Best Answer

The small intestine has small tiny projections called "villi". These projections increase the surface area for absorption. The large intestine however lacks these structures.

User Avatar

Wiki User

โˆ™ 2012-01-24 20:19:49
This answer is:
User Avatar
Study guides

Human Anatomy and Physiology

21 cards

What are proteins composed of

At which valve does the aorta connect to the heart

What is combined with enzymes and water to form gastric juices

What assists in maintaining the proper filtration of the kidneys and the development of sexual characteristics during puberty

See all cards
1 Review

Add your answer:

Earn +20 pts
Q: How is small intestine better adapted for absorption than thatof large intestine?
Write your answer...
Still have questions?
magnify glass
Related questions

Which planet's temperature is the closest to Earth's?

It has been recently found that a planet in Andromeda galaxy has temp just equal to thatof earths

Was Dorothy dandridge mixed race?

.The full-lineage of late entertainer, Dorothy Dandridge, was thatof being Mixed-Race via the fact that she was from a family thathad been of a continually Multi-Generational Multiracially-Mixed(MGM-Mixed) ancestry throughout it's multiple geneations.Also, both of her parents were members of the largelyMultiracial Ethnic group that is currently referredto by the term of African-American (AA)..

Will Pluto float in Earth'ss waters?

Let's assume you're referring to the [dwarf] planet Pluto.The aggregate density of that body is 2.03 grams per cm3 , or 2.03 timesthe density of water.Ignoring the practical difficulty of setting a body that large down into one ofearth's oceans, we can say with assurance that even if it could be managedmechanically, Pluto would not float in water, because its density exceeds thatof water.

How much space does the loggerhead sea turtle need to be able to live happily?

Animals life like a somebanimals live in forest and some animals is live in house. Today i read a in school lesson1 and lesson2 i read some written and i know thatof a Primary source and secondary source: and I have a homework. For a next Thursday. by shelina rai My dear friend You read your salf maya cha sabijan le All of my friend's good read your salf ok ani mero bata pina byee my i see any time ok from shelina.

Is it illegal to display a foreign flag with a US flag if the foreign flag is larger?

No, it is just in bad taste. What is illegal is to display two national flags on the same pole, one below the other. They must be on separate poles at the same height. If on flag is the US flag, then the US flag must be on the left-hand pole as the observer is looking at it.U.S. Flag Code as contained in Federal Code RL30243 states: "When flags of two or more nations are displayed, they are to be flown from separate staffs of the same height. The flags should be of approximately equal size. International usage forbids the display of the flag of one nation above thatof another nation in time of peace."

What happened to Mary Queen of Scots' second husband?

The second husband of Mary Queen of Scots was Henry Stuart, LordDarnley. He was believed to have been murdered, and the murder has never been solved. On 9 February 1567, his body and thatof his valet William Taylor were discovered in an orchard after several explosions were heard at their estate; nearby lay a cloak, dagger and chair. Despite the explosions that were apparently caused by two barrels of gunpowder exploding beneath Lord Darnley's sleeping quarters, neither body showed any sign of injuries that could have been caused by the gunpowder. Instead, they had been strangled. Mary and the Earl of Bothwell were believed to have conspired to kill Lord Darnley, but this could not be proven.

What object in the solar system has a composition simiar to thatof the gas giants?

That's rather a delicate question, since there are several objects in our solar system that could be construed as similar to a gas giant. Obviously, Jupiter and Saturn are the two gas giants in our system. The closest thing to gas giants, from one perspective, would be the ice giants Uranus and Neptune. Then again, one could also say that the sun is quite similar to Jupiter, just 1000 times more massive. One could even say that Venus, having such a thick, gaseous atmosphere, and an mostly liquid surface, has marked similarities to a gas giant. Even some of the major moons orbiting the gas and ice giants in our system have similar qualities.

What does it mean that the moon orbits around earth?

Answer #1:The Moon orbits around the Earth because its mass is much smaller than thatof the Earth. So, the gravitational power of the Earth keeps the Moonorbiting around it. If the Moon were bigger than the Earth, we would beorbiting around the Moon, instead. All the planets of the solar system orbitaround the Sun, because it is much bigger than the planets.....===================================Answer #2:It means that the Earth and the Moon both revolve around a point betweenthem called their 'common center of mass'. That's the point where the pivotwould have to be in order for them to balance each other on a see-saw.Since the Earth has about 80 times as much mass as the moon has, the pivotwould be about 80 times farther from the moon than it is from the Earth. Theresult is that the 'common center of mass' is actually inside the Earth, andboth bodies are revolving around that point. If you're out in space watching it,it looks like only the moon is doing any revolving. But the fact is that the Earthis also doing a small wiggle around that point.

How does an amino acid get its name?

