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Through the use of chainrings - up front, and sprockets - at the rear with different sizes it's possible to change how much the rear wheel will turn WRT the pedals.

This allows you to trade strength for speed, or the other way around.

Moving the shifter lever moves a derailer which moves the chain from one sprocket to another which makes it either harder or easier to turn the pedals.

And the rider can keep pedalling at a comfortable pace and effort on the flat, up hills and down.

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Q: How does the back gear and front gear work?
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