by God).' "
(Quran, [Qur'an 19:17])
Muslims believe Gabriel to have accompanied Muhammad in his ascension to the heavens, where Muhammad also is said to have met previous messengers of God, and was informed about the Islamic prayer (Bukhari 1:8:345).
After the Prophet Muhammad (S)'s death many desert nomads and others claimed to be prophets, during this time Abu Bakr (R) went to war with these people to prove them as false. After Abu Bakr (R), Umr (R) took over Persia, and other parts of Asia Minor, after many years Tariq bin Ziyad (R) took over Spain and Islam slowly traveled though Europe.
You can also check out resources for the Ottoman Empire.
What is Islam?: The name of the religion is Islam, which comes from an Arabic root word meaning "peace" and "submission." Islam teaches that one can only find peace in one's life by submitting to Almighty God (Allah) in heart, soul and deed. The same Arabic root word gives us "Salaam alaykum," ("Peace be with you"), the universal Muslim greeting.
Who is a Muslim?: A person who believes in and consciously follows Islam is called a Muslim, also from the same root word. So, the religion is called "Islam," and a person who believes in and follows it is a "Muslim."
- What is the difference between Muslim, Moslem and Islamic?
How Many and Where?: Islam is a major world religion, with over 1 billion followers worldwide (1/5 of the world population). It is considered one of the Abrahamic, monotheistic faiths, along with Judaism and Christianity. Although usually associated with the Arabs of the Middle East, less than 10% of Muslims are in fact Arab. Muslims are found all over the world, of every nation, color and race.
- Muslim population of the world
Who is Allah?: Allah is the proper name for Almighty God, and is often translated merely as "God." Allah has other names that are used to describe His characteristics: the Creator, the Sustainer, the Merciful, the Compassionate, etc.
Muslims believe that since Allah alone is the Creator, it is He alone that deserves our devout love and worship. Islam holds to a strict monotheism. Any worship and prayers directed at saints, prophets, other human beings or nature is considered idolatry.
- More about the nature of God
- "Names" of Allah
What do Muslims believe about God, prophets, the afterlife, etc.?: The basic beliefs of Muslims fall into six main categories, which are known as the "Articles of Faith":
- Faith in the unity of God
- Faith in angels
- Faith in prophets
- Faith in books of revelation
- Faith in an afterlife
- Faith in destiny/divine decree
The "five pillars" of Islam: In Islam, faith and good works go hand-in-hand. A mere verbal declaration of faith is not enough, for belief in Allah makes obedience to Him a duty.
The Muslim concept of worship is very broad. Muslims consider everything they do in life to be an act of worship, if it is done according to Allah's guidance. There are also five formal acts of worship which help strengthen a Muslim's faith and obedience. They are often called the "Five Pillars of Islam."
- Testimony of faith (Kalima)
- Prayer (Salat)
- Almsgiving (Zakat)
- Fasting (Sawm)
- Pilgrimage (Hajj)
Daily life as a Muslim: While often seen as a radical or extreme religion, Muslims consider Islam to be the middle road. Muslims do not live life with complete disregard for God or religious matters, but nor do they neglect the world to devote themselves solely to worship and prayer. Muslims strike a balance by fulfilling the obligations of and enjoying this life, while always mindful of their duties to Allah and to others.
- Morals and manners
- Business ethics
- Modesty in dress and behavior
- Dietary rules
- Care of children and elderly
- Racism and prejudice
- Relations with non-Muslims
Gabriel (or in Arabic, Jibra'el) is the angel with the highest rank of all the angels, and is the closest to God.