CommonName Root NotesArginine L argentum, silver forms a well-defined silver saltAsparagine asparagus first found in asparagusAspartic acid - related to asparagineCysteine - reduction product of cystine (which see)Cystine Gk kystis, bladder first isolated from a bladder stoneGlutamic gluten + amino obtained by the hydrolysis of gluten, aacid protein-rich product obtained in theseparation of starch from corn or wheatGlutamine derived from glutamic acid (which see)Glycine Gk glykys, sweet tastes sweetHistidine Gk histion, tissue -Isoleucine - isomer of leucine (which see)Leucine Gk leukos, white obtained in the form of white platesLysine Gk lysis, loosening discovered among the products fromthe hydrolysis of caseinMethionine methyl + thio contains a S atom (Gk theion, sulfur)with a methyl group attachedProline pyrrolidine contains a pyrrolidine ringSerine L sericum, silk first isolated from silkThreonine threose spatial configuration analogous to thatof D-threose, a 4-carbon sugarTryptophan tryptic + phane obtained from the pancreatic (tryptic)digestion of proteins: tryptic, the adjectiveform of trypsin, a pancreatic digestive enzyme;phane, from Gk phanein, to appearTyrosine Gk tyros, cheese found in cheeseValine valeric carbon skeleton corresponds to isovalericacid (3-methylbutanoic acid)L indicates Latin; Gk indicates Greek.Source: Leung, S. H. (2000). Amino Acids, Aromatic Compounds, and Carboxylic Acids: How Did They Get Their Common Names?, Journal of Chemical Education 77:1, 48-49.

How does amino acid get its name?

CommonName Root NotesArginine L argentum, silver forms a well-defined silver saltAsparagine asparagus first found in asparagusAspartic acid - related to asparagineCysteine - reduction product of cystine (which see)Cystine Gk kystis, bladder first isolated from a bladder stoneGlutamic gluten + amino obtained by the hydrolysis of gluten, aacid protein-rich product obtained in theseparation of starch from corn or wheatGlutamine derived from glutamic acid (which see)Glycine Gk glykys, sweet tastes sweetHistidine Gk histion, tissue -Isoleucine - isomer of leucine (which see)Leucine Gk leukos, white obtained in the form of white platesLysine Gk lysis, loosening discovered among the products fromthe hydrolysis of caseinMethionine methyl + thio contains a S atom (Gk theion, sulfur)with a methyl group attachedProline pyrrolidine contains a pyrrolidine ringSerine L sericum, silk first isolated from silkThreonine threose spatial configuration analogous to thatof D-threose, a 4-carbon sugarTryptophan tryptic + phane obtained from the pancreatic (tryptic)digestion of proteins: tryptic, the adjectiveform of trypsin, a pancreatic digestive enzyme;phane, from Gk phanein, to appearTyrosine Gk tyros, cheese found in cheeseValine valeric carbon skeleton corresponds to isovalericacid (3-methylbutanoic acid)L indicates Latin; Gk indicates Greek.Source: Leung, S. H. (2000). Amino Acids, Aromatic Compounds, and Carboxylic Acids: How Did They Get Their Common Names?, Journal of Chemical Education 77:1, 48-49.

What was Ozzy osbournes child hood like?

The year was 1948 and John Michael Osbourne was born on December 3rd inthe industrial town of Birmingham, England to Jack and Lillian Osbourne.John was the fourth of six children (2 brothers, Paul and Tony) and 3sisters(Jean, Iris and Gillian) in a small two bedroom home at 14 Lodge Road inAston, England. Needless to say the house was more than a little crowded.Ozzy's father worked nights in a steel plant while his mother worked days inthe Lucas car plant assembling electrical circuits. His family was inpoor financial shape with no money, no car and little food. Ozzy says hischildhood consisted of one pair of shoes, one pair of socks, no underwear,one pair of pants and one