How long do you have to dispute a credit card charge for an airline ticket?
This depends on the credit card. Check the cardholder agreement that was sent to you with the card or call their customer service number, usually located on the back of your card.
Do airlines accept a credit card photocopy as verification if you purchase an air ticket for your wife through your credit card and she is traveling alone?
That will depend on the airline or airlines you use, the class of your ticket, the time of year of the flight and other factors. Prices are continually changing. You would have to check airlines to do the route and see what they charge. There are also some general sites that give you prices. One such site is below, but there are many of them. Also contact travel agents.
There are many factors that determine the cost of an airline ticket, and while some airlines are reputed to be a more low cost airline, there is no one single airline that is the cheapest. The routes of travel, cities served, advance ticket purchase, days of week and time of year much better determine ticket cost.
Does one have to pay for a photo enforced ticket for running a red light with a rental car in another state?
Yes. The ticket will be mailed to the address on record - namely, the rental car agency. The rental car agency will charge your credit card for the amount of the ticket, and occasionally an additional fee. If they cannot charge your card, they can obtain a judgment against you for the amount of the ticket plus legal fees, and will do so.