jacket. There would be a bucket at the end of thebed to urinate in, which sat there for months. Their beds never had cleansheets, and sometimes they used overcoats as bed shets.Ozzy was beaten quite a bit by his father, most of it was deserved forstunts like trying to kill his siblings. (Ed: While I don't condone thebeating of a child, I also don't think one should attempt to kill one'ssiblings either. Take the above comment with this in mind.)One day Ozzy's friends gave his brother a used condom and told him it was aballoon. His brother went into the house with the condom blown up, and hisfather washed his mouth out with soap.In his spare time, Ozzy would watch television. He liked shows such as"I love Lucy", "Lassie" and "Roy Rogers". This was the lifestyle ofBirmingham, a time where you went to work all day and then to the pub todrink and play darts until deciding to stagger home. For the Osbournefamily,life was no different. It was all work and little time to enjoy the finermoments in life. While the Beatles were singing about flower power andloving one another, the people of Birmingham simply had to take a good lookaround them to see the reality of the world: it was hard. Life was nodifferent for the Osbourne family.While in school, other students called John, "Ozzie" or "Oz-brain" withrespect to his last name. Quite the rebel, Ozzy did however take partin various school opera-plays such as H.M.S. Pinafore, The Mikadoand The Pirates of Penzance. There was one student at school namedTony Iommi whom Ozzy did not get along with. Tony and John were from twodifferent crowds and there was no love lost between the two. Tony and hismates would make fun of Ozzy's high voice and compared his singing to thatof a girls. The two of them would later reunite later on under totallydifferent circumstances.Ozzy did not do particularly well in school and wanted to get out as soonas he could. When asked on a school survey what his ambition was, he wrotethat he wanted to become a plumber. This was not to happen however. Ozzywas kicked out from school. His parents argued often, and the main issue wastheir lack of money. Ozzy decided that he could fix this if he could go outand get a job. So at the age of 15, Ozzy took his first job as a plumber'sassistant. He proceeded to cut the end of his thumb off, and it hadto be reattached. He still bears a scar.His second job was as a toolmaker's apprentice. Ozzy then went on towork in a slaughterhouse in Digbeth for two years, killing cows. Perhapsthis influenced his musical style, I do not know. Other jobs included anauto mechanic, house painter and even two weeks at a mortuary. His firstmusical job was working in the Lucas electrical plant tuning car horns.He later said, "I liked heavy metal better because it was louder".Ozzy did not care for working for other people so he decided to try crimeinstead. He once tried stealing a 24 inch television set. Balanced on top ofa wall with it, and trying to keep his balance, he fell off with thetelevision landing on top of him. He did some more break and enters butused a pair of gloves with the fingers cut off. Naturally he was caught.Unable to pay the fine, Ozzy spent three months (or was it 6 weeks?)in Birmingham's Winson Green Prison for breaking into an occupied boardinghouse.While incarcerated there, Ozzy tattooed the now famous letters O-Z-Z-Y onhis left knuckles and happy faces on his knees using sewing needle and agraphite slab. One happy face can be seen on his left knee on the "Diary ofa Madman" album cover. He would later be put in jail again for punching apolice officer in the mouth.Shortly after his release from prison for burglary, Ozzy wound up in thehospital on glucode for 12 hours after being thrown through a glass windowwhile fighting 3 men.

What made Christ a unique sacrifice?

he is sinlessA perspective:The purpose of a "sacrifice" is its "shed blood."It's a messy, ugly, horrifying -- and necessary-- ritual that graphically displays the dire results of SIN [man's transgressing... breaking... of God's Commandments - I John 3:4]; the dire results of man's failure to Love and Respect and Care about others."...we can say that under the old agreement almost everything was cleansed by sprinkling it with blood, and without the shedding of blood THERE IS NO FORGIVENESS OF SINS." (Heb.9:22 LVB Living Bible)The Bible reveals that all of the sacrifices of the past [beginning with those of 'Righteous Abel,' toward whose sacrificial offerings [Abel was the 'keeper of sheep' - Gen.4:2] 'the Lord had respect' [Gen.4:4];all of the 'animal sacrifices' of the past pointed to Christ's UNIQUE sacrifice.For the "LORD" God who had this respect for Abel's sacrifices [and all the sacrifices that were to come] was the WORD of God -- the One who would later be born in the flesh and called JESUS CHRIST:"All things were made by Him, and without Him was not any thing made that was made." (John 1:3)The trouble with animal sacrifices, however, is that: "...these FAILED TO CLEANSE THE HEARTS OF THE PEOPLE who brought them... the people had to keep these rules to tide them over until CHRIST CAME WITH GOD'S NEW AND BETTER WAY." (Heb.9:9-10 LVB)This "better" [UNIQUE]way lay in the "quality of the blood" that Jesus shed over that of mere animals.In recent decades, man has discovered "DNA"... which, in an attempt to put it into somewhat understandable language that ourfinite human intellect might grasp: is a built-in IDENTIFIER AS TO THE FATHER OF A CHILD.And of all the children born into the world... the Bible tells us that Jesus' Father WASN'T HUMAN. Jesus' Father was God. Therefore, Jesus' DNA afforded Him the UNIQUE quality of having coursing through His veins DIVINE BLOOD!The PERFECT BLOOD for SACRIFICE is DIVINE, perfect, unblemished blood!But men didn't know about DNA, or the testing thereof,two thousand years ago. Theycouldn't test Jesus' blood... or take a swab of His saliva, or a hair clipping, etc.,to test to see who His Father was.If they had... what might they have found? The "physical" proof of Jesus' Divinity with which science would be satisfied?Jesus' "blood sacrifice" was also UNIQUE in that, not only was His blood the one Perfect Sacrificial Offering to God the Father [which His Father accepted, once for all]: but forthe man who places hisFAITH in Jesus' Divine Blood... and BELIEVES what the Scriptures sayabout Him... that man may, in turn, BECOME ONE OF GOD'S CHILDREN, also -- and take on the DNA of Jesus' Father. To DO the deeds of Christ, who always obeyed His Father:" will realize that I AM He and that I do nothing on My own, but I speak what the Father taught Me. And the One who sent Me is with Me - He has not deserted Me. For I ALWAYS DO THOSE THINGS THAT ARE PLEASING TO HIM." (John 8:28-29 NLT New Living Translation)The sacrifice and shedding of Jesus' blood is UNIQUE, in that from one's Faith in it and lasting Remembrance of it... a man may be reborn into the Family of God, to become the Child of their Father in heaven... and the brother of Christ, the Father's Firstborn Son."Just think how much more the Blood of Christ will PURIFY OUR HEARTS from the deeds that lead to death so that we can worship the Living God. For by the power of the Eternal Spirit, Christ offered Himself to God AS A PERFECT SACRIFICE FOR OUR SINS. That is why He is the One who mediates the new covenant between God [the Father] and people, so that all who are invited can receive the Eternal Inheritance God has promised them..." (Heb.9:14-15 NLT)"For His Holy Spirit speaks to us deep in our hearts and tells us that WE ARE GOD'S CHILDREN. And since we are His Children, we will share in His treasures - for everything God gives to His Son, Christ, IS OURS, TOO. But if we are to share His Glory, we must also share His suffering." (Rom.8:16-17 NLT)No animal's blood, shed in the horrifying ritual regarding the temporary forgiveness of sins, held the Power or the Majesty or the UNIQUENESS as thatof the MURDER OF GOD'S SON andMAN SHEDDINGTHE BLOOD OF HIS CREATOR!It was the Father's will that it be done to Save His creation from the false god they chose to worship in the beginning in the Garden of Eden. To save them from their false god... his perverse ways... and from DEATH, the end result of those ways.Faith in Jesus' UNIQUE shed Divine Blood possesses that Saving Power. It was shed willingly, Selflesslyand Lovingly by God for the sake of His Children:"...'My Father! If it be possible, let this cup of suffering be taken away from Me. Yet I WANT YOUR WILL, NOT MINE.'" (Matt.26:39 NLT)As Royal and Divine as Jesus' Blood was... He was also very much a man; not thrilled about the prospect of being brutally murdered by His creation. He would have been perfectly happy if His Father would have offered an easier solution to Salvation and Eternal Life.But sin is ugly... and deadly. It leads to suffering, and misery... to disrespect, infidelity, murder, theft, lies, deceit, jealousy, envy, lust, greed. It leads to diseases, famines, wars and death. It leads to exactly the kind of world man has created for himself through the manifestation of his sins. And the only way for sin to be eradicated is through the shedding of blood.Jesus knew this going in. He knew why He was here, born a man... the Divine Son of His Father. He was terrified of it... but He always does those things that please His Father. He always bows to His Father's will."While Jesus was here on earth, He offered prayers and pleadings, with a loud cry and tears, to the One who could deliver Him out of death. And God heard His prayers because of His reverence for God. So even though Jesus was God's Son, He learned obedience from the things He suffered. In this way, God qualified Him as a Perfect High Priest, and He became the source of Eternal Salvation for all those who obey Him." (Heb.5:7-9 NLT)Animals don't fret about such things.And no sacrificially shed blood of an animal possessed the UNIQUE Power of Jesus' Divine Blood. Animal sacrifices were based on ritual. Jesus' UNIQUEsacrifice is based on FAITH. A heartfelt... heart and mind-cleansing Faith in God's Perfect Sacrifice.

State Secretariat power and function in India?

UNIT7 CENTRAL SECRETARIAT:ORGANISATION AND FUNCTIONSStructure7.0 Objectives7.1 Introduction7.2 Evolution of Central Secretariat7.2.1 Mean~ng7.2 2 Role7.3 Functions of Central Secretariat7.4 Structure of Secretariat7.4.1 DepartmentlMln~stt-y7.5 Functions of Different Grades of Officers of the Secretariat7.6 Tenure System7.7 Executive Agencies7.7.1 Meaning7.7.2 Classification7.7.3 Relat~on Between Executive Agencies and the Secretariat7.8 Subordinate Offices7.9 Let Us Sum Up7.10 Key Words7.1 1 References and Further Readings7.12 Answers to Check Your Progress Exercises7.0 OBJECTIVES-After studying this Unit you should be able to:Explain the meaning, role and functions of the Central Secretariat;Describe the structure and functions of different grades of officers of theSCcretariat;Explain the significance of the tenure system;Explain the meaning and classification of Executive Agencies; andDescribe the relation between Executive Agencies and the Secretariat.7.1 INTRODUCTIONThe Central Secretariat stands for the complex of departments or ministrieswhose administrative heads are designated as Secretaries and whose politicalheads are ministers. In this Unit, we shall briefly trace the evolution of theSecretariat, and describe its structure and hnctions. The tenure system, and thestaffing of the Secretariat will also be discussed. Under the Secretariat there is anetwork of agencies which are responsible for the execution of the governmentpolicies. The relation between these agencies and the Secretariat will also beexplained in this Unit.7.2 EVOLUTION OF CENTRAL SECRETARIAT'To begin with, the Secretariat in India referred to the office of the GovernorGei~eral in British India. However, the size of the Central Secretariat and the scopeof its activities have undergone considerable change over the last hvo hundredyears of its evolution in keeping with the changes in the aims, objectives andnature of the central government in India.At the end of the eighteenth century the ce~tral government consisted of aGovernor General and three Councillors, and the Secretariat of four departments.Each of them was under a Secretary, and there was a Chief Secretary headingthem all. A hundred years later, on the eve of the Montford Reforms in 1919, theGovernment of India consisted of a Governor General and seven members andthere were nine secretarial departments. This number remained the same till theoutbreak of the Second World War in 1939.Prior to 191 9, the Central Government, while administering certain subjectsdirectly like the army, posts and telegraphs and railways, had by and large leftthe task of implementation of other subjects to the local provincial governments.A major change came in the above position with the inauguration of the reformsof 1919 which for the first time, made a division of functions between theCentral and provincial governments. Both the Central and provincialgovernments became responsible for both policy and administration. As a result,the role of the secretariat began to change from a merely policy-formulating,supervising and coordinating agency to that of an executive agency as well. Theinauguration of provincial autonomy in 1937 and the outbreak of the SecondWorld War accelerated the above process. In consequence, there was a four foldincrease of the Central Secretariat and its total strength rose to about twohundred.The Government of India was still struggling with the post-war problems ofdemobilisation and reconstruction, when Independence came, accompanied bythe partition of the country. At its very inception, therefore, the new governmentfound itself faced with tremendous problems like rehabilitation of refugees fromPakistan, external aggression in Jammu and Kashmir, integration of princelystates into the Indian Union, internal security,.shortage of essential articles, at atime when there occurred serious shortage of personnel due to the BritishOfficers returning home and many Muslim officers opting for Pakistan. Soonafter, the adoption of the goal of a welfare state made unprecedented demands onthe already over burdened administrative machinery. At the same time, theIndustrial Policy Resolution of 1948 started the process of a vast expansion ofthe public sector.,The inev~table consequence of such a vast expansion, in thefunctions and responsibilities of the government was a marked increase in thenumber of departments, and personnel. Thus, the number of departments in thesecretariat, which stood at four in 1858. (9 in 19 19, 10 in 1939,18 in 1947) hadrisen to 74by 1994. Correspondingly has also multiplied.7.2.1 MeaningThe Central Secretariat occupies a key position in Indian administration. TheSecretariat refers to the conglomeration of various ministries/departments of thecentral government. The Secretariat works as a single unit with cpIlectiveresponsibility as in the case of the Council of Ministers. Under existing rules, eachsecretariat department is required to consult any other department that may beinterested or concerned before disposing of a case. Secretaries, thus, are secretariesto the Government as a whole and not to any particular minister.7.2.2 RoleThe Secretariat assists the ministers in the formulation of governmental policies.Ministers finalise policies on the basis of adequate data, precedents and otherrelevant information. The Secretarial makes these available to the minister, thus,enabling him to fornulate policies. Secondly, the Secretariat assists the ministersin their legislative work too. The Secretariat prepares legislative drafts to beintroduced in the legislature. It engages In the collection of relevant informationfor answering parliamentary questions. and, also, for various parliamentarycommittees. Fourthly. it carries out a detailed scrutiny of a pioblem bringing anoverall comprehensive biewpoint onit., getting approval, if required, of otherilateral agencies like the Ministry of Lab and the Ministry of Finance; and also,consulting. other organisations concerned with a particular matter. TheiC o r r o t ~ v i g t i e the rle3r;nn h n l l u ~ nr~l;m~nor\, i n nnl irrnmont-1 A e r i c i n n r F i C t h l x r itCentral Secretariat:Organisation andF~rnctionsCentral Administrationfunctions as the main channel of communication between the ~overnment andother concerned agendies like the Planning Commission, Finance Commission,etc. And lastly, the Secretariat also ensures that field offices execute, withefficiency and economy, the policies and decisions of the Government.7.3,:FUNCTIONS OF CENTRAL SECRETARIATThe Central Secretanat systemin India is based on two phnciples:1) The task of pblicy formulation needs to be separated fiom policyimplementation.2) Maintaining Cadre of Officers operating on the tenure system is aprerequisite to the working of the Secretariat system.The Central Secretariat is a policy making body of the government and is not,koundertake work of execution, unless necessitated by the lack of official agencies toperform certain tasks. The Central Secretariat normally performs the folkwingfunctions:1)Assisting the minister in the discharge of his policy making andparliamentary functions.2) Framing legislation, rules and principles of procedure.3)Sectoral planning and programme formulation.4)a) Budgeting and control of expenditure in respect of activities of theministryldepartment.b) Securing administrative and finaocial approval to operationalprogramme and their subsequent modifications.c) Supervisian and control over the execution of policies andprogrammes by the executive departments or semi-autonomous fieldxncies.d) ~luuatlng steps to develop greater personnel and organisationalcompetenaeh ~ t h in the ministry/department and its execgtiveagencies.e) Assisting in increasing coordination at the Central level.Cbek Yoar Progress.1Note: i)Use the ~ ~ a c e ' ~ i v e n below for your answers.ii) Check your answers with thoc; given at the end of the Unit.1)What are the role and objectives of the Central Secretariat?2) What are the, functions generally performed by the Central Secretariat?7.4 STRUCTURE OF SECRETARIATThe Central Secretariat is a collection of various ministries and department.Aministry is responsible for the formulation of the policy of government within itssphere of responsibility as wellas for the execution and re\ iew of that policy. Aministry, for the purpose of internal organisation, is divided into the following sub-groups with an officer in charge of each of them.5Department- SecretaryIAdditionallSpecial SecretaryWing- AdditionalIJoint SecretaryDivision- Deputy SecretaryBranch- Under SecretarySection- Section OfficerThe lowest of these units is the section in charge of a Section Officer and consSstsof a number of assistants, clerks, typists and peons. It deals with the work relatingto the subject allotted to it. It is also referred toas the office. Two sectionsconstitute the branch which is under the chqge ofan under secretary, also knownas the branch officer. Two branches ordinarily form a division which is normallyheaded by a deputy secretary. When the volume of work in a ministry exceeds themanageable charge of a secretary, one or more wingsare established with a jointsecretary in charge of each wing. At the top ofthe hierarchy comes the departmentwhich is headed by the secretary himself or in some cases byan additionalkpecialsecretary. In some cases, a department may beas autonomous as a ministry andequivalent to it in rank.7.4.1DepartmentlMinistryThe distinction between 'department' and 'ministry' may be explained byreferring to 'ministry' as the minister's charge and 'departmentas the secretary'scharge. Although a ministry stands for the minister's charge, its administrativedivisions are not uniform. A ministry may not have a department: or may haveone or more than one department in which it is formally divid. , 'While a department may be referred to as the secretary's charge, all secretaries,although they get the same salary, are not necessarily of equal'rank'. A Ministrymay have two or more secretaries, each in charge of a specified segment of theMinistry's work, or of a department in it, but there is, in addition, one ~ e c r e ~who is head of, and represents, the entire ministry. Although all of them aresecretaries, the former are subordinate to the latter who, in addition to his ownwork, coordinates the work of these secretaries of departments/segmentsof wnrlrwithin the ministry.7.5FUNCTIONS OF DIFFERENT GRADES OFOFFICERS OF THE SECRETARIATAt present the grades of officers it1 the Central Secretariatare as follows:1)Secretary2)Additional Secretary3) Joint Secretary4)Deputy Secretary5)Under SecretaryThe first three grades constitute what is administrative parlance may be called 'TopManagement' while the grades of deputy secretary and under secretary, arereferred to as the 'Middle Management'. The Secretary is the administrative headof the ministryldepartment and the principal adviser to the Minister. He representshis ministryldepartment before the committees of Parliament.Central Secretariat:Organisation andFunctionsCentral AdministrationHe is supposed to keep himself fully informed of the work of hisministry/department by demanding weekly summaries on the nature of casesdisposed of by lower levels and the manner of their disposal.Where the charge of a Secretary is too large, he may be assisted by a joint oradditional secretary who formally functions as Secretary in relation to the subjectallotted to him in the ministryldepartment. The function of the latter is to relievethe Secretary of a bloc of work and to deal, where necessary, direct with theminister. The Secretary, however, is invariably kept informed on all these direct.dealings with the minister, for he is not formally relieved of his responsibility ashead of the ministryldepartment.The deputy secretary is an officer who, as his designation implies, acts on behalf ofthe Secretary. He should dispose of as many casesas possible on his own. Only onmore important cases he should- in fact must - seek the Secretary's instructioneither by refening to him in writing or discussing with him orally.The under secretary should dispose of minor cases on his own. He should submitmore important matters to the deputy secretary in such a form that the latter is ableto deal with them quickly.It must be stressed here that the functionaries at these different levels are supposedto perform their functions, keeping in mind the interests of the Government ofIndia as a whole. The Secretary, in other words, is the Secretary to the Governmentof India, not to his minister alone. This is true of lower levels as well.7.6 TENURE SYSTEM- -The system of filling senior posts in the Secretariat by officers who come from theStates (or from the Central Services) for a particular period and who after servingtheir tenure, revert back to their parent States or services is known as the tenuresystem. It has been a principle of Secretariat staffing since 1905 and continued bythe Government of India, even after Independence. The reasons for thecontinuance of the system may be summed upas follows:1)A joint pool of officers at the reserve of both the centre and the states helpsin administrative coordination at the centre and state level and exercises aunifying influence on the functioning of our federal policy.2) The Central Secretariat benefits from the administrative experience of anumber of bureaucrats who have first hand work experience at the districtand state levels.3)A prolonged stay in the Secretariat may get senior bureaucrats out of touchwith actual administrative reality at the field level. The tenure systemenables them to get a constant feedback from the field and from the generalpublic.4)The states also benefit from having at their service senior experiencedofficers with a wide national perspective on all problems.5 )Under the tenure system most officers are promised a chance of work at theSecretariat thus equalising opportunities for all.6)It strengthens the independence of the civil service. It is a check against thepossible dangers of subservience by a few to the political masters for narrowpersonal gains.Though the tenure system is still in operation many arguments have been put forthagainst it. They may be briefly sumrnarised as below:1) Bureaucratic work in the Secretariats is gradually becoming specialised. Thetenure system is essentially based on the myth of the superior efficiency ofthe generalist civil servants.2) District experience is really not necessary in many areas of Secretariat work.3)The tenure system has led to the bureaucrats getting too dependent on theoffice establishment to get things done. This had led to 'over. .bureaucratisation' of the Secretariat.The tenure system, however, was never prevalent in all the departments of theGovernment of India. Foreign Affairs, Indian Audit and Accounts, Post and.Telegraphs, Customs and Income Tax Departments had been the Well-knownexceptions even during the British-peridd. The creation of the Central Secretariatservice has, thrown a new challenge to this piactice (even in depa&ents wheretenure system officially operates). The specialists whose numbers are increasing inthe Secretariat are also not subject to rotation t2areas away frcfrfi the Secretariat.The creation in 1957 of the Central Administrative'Pool has also made a significant.1impact on the system. This 'Pool' was established by the selection of officers fromIthe Indian AdministrativeServices. There are two categories of posts in it - generalpurpose and specialised. The 'Pool' system was meant to overcome theuncertainties in the matters of quality and quantity inherent in the tenure system.Finally, despite the tenure system, there are numerous officers in the Secretariatwho have never goneback to their parent State. Therefore, the original intention ofthe tenure system does not necessarily hold good in the changed conditions today.CheckYour Progress 2Note:i) Use the space given below for your answers.ii) Check your answers with those given at the end of the Unit.I )What are the functions of the Joint Secretary and the Under Secretary, in theGovernment of India?2)What are the"disadvantages of the tenure system?--7.7 EXECUTIVE AGENCIESAll over the country, there are various types of administrative agencies which aremeant to carry out the policies of the governmentas decided upon in thesecretariat. Such agencies are called executive agencies and can be grouped intovarious categoriesas discussed below..7.7.1 MeaningUnder the Secretariat there are a network of agenkies which are responsible for theexecution of the government policies. With the steady expansion in, and increasingcomplexity of, the governmental functions, the executive agencies have beenvariously organised to suit the requirements of the job.ICentral Secretariat:Organisation andFunctionsCentral Administration7.7.2 ClassificationThe executive agencies may be classified into the following types:1) An attached office (e.g., The Indian Council of Agricultural Research, NewDelhi)2) Subordinate office (e.g., Inspectorate of Explosives, Nagpur)3)Departmental undertaking (e.g., Ordinance ~adories)4) A company registered under the ~ompanie:~ Act (e.g., Hindustan SteelLimited)5 )A Corporation or Board set up under a special statute (e.g., ONGC, TeaBoard, etc.)6 )A society registered under the Societies Registration Act (e.g., Institute ofForeign Trade)There are also instances of executive agencies hnctioning as an integral part of theministry itself (e.g., Directorate of Exhibition in the Ministry of Commerce). Theseare, however, exceptlions.7.7.3Relation between Executive Agencies and the SecretariatThe existence of Secretariat as an entity separate from the executive agencies isbased on the belief that the task of policy-making needs to be separated from thatof its execution. Development administration must necessarily move towardsdecentralisation which means that effective power and authority must be possessedby the executive agencies. Though the number of executive agencies have steadilyrisen over the years there has not been an increase in their power corresponding totheir responsibilities. It is common knowledge that the Secretariat performs a lot ofpolic): execking tasks of an original nature which cgyld readily be passed on to theexecutive agencies. However, what need to be noted is that the relations betweenthe Central Secretariat and the executive agencies have been quite strained andtension-ridden instead of gradually becoming cooperative and amiable.There are six principal patterns of relationship developed at the Central level,between the secretariat and the executive agencies. These may briefly bediscussed here:1) There is complete merger between the ministry and heads of executivedepartments. The examples are the Railway Board and the Ministry ofRailways, the Posts and Telegraphs Board and the Ministry ofCommunications. This pattern is most suitable for organisation undertakingwork of an operational or commercial nature.2) In the second pattern, a senior officer of the ministry concurrently operatesashead of the executing department. In this way he becomes responsibleboth for formulation of policies and for its implementation with theassistance of the common ofice located in the Ministry. The AdditionalSecretary in the Department of Agriculture is the Director-General of Food.But the main disadvantage of this pattern is that the system completely blursthe functions of the Secretariat and the head of an executive department.3)The ministry's Ofice is merged in the office of the executive department.The common office serves both the Secretariat offices and the officers of theexecutive office.The advantages of this arrangement are that any administrative proposal isexamined only once, thus, expediting the disposal of cases, and, secondly itresults in sizeable economy- office maintenance becomes more economical.4) The ministry and the executive department continues to have separateofficers but have common files and common file bureau, all located in theorganisation of the executive agency. This pattern has significant advantagesbut it does not do away with the problems of separate offices with duplicatestaff and double scrutiny. A good example is the Ministry of Defence andthe Air Force Headquarters.5 )The ministry and the executive depaiiments continue to have separate officesand separate files but the head of the Executive Office is given an ex-officioSecretariat status. Thus, the Textile Commissioner is the ex-officio JointSecretary in the Ministry of Commerce.This pattern has the following advantages:Under this arrangement, there is considerable saving of time as well as theipaper work, as every matter does not travel up to the Secretariat forfinalisation. Also, the accepted policy is implemented in a more efficientmanner, as the head of the office, because of his secretariat status is fullyaware of the background in which the policy was framed.Its major drawback, however, is that it goes against the fundamentarprinciple of secretariat system, namely, policy-making must remainseparated from policy implementation.6 )Both the Ministry and the executive agency have separate and distinctoffices and files of their own, and consultation between them occurs throughself-contained letters. This is the standard pattern both at the Centre and inthe States. This pattern is based on the dichotomy between staff and line.The mqnistry is Staff: the executive office is Line.An example is the DirectorateGeneral of All India Radio in relation to theMinistry of Information and Broadcasting.In other words, in this pattern, a wider perspective is brought to bear on theexamination of a proposal. Secondly, it is always desirable to have a specialist'sscheme scrutinised bya layman. Thirdly, this arrangement provides for a divisionof work between the Secretariat and the executive agencies. The formerconcentrates on policy-making and the latter on the execution of the policy. Thedisadvantages of this arrangement is that, this scheme is processed twice in twodifferent offices. This involves duplication of work and cause delay.Each pattern has thus advantages as well as disadvantage. No hard and fast rulescan be laid down regarding the pattern of relationship which could be appropriateto a particular sphere of governmental activity. The pattern has to be so tailoredas to suit the nature of activities or the past experience of the organisation.Nevertheless, neither absolute separation nor absolute merger ofboth is normallydesirable.7.8 SUBORDINATE OFFICESA Subordinate Office functions as the field establishment or as the agencyresponsible for the detailed execution of the decisions taken by the Government. ASubordinate Office normalIy functions under an Attached Office. But where thereis no Attached Office under a ministry, it operates directly under the ministry. Thecriteria of classifying a certain organisation as the Attached Office and another oneas the Subordinate Office are neither well defined nor consistently followed.Although it is the Subordinate Office, which is responsible for the execution of thepolicy or decisions of the Government, it has.been accorded a distinctly inferiorstatus, as is indicated by the label, 'Subordinate'. The pay scales of personnel inthe Subordinate Offices are the lowest; and their future prospects are not bright.The employees in these offices very often do the same type of work and possessthe same qualification as the Secretariat personnel. Despite that, the SubordinateOffices continue to be accorded an unreasonably lower status.Central Secretariat:Organisation andFunctionsCentral ~dminisbationCheck Your Progress 3Note: i) Use the space given below for your answers.ii) Check your answers with those given at the end of the Unit.I) What are Subordinate Offices?2 )Explain the relationship between the executive agencies and the Secretariat..-------------------4---.---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7.9LETUS SUM UPIn this Unit you have read about:Theevolution of the Central Secretariat.Its meaning, role and functions:The structure and functions of different grades of ofices at the Secretariat.The tenure system.Themeaning and classification of executive agencies.The relation between executive agencies and the Secretariat.Amiable: AgreeablePrecedents: StandardSectoral Planning: Under sectoral planning, specific sectors are kept inmind while planning, e.g., planning for agriculturalsector, industrial sector.Subservience: Serving as a means to an end.7.11 REFERENCES AND FURTmR READINGSAvasthi,A., 1980, Central Administration;Tata McGraw. Hill, New DelhiChanda, AshoF, 1967,Indian Administration; Allen and Unwin, London.Khera, S.S., 1975, The Central Executive; Orient Longmarl, New DelhiMaheshwari, S.R., 1986,Indian Administration; Orient Longman, New Delhi'Misra, B.B., 1986, Government and Bureaucracy in India 1947- 76; OxfordUniversity Press, Delhi7.12ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Central Secretariat:Organisation andEXERCISESFunctionsCheck Your Progress11) Your answer must include the following points:Meaning of Central SecretariatEvolution of Central SecretariatRole at the time of independenceRole after the independence2) Your answer must include the following points:Assistance to MinistersFraming LegislationControl of expenditure with respect to departmental activitiesSupervision and control over executive departments3)Your answer must include the following points:Executive is a part of Legislature.Executive is responsible to the Legislature.Check Your Progress 21) Your answer must include the following points:Five grades of officers in the Central SecretariatRole of the Joint SecretaryRole of the Under Secretary2) Your answer must include the foltowing points:Meaning of tenure systemReasons for its continuanceDisadvantages of the tenure systemCheck Your Progress 31) Your answer must include the following points:Meaning of subordinate officesTypes of ~ubordin~te' officesRole of subordinate offices2) Your answer must indlude the following points:Six principal patterns of relationshipAdvantages and disadvantages of each pattern.